Mulberry varieties

Last modified at 24/08/2016 13:41 by System Account

Mulberry varieties

The success of mulberry leaf production depends on three factors namely, variety, cultivation practices (agronomical inputs) and plant protection methods. The variety selected for cultivation must respond well to optimum agronomic inputs and plant protection measures. Cultivating improved or high yielding mulberry varieties forms the most important aspect f improving the leaf yields. The varieties suited to different sericultural zones of South India and also the two cultivation conditions namely, irrigated and rain dependant are described hereunder,

  1. Local cultivar: Mysore Local
  2. The �Mysore Local� variety is commonly called the �local� or �naatikaddi� was once extensively cultivated in traditional sericultural tracts of Karnataka. It is comparatively low yielding variety, but known for its adaptability to low agronomic inputs and poor management practices, both under rainfed and irrigated conditions.
    Open type bushes, branches are simple, vertical and dark greenish. Leaves are smooth, heterophyllous with both lobed and unlobed leaves occurring in the same plant, alternately or spirally arranged, ovate- broadly ovate, palmately veined and membrane like.Leaf yield is about 8000 kg and 25000 kg/ha/yr under rainfed and irrigated conditions respectively.

  3. Improved cultivars:
  4. 2.1 M5 or K-2.

    Kanva-2 (K-2) or Mysore-5 (M-5) is an open pollinated hybrid (OPH) selection from the seedling population of Mysore local variety. The selection was done in the �Kanva� Silk Farm near Channapatna during late 1950s. It grows vigorously and responds well to agronomical practices. This variety is cultivated in almost all the Indian states and recently introduced to some of the South East Asian countries like Srilanka, Bangla Desh, Phillipines, Vietnam and Thailand.
    Open type bushes, branches are simple, erect and Greyish green. Leaves are smooth unlobed, alternate or spirally arranged, ovate- broadly ovate, palmately veined and membrane like. Leaf yield is about 10-12000 kg/ha/yr with 10 tons of FYM and 100:50:50k NPK/ha/yr.

    2.2 MR2

    MR2 or Mildew Resistant variety-2 was developed by Tamilnadu Sericulture Department at their experimental Station, Coonoor during 1970s. This is resistant to powdery mildew caused by Phyllactinia corylea and is very popular in plains of Tamilnadu and better suited for both plains and high altitude areas where high temperature prevails. This variety is good for rooting. It yields 25,000 to 30,000kg leaf/ha/yr under irrigated conditions of Tamilnadu.

  5. High yielding varieties.
  6. 3.1. S30

    Open type bushes, branches are simple, vertical, rough and greenish grey with short internodes. Leaves are pale green, smooth unlobed, alternate or spirally arranged, ovate- broadly ovate, palmately veined and succulant. Leaf yield is about 35,000 kg/ha/yr under irrigated conditions with recommended package of practices.

    3.2. S36

    Bushes are of open type, branches are simple, vertical, rough and greenish grey with short internodes. Leaves are pale green, simple, smooth, coriaceous, unlobed, alternate or spirally arranged, ovate- broadly ovate, palmately veined and succulent. Leaf yield is about 42,000 kg/ha/yr under irrigated conditions with recommended package of practices. Owing to its better leaf succulencey and higher nutritive value, it is specially recommended for chawki rearing.

    3.3. S54

    Bushes are of open type, branches are simple, vertical, rough and greenish grey with short internodes.Lower branches sprading. Leaves are pale green, simple, smooth, coriaceous, unlobed, alternate or spirally arranged, ovate- broadly ovate, palmately veined and succulent. Leaf yield is about 46,000 kg/ha/yr under irrigated conditions with recommended package of practices. Performs better in wider spacing with high agronomic input conditions.

    3.4. Vishwa (DD)

    Vishwa variety is the selection from the collections of Dehradun area of Uttar Pradesh where mulberry grows naturally from open pollinated hybrid seedlings. This variety has good sprouting and rooting ability with fast growth, suitable for 5-6 crops per year. Bushes are of open type, branches are simple, vertical, rough and with short internodes. Leaves are dull green, simple, smooth, unlobed, alternate or spirally arranged, ovate- broadly ovate, palmately veined and succulent. Leaf yield is about 45,000 kg/ha/yr under irrigated conditions with recommended package of practices. Performs better in 60x60 or 60x90cm spacing.

