Mulberry Pest and Diseases and pests

Last modified at 24/08/2016 13:41 by System Account

Mulberry Pest and Diseases

  1. Powdery mildew :
    Causal organism: Phyllactinia corylea
    Symptom:
    • White powdery patches appear on the lower surface of leaf which is gradually increased
    • and cover whole leaf surface.
      Affected leaves turn yellowish and defoliate prematurely. Peak season: October-November
    Control measure: Foliar spray of 0.2% Sulfex 80 WP 2 g/l. Lower surface of the leaves should be thoroughly drenched
    Safe period: 15 days
  2. Leaf rust :
    Causal organism: Peridiospora mori
    Symptom:
    • Several small pin head shaped brown postules appear on the lower surface of mature leaves
    • Reddish brown spot appear on the upper surface of the infected leaves.
    • Severely infected leaves turn yellowish and margin of the leaves become dry.

    Peak season: February-March

    Control measure: Foliar spray of 0.2% Blitox 50 WP or 0.2% Bavistin 50 WP.

    Safe period: 15 days.

  3. Leaf spot :

    Causal organism: Cercospora moricola

    Symptom:

    • circular light brown spots appear on both sides of the leaves.
    • The adjacent spots unite together to form a larger spot
    • The necrotic tissues of such spots drop out and form the characteristics �shot holes�.
    • Highly infected leaves defoliate prematurely

    Peak season: Rainy and winter season.

    Control measure:

    • Avoid dense planting.
    • Collect and burn unused infected leaves after pruning.
    • Spray 0.1% Bavistin when disease symptom appear 2-3 times at ten days interval. Safe period: 7 days.
  4. Sooty mould:

    Causal organism : A group of ascomycetes and deuteromycetes fungi.
    Symptom : Thick black coating developed on the upper surface of the leaves.
    Peak Season : August-December.
    Control measure :

  5. Bacterial blight :
    • Foliar spray of 0.02% Monocrotophos on 15th and 30th day of pruning to control.
    • Spray 0.2% Indofil M-45 75 WP to check the growth of saprophytic fungi.

    Safe Period : 15 days
    Foliar diseases of mulberry reduce the yield and quality of leaf thereby affecting silkworm rearing especially during rainy and winter seasons. The cumulative loss due to major foliar diseases is upto 15-18%, besides deteriorating the leaf quality. The following technologies were developed for the control of major foliar diseases to avoid the leaf yield loss.
    Leaf spot : The disease caused by a fungus, Cercospora moricola is more prevalent during rainy and winter seasons. The symptoms are brownish necrotic, irregular spots on the leaf surface which enlarge, coalesce and leave the characteristic �shot hole�. Foliar spray of 0.2% Bavistin (Carbendazim 50% WP) solution (2 g Bavistin in 1 litre water) has been found effective.

  6. Root knot Disease

    It is caused by a bacteria, Pseudomonas syringae pv. mori/Xanthomonas campestrispv. mori and is common during rainy season when there is high humidity and temperature. It shows numerous blackish brown irregular water soaked patches on the leaves resulting in curling and rotting of leaves. Step-up pruning (30 cm above the ground) during rainy season in high rainfall areas and spraying 0.2% Streptomycin or Dithane M45 (Mancozeb 75% WP) with safe period of 2-3 days are recommended.
    Methodology:

    • 150-180 litres of fungicide solution is required for one-acre garden. The quantity is obtained by dissolving 300-320 g/ml of chemicals in 150-180 litres of water.
    • Ist spray is to be given 30-35 days after pruning/leaf harvesting. 2nd spray has to be given 10-15 days after first spray, if the disease is not controlled. Safe period is 5 days.

    Root knot is one of the major diseases limiting crop production throughout the world. It can occur any time of the year mainly in sandy soils low in organic matter. The severity of the disease increases with increased age of the garden. The estimated yield loss due to the disease is 15-30%. Infected plants become weak and predisposed to other diseases while severely infected plants ultimately die.
    Causative organism: The organism causing root knot disease is a nematode Meloidogyne incognita, an endoparasite inhabiting mulberry roots.
    Symptoms:

    • Stunted growth
    • Poor and delayed sprouting
    • Reduced leaf size and yield
    • Chlorosis and marginal necrosis of leaves, yellowing and wilting of leaves in spite of adequate soil moisture availability
    • Death of plants in severe cases

    Symptoms on the underground parts :

    • Formation of gall/knots on roots
    • Reduced and stubby root system.
    • Retarded root growth.
    • Necrotic lesions on the root surfaces and death of active rootlets.

    Chemical control : Chemical methods of nematode management become necessary in sick soils and heavily infested gardens as they give quick results. Furadon 3 G (40 kg/ha) can be applied either in furrows or broadcast to the soil after light harrowing followed by irrigation. The leaves from treated plots can be fed to silkworms after 45 days.

  7. Botanicals to control Mulberry Diseases

    A water soluble compound, isolated from a plant is dissolved in water and the solution is applied by foliar spray on mulberry plants twice at an interval of 7 days. The treatment reduces root-knot and tukra disease of mulberry. No residual toxicity exists in mulberry leaves of treated plants after a couple of weeks. The leaves could then be fed to silkworm larvae safely. The technology is cost-effective. Patent is pending. The compound was first tested in pots then in fields and finally in farmers fields.

