Last modified at 10/07/2018 13:57 by hfw




A sound social health is the cornerstone of sustainable social development leading towards wellbeing of every citizen in any state or country. The sex ratio is an indicator which describes the number of women per 1000 men for a given population. The child sex ratio describes the ratio of girls to boys in the age group of 0-6 years. The sex ratio of a given population is also used as a strong indicator to ascertain social health. In the developed societi​es w​here female and male enjoy equal status, the women usually outnumber men. The adverse sex ratios (where female are lesser than male) not only indicate poor social health, but also a barrier in attaining sustainable social development. 

In 1991, the child sex ratio of Bangalore was 950 and 943 as per the 2011 census. Although, the overall sex ratio of the state is good compared to the national average, the variations among districts clearly indicate prevalence of Sex Selective eliminations. The pre-dominantly patriarchal, social, cultural and religious set up based on the foundation that the family line runs through a male has contributed extensively to the secondary status of women in India. This has led to strong desire to avoid the birth of a female child in the family resulting in decline in the child sex ratio at an alarming rate. 

Misuse of technology is a major reason for distorting child sex ratios. In order to regulate use and prohibit misuse of technology, the Pre-Conception and Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques (PC & PNDT) act enacted in 1994 and amended in 2003 is an important tool for addressing sex selective eliminations. The main purpose of the act is to prohibit and regulate the use of diagnostics techniques before and or after conception for sex determinations leading to sex selective elimination of foetus. The provision of the act encompasses creating institutional mechanisms and providing tools to monitor the use of diagnostic techniques for prohibiting sex selection. There is provision of punishment and penalty for those who violate provisions of PC & PNDT Act.
In order to oversee monitoring of PC & PNDT act implementation in the state an Institutional Mechanism was established. The State Supervisory Body, the State and District level Appropriate Authorities and Advisory Committees have been constituted. Over and above, task forces have been constituted at the State and District levels to intensify processes for effective implementation of the provisions of the act.​


Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PCPNDT) Act, 1994 is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted to stop female foeticides and arrest the declining sex ratio in India. The act banned prenatal sex determination.

The main purpose of enacting the act is to ban the use of sex selection techniques before or after conception and prevent the misuse of prenatal diagnostic technique for sex selective abortion.
Offences under this act include conducting or helping in the conduct of prenatal diagnostic technique in the unregistered units, sex selection on a man or woman, conducting PND test for any purpose other than the one mentioned in the act, sale, distribution, supply, renting etc. of any ultra sound machine or any other equipment capable of detecting sex of the foetus. 

​          State PC & PNDT Workshop Images​
Main provisions in the act are: ​​ 

1. The Act provides for the prohibition of sex selection, before or after conception.
2. It regulates the use of pre-natal diagnostic techniques, like ultrasound and amniocentesis by allowing them their use only to detect:
   i. Genetic Abnormalities
   ii. Metabolic Disorders
   iii. Chromosomal Abnormalities
   iv. Certain Congenital Malformations
   v. Haemoglobinopathies
   vi. Sex Linked Disorders.
3. No laboratory or centre or clinic will conduct any test including ultrasonography for the purpose of determining the sex of the foetus.
4. No person, including the one who is conducting the procedure as per the law, will communicate the sex of the foetus to the pregnant woman or her relatives by words, signs or any other method.
5. Any person who puts an advertisement for pre-natal and pre-conception sex determination facilities in the form of a notice, circular, label, wrapper or any document, or advertises through interior or other media in electronic or print form or engages in any visible representation made by means of hoarding, wall painting, signal, light, sound, smoke or gas, can be imprisoned for up to three years and fined Rs. 10,000.

Compulsory Registration:
The Act mandates compulsory registration of all diagnostic laboratories, all genetic counselling centres, genetic laboratories, genetic clinics and ultrasound clinics.​​

Amendment in 2003:

Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (Regulation and Prevention of Misuse) Act, 1994 (PNDT), was amended in 2003 to The Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition Of Sex Selection) Act (PCPNDT Act) to improve the regulation of the technology used in sex selection.
Implications of the amendment are:
1. Amendment of the act mainly covered bringing the technique of pre conception sex selection within the ambit of the act.
2. Bringing ultrasound within its ambit.
3. Empowering the central supervisory board, constitution of state level supervisory board.
4. Provision for more stringent punishments.
5. Empowering appropriate authorities with the power of civil court for search, seizure and sealing the machines and equipments of the violators.
6. Regulating the sale of the ultrasound machines only to registered bodies​.

