Last modified at 20/07/2016 14:53 by hfwnhm




Maternal health refers to the health of women during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period. While motherhood is often a positive and fulfilling experience, for too many women it is associated with suffering, ill-health and even death. The major direct causes of maternal morbidity and mortality include haemorrhage, infection, high blood pressure, unsafe abortion, and obstructed labour. (WHO) Eighty percent of maternal deaths are caused by direct obstetric causes such as haemorrhage, infection, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and complications of unsafe abortion. And for every woman who dies from complications related to childbirth, approximately 20 more suffer injuries, infections and disabilities that are usually untreated and ignored, and that can result in life-long pain and social and economic exclusion. Most of these complications cannot be predicted and prevented. 
All pregnant women are at risk and can develop complications at any time during pregnancy, delivery and after delivery. However, women and families can learn how to avoid unplanned pregnancies, and if pregnant, they can learn the importance of receiving antenatal care, how to identify danger signs, plan for emergency referrals, and choose safe birthing options. When problems arise, and referral is timely, complications can be treated in health facilities that are adequately equipped with supplies, medications and fully staffed with competently trained health workers. (UNICEF) 
Definition: Maternal Death is the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes. 

Karnataka has set the NHM/12th Plan Goal to reduce MMR to <100/1 lakh live births by 2017. 

Indicator SRS (2011-13) 2016-17
MMR 133 <100



Among South Indian states decline in MMR is maximum in Karnataka whereas among other states it is maximum in West Bengal. Highest decline of MMR is seen among states with higher mortality rates as baseline i.e. Karnataka and West Bengal. Among the South Indian states lowest MMR is seen in Kerala (61) and among other big states lowest MMR has been achieved by Maharashtra (68). 
There is decline of MMR by 170 percent in Karnataka and in Kerala the percent decline is 55 from year 2001 to 2013.The percent decline of MMR in West Bengal is 136 from year 2001 to 2013.There is a steady decline of MMR among all the states since year except for Punjab & Haryana, when MMR increased from 2001 to 2004 and West Bengal when its MMR increased from 2004-06 to 2007-09. Kerala achieved MDG goal 5 in year 2004-6 and it has sustained its effort in decreasing the MMR since then. So far among south Indian states only Karnataka has not achieved the MDG goal 5 whereas among other bigger states only Maharashtra has so far achieved it.
Among the nine states compared in the above discussion Karnataka, stood at ninth position during the year 2001-03. The scenario has not changed much in 2011-13, where Karnataka is placed at 8th position. But when the percent decline is considered, Karnataka has achieved highest decline of 170 percent in the last decade. It means that Karnataka has surpassed all other states in terms of percent decline in MMR in the last decade and more so in the past seven years post NRHM.


Key Maternal Health Indicators of Karnataka State: Comparison between DLHS-4 & DLHS-3 ​ ​ ​
(2012-13) %
(2007-08) %
01Married Women below 18 years of age14.122.4
02Women giving birth between 15-19 years6.610.7
03Women 20-24 years with birth order 2 & above43.459.8
04Women 15-49 years with birth order 3 & above23.131.4
05Pregnant Women who received ANC Check up in the 1st trimester82.271.8
06Pregnant Women who had >= 3 ANC Check up86.381.3
07Pregnant Women consumed >=100 IFA tablets47.364.1
08Pregnant Women who had full ANC46.051.1
09Institutional Delivery89.665.1
10Delivery at Government Health Institutions51.833.0
11Home Deliveries10.334.1
12Minimum 48 hours stay at Hospital after delivery67.0NA
13Utilization of Government Health Services for ANC64.749.2
14Pregnant Women 15-49 years having Anemia64.6NA
15Pregnant Women 15-49 years having Severe Anemia6.4NA

Maternal Health Indicators:

Sl No​I​ndicatorDLHS-4
HMIS 2014-15​
(up​​​​ to Dec-14)
 1Registration of Pregnancy within 12 weeks82.2NA8.32 lakhs6.53 lakhs
 23 Antenatal check ups86.391.3%13.39 lakhs8.56 lakhs
 3Consumption of IFA for 90 days47.3NA97.4%73.8%
 4Institutional delivery89.086.4%98.50%99%
 5Home delivery10.3NA1.50%1%
 6Post Natal Care within 2weeks of delivery93.8NA89.4589.11%