Mulberry Pest and Diseases

  1. Powdery mildew :
    Causal organism: Phyllactinia corylea
    Symptom:
    • White powdery patches appear on the lower surface of leaf which is gradually increased
    • and cover whole leaf surface.
      Affected leaves turn yellowish and defoliate prematurely. Peak season: October-November
    Control measure: Foliar spray of 0.2% Sulfex 80 WP 2 g/l. Lower surface of the leaves should be thoroughly drenched
    Safe period: 15 days
  2. Leaf rust :
    Causal organism: Peridiospora mori
    Symptom:
    • Several small pin head shaped brown postules appear on the lower surface of mature leaves
    • Reddish brown spot appear on the upper surface of the infected leaves.
    • Severely infected leaves turn yellowish and margin of the leaves become dry.

    Peak season: February-March

    Control measure: Foliar spray of 0.2% Blitox 50 WP or 0.2% Bavistin 50 WP.

    Safe period: 15 days.

  3. Leaf spot :

    Causal organism: Cercospora moricola

    Symptom:

    • circular light brown spots appear on both sides of the leaves.
    • The adjacent spots unite together to form a larger spot
    • The necrotic tissues of such spots drop out and form the characteristics �shot holes�.
    • Highly infected leaves defoliate prematurely

    Peak season: Rainy and winter season.

    Control measure:

    • Avoid dense planting.
    • Collect and burn unused infected leaves after pruning.
    • Spray 0.1% Bavistin when disease symptom appear 2-3 times at ten days interval. Safe period: 7 days.
  4. Sooty mould:

    Causal organism : A group of ascomycetes and deuteromycetes fungi.
    Symptom : Thick black coating developed on the upper surface of the leaves.
    Peak Season : August-December.
    Control measure :

  5. Bacterial blight :
    • Foliar spray of 0.02% Monocrotophos on 15th and 30th day of pruning to control.
    • Spray 0.2% Indofil M-45 75 WP to check the growth of saprophytic fungi.

    Safe Period : 15 days
    Foliar diseases of mulberry reduce the yield and quality of leaf thereby affecting silkworm rearing especially during rainy and winter seasons. The cumulative loss due to major foliar diseases is upto 15-18%, besides deteriorating the leaf quality. The following technologies were developed for the control of major foliar diseases to avoid the leaf yield loss.
    Leaf spot : The disease caused by a fungus, Cercospora moricola is more prevalent during rainy and winter seasons. The symptoms are brownish necrotic, irregular spots on the leaf surface which enlarge, coalesce and leave the characteristic �shot hole�. Foliar spray of 0.2% Bavistin (Carbendazim 50% WP) solution (2 g Bavistin in 1 litre water) has been found effective.

  6. Root knot Disease

    It is caused by a bacteria, Pseudomonas syringae pv. mori/Xanthomonas campestrispv. mori and is common during rainy season when there is high humidity and temperature. It shows numerous blackish brown irregular water soaked patches on the leaves resulting in curling and rotting of leaves. Step-up pruning (30 cm above the ground) during rainy season in high rainfall areas and spraying 0.2% Streptomycin or Dithane M45 (Mancozeb 75% WP) with safe period of 2-3 days are recommended.
    Methodology:

    • 150-180 litres of fungicide solution is required for one-acre garden. The quantity is obtained by dissolving 300-320 g/ml of chemicals in 150-180 litres of water.
    • Ist spray is to be given 30-35 days after pruning/leaf harvesting. 2nd spray has to be given 10-15 days after first spray, if the disease is not controlled. Safe period is 5 days.

    Root knot is one of the major diseases limiting crop production throughout the world. It can occur any time of the year mainly in sandy soils low in organic matter. The severity of the disease increases with increased age of the garden. The estimated yield loss due to the disease is 15-30%. Infected plants become weak and predisposed to other diseases while severely infected plants ultimately die.
    Causative organism: The organism causing root knot disease is a nematode Meloidogyne incognita, an endoparasite inhabiting mulberry roots.
    Symptoms:

    • Stunted growth
    • Poor and delayed sprouting
    • Reduced leaf size and yield
    • Chlorosis and marginal necrosis of leaves, yellowing and wilting of leaves in spite of adequate soil moisture availability
    • Death of plants in severe cases

    Symptoms on the underground parts :

    • Formation of gall/knots on roots
    • Reduced and stubby root system.
    • Retarded root growth.
    • Necrotic lesions on the root surfaces and death of active rootlets.

    Chemical control : Chemical methods of nematode management become necessary in sick soils and heavily infested gardens as they give quick results. Furadon 3 G (40 kg/ha) can be applied either in furrows or broadcast to the soil after light harrowing followed by irrigation. The leaves from treated plots can be fed to silkworms after 45 days.

  7. Botanicals to control Mulberry Diseases

    A water soluble compound, isolated from a plant is dissolved in water and the solution is applied by foliar spray on mulberry plants twice at an interval of 7 days. The treatment reduces root-knot and tukra disease of mulberry. No residual toxicity exists in mulberry leaves of treated plants after a couple of weeks. The leaves could then be fed to silkworm larvae safely. The technology is cost-effective. Patent is pending. The compound was first tested in pots then in fields and finally in farmers fields.

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