Last modified at 10/05/2018 12:53 by System Account

LICHENS OF KARNATAKA : A CHECKLIST

 

 

K. P. Singh

Botanical Survey of India

Central Regional Centre

10, Chatam Lines

Allahabad 211 002


Support

 

R.N.M. Sahai, Chairman

Karnataka Biodiversity Board

 

R. K. Singh, Member Secretary

Karnataka Biodiversity Board

 

Government of Karnataka

Karnataka Biodiversity Board

(Forest, Ecology and Environment Department)

Ground Floor, "Vanavikas"'18th Cross, Malleshwaram

Bengaluru 560 003

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

            Lichens, nature's most unique and successful alliances constitute one of the important components of biodiversity and are evolved through the symbiotic association of two components, a photosynthetic alga or cyanobacteria and a heterotrophic (dependent on external sources of carbon compounds) fungus. In India, these are distributed in varying numbers in all the states and   Karnataka  is no exception to this. Karnataka  (between latitudes 110 30' to 180 25' N and longitudes 740 10' to 780 35' E, with a total geographical area of 191,791 Sq km), one of the southern peninsular states of the country forms a part of Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot with two distinct physiographic regions viz. the hilly or Maland and Maidan or the plain region of varying height. Lichenologically, the area is quite rich and interesting and has not been explored thoroughly. Sporadic collections were made previously from Agumbe, Jog falls, Lalbagh garden, Udupi, Hebri, Peercode, Sirsi, Kumta, Kalkoppa forest, Nandi hills, Anamod Ghat, Sringeri, Hogga , Charmudi Ghat, Talecauvery ,Coorg, Rippon peth, Tirthahalli  Shivamoggha, Chikmagaluru, Uttar and North Kanada, Kodagu  areas etc. by the Agarkar Research Institute Pune and the then school of lichenology at Lucknow University,Lucknow. Recently some collections have also been made by Botanical survey of India. But as a whole major area particularly protected areas comprising a total of 6,351 sq. km area (5 National Parks viz. Anshi, Bandipur, Bannerghatta, Kudremukh, Nagarahole and 21 Wildlife Sanctuaries) and some private forests/areas remained underexplored or unexplored. Rapid deforestation and indiscriminate exploitation of these forests are gradually reducing the number of lichen species in the state.

               Currently, about 482 species, 1 sub species, 4 varieties, and 1 forma distributed under 121 genera and 48 families are known from the state of   Karnataka  against 2523 species under 336 genera known so far, from India. It forms 19.10 % lichen flora of the country. In addition, 108 species of lichens are endemic, of which 50 species are exclusively endemic to Karnataka  while remaining 59 species distributed in the state are endemic to India. Lichen diversity is interesting and an analysis indicates that 370 species grow on the bark of trees(Corticolous), 23 on stones(Saxicolous), 4 on the ground(Terricolous) and 22 on the live leaves (Foliicolous, Plate,2C). 63 species occur on more than one substratum. Similarly, growth wise 349 species are crustose, fallowed by 98 foliose, 25 fruticose and 10 squamulose forms. Graphidaceae shows maximum diversity with 142 species, followed by Parmeliaceae with 52 species and Arthoniaceae with 31 species. At generic level, Graphis is maximum speciose with 29 species, followed by Porina with 22 species.  

        These recorded taxa are scattered in many publications of revisionary and systematic nature. The important ones include Patwardhan and Kulkarni  (1977), Awasthi and Upreti (1980), Patwardhan and Makhija (1981), Patwardhan & al. (1985), Makhija and Patwardhan (1985, 1990 and 1994), Nagarkar & al. (1988), Makhija & al. (1994), Chatterjee and al. (1996), Nayaka & Upreti (2002), Nayaka & al. (2003), Adawadkar and Makhija (2007), Vinayaka & al. (2010), Dudani & al., (2015) Rashmi & Rajkumar, 2015 and Singh and Singh (2017). For more information about the synonymy of species and other details of publications from the state, the checklist published by Singh and Sinha (2010) is useful and should be consulted. However, a comprehensive treatment of lichens from the state is lacking. Being part of the hotspot region with suitable climatic conditions, more species of lichens including new discoveries are expected to be added, if under explored and unexplored areas are surveyed extensively in the state of  Karnataka .           

