INJECTION VITAMIN K PROPHYLAXIS AT BIRTH (IN FACILITIES)
Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding (VKDB) previously known as Haemorrhagic Disease of the Newborn (HDN), is a well-known clinical entity for over 100 years. Vitamin K is required for the synthesis of coagulation factors that prevent and control bleeding. All neonates have low levels of Vitamin K owing to poor transport of Vitamin K across placenta, low Vitamin K content in breast milk, and because gut colonization that is critical for its synthesis takes a few days to establish.
VKDB is a significant threat to neonates. However, it can be prevented almost entirely by Vitamin K administration soon after birth. A single dose of intramuscular Vitamin K is effective in the prevention of classic VKDB and in ameliorating late VKDB. Thus, Vitamin K prophylaxis would prevent morbidity and mortality due to bleeding in neonates.
All newborns weighing more than 1000 gm are provided with 1 mg of Vitamin K1 (Phytonadione injectable emulsion), intramuscularly after birth with 26 gauze needle and 1 ml syringe (i.e. the first hour by which infant should be in skin-to-skin contact with the mother and breast feeding is initiated). For babies weighing less than 1000 gm, a dose of 0.5 mg is given.
The Guidelines on Vitamin K is available at:http://nrhm.gov.in/images/pdf/programmes/child- health/guidelines/Vitamin_K_Operational_Guidelines.pdf