    3.5. V1 (Victory-1)

    V1 variety bushes are of open type, branches are simple, vertical, rough and with short internodes. Leaves are shiny dark green, simple, smooth, unlobed, alternate or spirally arranged, ovate- broadly ovate, palmately veined and succulent with high moisture content. Leaf yield is about 60,000 kg/ha/yr under irrigated conditions with recommended package of practices. Performs better in wider spacing. The recommended spacing is paired row system.

  7. Varieties for Rain dependant conditions.
  8. 4.1 S13

    This is a fast growing variety. Open type bushes, branches are simple, erect and Greyish green. Leaves are smooth unlobed, alternate or spirally arranged, ovate- broadly ovate, palmately veined and pale green. Leaf yield is about 18000 kg/ha/yr under farmers conditions under red soil conditions. Because of its better rooting ability it has become popular in semi-irrigated conditions.

    4.2 S34

    This variety is recommended for black cotton soils. The variety has extensive and deep rooting system and therefore grows well under moisture stress conditions. Leaves are large, smooth unlobed, alternate or spirally arranged, ovate- broadly ovate, palmately veined and dark green. Leaf yield is about 17000 kg/ha/yr.

    4.3 RFS 135 and RFS 175

    The variety has extensive and deep rooting system and grows well under moisture stress as well as in irrigated conditions. Leaves are large, smooth unlobed, alternate or spirally arranged, ovate- broadly ovate, palmately veined and dark green. Leaf yield is about 17000 kg/ha/yr under rainfed conditions.

    Table-1. Features of mulberry varieties recommended for South India.

# Variety Leaf color Rooting % Av Shoot length (cm) Inter nodal distance (cm) Wt of 100 leaves (g) Moisture % Moisture retention % at 6hr Leaf yield potential MT/ha/yr
A Irrigated        
1 Local Green >90 160 3.7 245 70 77 25
2 MR2 Dark Green >61 139 3.7 377 74 84 35
3 M5 Green >80 138 4.2 400 72 81 35
4 S30 Plae Green >55 118 3.3 456 72 84 35
5 S36 Pale Green >50 131 4.0 518 74 85 40
6 S54 Dark Green >70 127 3.9 489 73 80 45
7 Vishwa Pale Green >80 120 4.6 460 72 75 40
8 V1 Dark Green >90 146 4.6 560 76 84 60
B Rainfed        
1 S13 Pale green >80 169 3.7 365 75 88 18
2 S34 Dark Green >75 163 3.6 342 74 88 17

Mulberry varieties

The success of mulberry leaf production depends on three factors namely, variety, cultivation practices (agronomical inputs) and plant protection methods. The variety selected for cultivation must respond well to optimum agronomic inputs and plant protection measures. Cultivating improved or high yielding mulberry varieties forms the most important aspect f improving the leaf yields. The varieties suited to different sericultural zones of South India and also the two cultivation conditions namely, irrigated and rain dependant are described hereunder,

  1. Local cultivar: Mysore Local
  2. The �Mysore Local� variety is commonly called the �local� or �naatikaddi� was once extensively cultivated in traditional sericultural tracts of Karnataka. It is comparatively low yielding variety, but known for its adaptability to low agronomic inputs and poor management practices, both under rainfed and irrigated conditions.
    Open type bushes, branches are simple, vertical and dark greenish. Leaves are smooth, heterophyllous with both lobed and unlobed leaves occurring in the same plant, alternately or spirally arranged, ovate- broadly ovate, palmately veined and membrane like.Leaf yield is about 8000 kg and 25000 kg/ha/yr under rainfed and irrigated conditions respectively.

  3. Improved cultivars:
  4. 2.1 M5 or K-2.

    Kanva-2 (K-2) or Mysore-5 (M-5) is an open pollinated hybrid (OPH) selection from the seedling population of Mysore local variety. The selection was done in the �Kanva� Silk Farm near Channapatna during late 1950s. It grows vigorously and responds well to agronomical practices. This variety is cultivated in almost all the Indian states and recently introduced to some of the South East Asian countries like Srilanka, Bangla Desh, Phillipines, Vietnam and Thailand.
    Open type bushes, branches are simple, erect and Greyish green. Leaves are smooth unlobed, alternate or spirally arranged, ovate- broadly ovate, palmately veined and membrane like. Leaf yield is about 10-12000 kg/ha/yr with 10 tons of FYM and 100:50:50k NPK/ha/yr.

    2.2 MR2

    MR2 or Mildew Resistant variety-2 was developed by Tamilnadu Sericulture Department at their experimental Station, Coonoor during 1970s. This is resistant to powdery mildew caused by Phyllactinia corylea and is very popular in plains of Tamilnadu and better suited for both plains and high altitude areas where high temperature prevails. This variety is good for rooting. It yields 25,000 to 30,000kg leaf/ha/yr under irrigated conditions of Tamilnadu.