               The checklist is compiled based on the published literature as well as some collections and their identifications made by the author. Some doubtful species and species identified upto generic level have been excluded from the list. All the families, genera and species within genera reported so far, from the state are arranged alphabetically. Each species is provided with currently accepted name with author(s) name(s), followed by standard abbreviated citation. Basionym of all the species and few important synonyms are also provided along with the habitat and chemical contituents of species/variety as far as possible. Districtwise distribution within Karnataka  is provided, followed by the distribution in other states and countries in alphabetical order. However, some species are reported from Karnataka, but their distribution is not known. These species are marked by an asterisk(*) in distribution column .

            Since lichens are used in pollution and climate change studies and also one of the sources of unique secondary metabolites used in pharmaceuitical industry, the documentation and monitoring are necessary at state level. It will be fruitful to take up this region as representative area of Western Ghats for systematic collection and study of lichens. This will also provide the baseline information for the conservation and sustainable use of these resources in   Karnataka  in particular and Western Ghats in general.

 

Analysis of Lichens

 

Family No. of Genera No. of Species No. of Subsp. No. of Varieties Forma No. of Endemic Species
1. Arthoniaceae 03 31       22
2. Arthopyreniaceae 01 05        
3. Brigantieaceae 01 02        
4. Caliciaceae 06 18   02   01
5. Candelariaceae 01 01        
6. Catillariaceae 01 02        
7. Chrysothricaceae 01 01        
8. Cladoniaceae 01 04        
9. Coccocarpiaceae 01 03        
10. Coenogoniaceae 01 01        
11. Collemataceae 01 08        
12. Gomphillaceae 04 04        
13. Graphidiaceae 25 142 01     51
14. Haematommaceae 01 01        
15. Lechenographaceae 02 03        
16. Lecnoraceae 01 15   01    
17. Letrouitiaceae 01 04        
18. Lichinaceae 01 03        
19. Lobariaceae 02 02        
20. Lopadiaceae 01 01       01
21. Malmideaceae 01 01        
22. Megalosporaceae 01 02        
23. Megasporaceae 01 01        
24. Monoblastiaceae 01 07       04
25. Mycosphaerelliaceae 01 01        
26. Naetrocymbaceae 01 02        
27. Ochrolechiaceae 02 05        
28. Opegraphaceae 01 03        
29. Pannariaceae 01 02       01
30. Parmeliaceae 09 52       08
31. Petulaceae 01 01        
32. Pertusariaceae 02 16       02
33. Phlyctidaceae 01 01       01
34. Physciaceae 03 26        
35. Pilocarpaceae 03 04        
36. Porinaceae 01 22       09
37. Pyrenulaceae 04 19       01
38. Ramalinaceae 05 23   01    
39. Ramboldiaceae 01 01        
40. Roccellaceae 05 06       01
41. Sphaerophoraceae 01 01        
42. Stereocaulaceae                          01 02        
43. Strigulaceae 02 07     01  
44. Teloschistaceae 06 06        
45. Tephromelaceae 01 01        
46. Trapeliaceae 01 01        
47. Trypetheliaceae 07 16       06
48. Verrucariaceae 01 02       01
Total 121 482 01 04 01 109

 

 

Arthoniaceae

 

Arthonia  Ach., nom. cons.

 

Arthonia cinnabarina (DC.) Wallr., Fl. Cryptog. Germ. 3: 320. 1831.

Coniocarpon cinnabarinum DC. in Lamarck & De Candolle, Fl.Franç., ed. 3, 2: 323. 1805.