Details of SAA, SSB, SIMC and SAC:
 State Appropriate Authority:

Chair Person : Dr.Saroja P​, Project Director (RCH)
Member : Dr.G Shreedhar, Joint Secreatary, Parlimentary Affairs, Govt of Karnataka.

  State Supervisory Board:

1. Minister for Health & Family Welfare, Government of Karnataka, Vikasa Soudha, Bengaluru Chairman
2. The Principal Secretary/ Secretary to Government, Health and Family Welfare Department, Vikasa Soudha, Bengaluru Vice Chairman
3. Principal Secretary/ Secretary to the Government, Women and Child welfare Department, M.S. Building, Bengaluru Member
4. Principal Secretary/ Secretary to the Government, Law Department, Vidhana Soudha, Bengaluru Member
5. Principal Secretary/ Secretary to the Government, Social Welfare Department, Vikasa Soudha, Bengaluru Member
6. Commissioner, Health and Family Welfare Services and Ayush, Ananda Rao Circle, Bengaluru Member
7. Mission Director, National Health Mission, Ananda Rao Circle, Bengaluru Member
8. Director, Health and Family Welfare Services, Ananda Rao Circle, Bengaluru Member
9. Director, AYUSH Department, Dhanvantri Road, Bengaluru Member
10 Smt. Shakunthala T. Shetty, Member of Legislative Assembly Member
11 Smt. Vinisha Nero, Member of Legislative Assembly Member
12 Smt. Thara Anuradha, Member of Legislative Council Member
13 Dr. Ratidevi, Khadari, NGO Mangalore District Member
14 Dr.V.K. Shalini, Retired. Gynaecologist, Bangalore Member
15 Smt. Shyamala Bhandari, Legal expert, Kundapura, Venkataramana Orcade, Uudpi Districtr-576201 Member
16 Smt. Thajayam Umar, G-02, Prestige Grand Oak, No265, Cross,  7th Main road, HAL IInd Stage, Bangalore-560038 Member
17 Head of the Department of OBG, Vanivilas Hospital, Bengaluru Member
18 Head of the Department of OBG, K.C. General Hospital, Bengaluru Member
19 Head of the Department of Paediatrics,  Indira Gandhi Children Hospital, Bengaluru Member
20 Head of the Department of Paediatrics, Jayanagara General Hospital, Bengaluru Member
21 Head of the Department of Radiology, Bowring & Lady Curzon Hosptial, Bengaluru Member
22 Head of the Department of Radiology, Victoria Hospital, Bangaluru Member
23 Project Director (RCH), Healht & Family Welfare Services, Ananda Rao Circle, Bengaluru Member Secretary​

State Advisory Committee:

Due for Government notification.

State Inspection and Monitoring Committee:

Due for Government notification.

District Wise Statistics and State Statistics both Adult and Juvenile Sex Ratio:

District Sex Ratio ​ ​ ​
Sl. No​ District 2001 Census 2011 census
1 BIJAPUR 928 931
2 BELGAUM 921 934
3 BAGALKOTE 940 935
4 MANDYA 934 939
5 BIDAR 941 942
6 GULBARGA 931 943
7 BANGALORE (U) 943 944
8 DHARWAD 943 944
9 HAVERI 957 946
10 D.KANNADA 952 947
11 GADAG 952 947
12 CHITRADURGA 946 947
13 DAVANAGERE 946 948
14 RAICHUR 964 950
15 BANGALORE (R) 939 950
16 YADGIR 952 951
19 U.KANNADA 946 955
20 UDUPI 958 958
21 KOPPAL 953 958
22 TUMKUR 949 959
23 SHIMOGA 956 960
24 BELLARY 947 960
25 MYSORE 962 961
26 KOLAR 965 962
27 RAMANAGAR 945 962
29 HASSAN 958 973
30 KODAGU 977 978​


1. Voluntary decommissioning of Idle/Unused machines.
2. Clarification regarding procedures to be followed in case of short term Demonstration or Display Machine.
3. To come up with comprehensive website for PNDT and an option to raise Online grievance/complaint Portal.
4. Medical Audit of all records including Form F.
5. Registration of IVF/ART Centers.
6. Clarification regarding the use of portable machines/portability of ultrasound machines.
7. Criteria for finalization of six months training for MBBS Doctors.
8. Clarification regarding qualifications of RMP having Diploma in Gynecology and Obstetrics(DGO).

Please send your complaints to ddpcpndtkar@gmail.com.
​​​​​For more information visit : http://pcpndtkar.in/​​

Contact US

Deputy Director

O/f no: 08022341996
2nd Floor,
Directorate of Health and Family Services
Anandrao Circle
Bangalore 560009, Karnataka​