  5. High yielding varieties.
  6. 3.1. S30

    Open type bushes, branches are simple, vertical, rough and greenish grey with short internodes. Leaves are pale green, smooth unlobed, alternate or spirally arranged, ovate- broadly ovate, palmately veined and succulant. Leaf yield is about 35,000 kg/ha/yr under irrigated conditions with recommended package of practices.

    3.2. S36

    Bushes are of open type, branches are simple, vertical, rough and greenish grey with short internodes. Leaves are pale green, simple, smooth, coriaceous, unlobed, alternate or spirally arranged, ovate- broadly ovate, palmately veined and succulent. Leaf yield is about 42,000 kg/ha/yr under irrigated conditions with recommended package of practices. Owing to its better leaf succulencey and higher nutritive value, it is specially recommended for chawki rearing.

    3.3. S54

    Bushes are of open type, branches are simple, vertical, rough and greenish grey with short internodes.Lower branches sprading. Leaves are pale green, simple, smooth, coriaceous, unlobed, alternate or spirally arranged, ovate- broadly ovate, palmately veined and succulent. Leaf yield is about 46,000 kg/ha/yr under irrigated conditions with recommended package of practices. Performs better in wider spacing with high agronomic input conditions.

    3.4. Vishwa (DD)

    Vishwa variety is the selection from the collections of Dehradun area of Uttar Pradesh where mulberry grows naturally from open pollinated hybrid seedlings. This variety has good sprouting and rooting ability with fast growth, suitable for 5-6 crops per year. Bushes are of open type, branches are simple, vertical, rough and with short internodes. Leaves are dull green, simple, smooth, unlobed, alternate or spirally arranged, ovate- broadly ovate, palmately veined and succulent. Leaf yield is about 45,000 kg/ha/yr under irrigated conditions with recommended package of practices. Performs better in 60x60 or 60x90cm spacing.

    3.5. V1 (Victory-1)

    V1 variety bushes are of open type, branches are simple, vertical, rough and with short internodes. Leaves are shiny dark green, simple, smooth, unlobed, alternate or spirally arranged, ovate- broadly ovate, palmately veined and succulent with high moisture content. Leaf yield is about 60,000 kg/ha/yr under irrigated conditions with recommended package of practices. Performs better in wider spacing. The recommended spacing is paired row system.

  7. Varieties for Rain dependant conditions.
  8. 4.1 S13

    This is a fast growing variety. Open type bushes, branches are simple, erect and Greyish green. Leaves are smooth unlobed, alternate or spirally arranged, ovate- broadly ovate, palmately veined and pale green. Leaf yield is about 18000 kg/ha/yr under farmers conditions under red soil conditions. Because of its better rooting ability it has become popular in semi-irrigated conditions.

    4.2 S34

    This variety is recommended for black cotton soils. The variety has extensive and deep rooting system and therefore grows well under moisture stress conditions. Leaves are large, smooth unlobed, alternate or spirally arranged, ovate- broadly ovate, palmately veined and dark green. Leaf yield is about 17000 kg/ha/yr.

    4.3 RFS 135 and RFS 175

    The variety has extensive and deep rooting system and grows well under moisture stress as well as in irrigated conditions. Leaves are large, smooth unlobed, alternate or spirally arranged, ovate- broadly ovate, palmately veined and dark green. Leaf yield is about 17000 kg/ha/yr under rainfed conditions.

    Table-1. Features of mulberry varieties recommended for South India.

# Variety Leaf color Rooting % Av Shoot length (cm) Inter nodal distance (cm) Wt of 100 leaves (g) Moisture % Moisture retention % at 6hr Leaf yield potential MT/ha/yr
A Irrigated                
1 Local Green >90 160 3.7 245 70 77 25
2 MR2 Dark Green >61 139 3.7 377 74 84 35
3 M5 Green >80 138 4.2 400 72 81 35
4 S30 Plae Green >55 118 3.3 456 72 84 35
5 S36 Pale Green >50 131 4.0 518 74 85 40
6 S54 Dark Green >70 127 3.9 489 73 80 45
7 Vishwa Pale Green >80 120 4.6 460 72 75 40
8 V1 Dark Green >90 146 4.6 560 76 84 60
B Rainfed                
1 S13 Pale green >80 169 3.7 365 75 88 18
2 S34 Dark Green >75 163 3.6 342 74 88 17

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