Spiloma tumidula Ach., Methodus: 11, tab 1, fig. 5. 1803.

Arthonia tumidula (Ach.) Ach., Neues J. Bot. 1: 11. 1806.

Arthonia cinnabarina var. tumidula (Ach.) Wallr., Fl. Cryptog. Germ. 3: 320. 1831.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Western Ghats), Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal; Cosmopolitan.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Arthonia medusula (Pers.) Nyl., Mem. Soc. Imp. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 5: 132. 1857.

Opegrapha medusula Pers., Wetterauischen Ges. Gammte Naturk. 2: 15, tab. 10, fig.1 1811.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Western Ghats), Peninsular India; Europe.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Arthonia pellea Leighton, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 27: 180. 1869.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga); Sri Lanka.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Arthonia reniformis (Pers.) Röhl., Deutschl. Fl. 3, 2 Abth.: 29. 1813;

Opegrapha reniformis Pers., Neue Ann. Bot. 1: 31. 1794.

Arthonia obscura Ach., Neues J. Bot. 1(3): 14. 1806; Bélanger, Voy. Indes Or. : 132. 1838.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Western Ghats) Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Europe, N America.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

 

 

Arthothelium  A.Massal.

 

Arthothelium abnorme (Ach.) Müll.Arg., Flora 63: 287. 1880.

Opegrapha abnormis Ach., Lichenogr. Universalis: 259. 1810.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Haveri), Assam, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal; tropical and subtropical regions.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Arthothelium achromaticum Makhija & Patw., J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 78: 200. 1995.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Udupi); endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Arthothelium albescens Patw. & Makhija, Biovigyanam 7: 125. 1981.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Bengaluru, Dakshina Kannad Shivamogga, Uttara Kannad, Udupi), Kerala; endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Two unidentified lichen substances.

 

Arthothelium anomalum Makhija & Patw., J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 78: 203. 1995.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Udupi), endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: An unidentified substance.

 

Arthothelium awasthii  Patw. & Makhija, Biovigyanam 7: 126. 1981.

Arthothelium verruculosum  Patw. & Makhija, Biovigyanam 7: 127. 1981.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chamarajanagaraa, Chikkabalhapur Dharwar), Assam, Maharashtra, Meghalaya and Nagaland; endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Two unknown substances.

 

Arthothelium chiodectoides (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 2: 122. 1922.
Arthonia chiodectoides Nyl., Flora 52: 72. 1869.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Sikkim ,West Bengal; endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Arthothelium chlorofuscum Makhija & Patw., J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 78: 206. 1995.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga, Udupi); endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous

 

Arthothelium corticatum Makhija & Patw., J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 78: 208. 1995.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkamaguluru); endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Confluentic (?) acid.

 

Arthothelium fuscoroseum Makhija & Patw., J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 78: 211. 1995.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Bangaluru UD); endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Arthothelium karnatakensis Makhija & Patw., J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 78: 212. 1995.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Udupi); endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Two unidentified substances.

 

Arthothelium  maculatum Makhija & Patw., J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 78: 212. 1995.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Koppal); endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemiistry: No lichen substances.

 

Arthothelium ramosum Makhija & Patw., J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 78: 216. 1995.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkaballapur ); endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Confluentic acid.

 

Arthothelium zahlbrucknerii Makhija & Patw., J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 78: 220. 1995.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Dakshin Kannad); endemic

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: An unidentified substance.

 

Cryptothecia Stirt., nom. cons.

 

Cryptothecia albomaculata Makhija & Patw. in T.A. Sarma & al. (eds.), Current Res. Pl. Sci.: 62. 1994.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Udupi); endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: An unknown substance.

 

Cryptothecia candida (Kremp.) R.Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 65. 1952; D. Awasthi & Agarwal, J. Indian Bot. Soc. 48(1 &  2): 67. 1969.

Myriostigma candidum Kremp., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 7: 45. 1875.

Karnataka (Kodagu), Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya ,West Bengal –hills; Pantropical but more common in tropical America and Malaysia and scarse in tropical Africa.

Habitat : Foliicolous.

 

Cryptothecia culbersonae Patw. & Makhija, Biovigyanam 7: 125. 1981.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Udupi district, Hiriadka), Maharashtra; endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Cryptothecia emergens Makhija & Patw., Biovigyanam 11(1): 6. 1985.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Udupi); endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Cryptothecia faveolata Makhija & Patw. in T.A. Sarma & al. (eds.), Curr. Res. Pl. Sci.: 64. 1994.

Distribution:Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Kerala; Australia.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Confluentic, gyrophoric acids and an unidentified substance.

 

Cryptothecia lunulata (Zahlbr.) Makhija & Patw., Biovigyanam 11(1): 6. 1985; Arthothelium lunulatum Zahlbr. in Rechinger, Denkschirf. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Wien. Math. -Naturwiss. Kl.  88: 17. 1911.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal; Papua New Guinea.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Gyrophoric acid and barbatic acids.

 

Cryptothecia macrocarpa Makhija & Patw. in  T.A. Sarma & al. (eds.), Curr. Res. Pl. Sci.: 66. 1994.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga); endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: An unknown substance.

 

Cryptothecia nilgiriensis Makhija & Patw., Biovigyanam 7: 123. 1981.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu; endemic

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Psoromic acid.

Cryptothecia phlyctidiformis (Müll. Arg.) D.D. Awasthi & Kr.P.Singh, Curr.Sci. 47(18):          657. 1973.

Phaeographina phlyctidiformis Müll.Arg. J. Linn. Soc. Bot., 29: 228. 1892.

Karnataka (Shivamogga),  Manipur; endemic to India.

Habitat : Corticolous.

Chemistry:  Norstictic and constictic acids.

 

Cryptothecia porosa Makhija & Patw. in T.A. Sarma et al., Curr. Res. Pl. Sci.: 67. 1994.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Udupi), endemic

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Cryptothecia punctulata Makhija & Patw., Biovigyanam 13(2): 47. 1987.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Andaman & Nicobar Islands; endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Cryptothecia scripta G.Thor, Symb. Bot. Upsal. 32(1): 285. 1997.

Cryptothecia subnidulans sensu auct., non Stirton, 1877.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal; Africa, Papua New Guinea.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Psoromic acid.

 

Cryptothecia stirtonii A.L.Sm., Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 11: 193. 1926.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Tamil Nadu ,West Bengal; endemic

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Cryptothecia subtecta Stirt., Proc. Roy. Soc. Glasgow 11: 320. 1897.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga),  West Bengal; endemic

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Arthopyreniaceae

 

Arthopyrenia  A.Massal.

 

Arthopyrenia analepta (Ach.) A. Massal., Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 165. fig. 326. 1852.

Lichen analeptus Ach. Lichenogr. Suec. Prodr.: 15. 1798.

Arthopyrenia lapponina Anzi. Comment. Soc. Crittong. Ital., 2(1): 25.1864.

Distribution:   Karnataka *, Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala,  Tamil Nadu; Cosmopolitan.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Arthopyrenia grisea (Schleich. ex Schaer.) Körb., Syst. Lich. Germ.: 369. 1855.

Verrucaria epidermidis var. grisea Schleich. ex Schaer., Lich. Helv. Spic., Sect. 2: 56. 1826.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh; Europe.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Arthopyrenia indusiata Müll.Arg., Flora 66: 288. 1883.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Kerala;  Brazil.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Arthopyrenia minor R.C.Harris in Tucker & Harris, Bryologist  83: 7. 1980.

Distribution:Karnataka  (Bangaluru UD ) Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Kerala, West Bengal; USA.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Arthopyrenia nidulans Müll.Arg., Flora 68: 326. 1885.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Bangaluru UD), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Goa, Madhya Pradesh  and Uttar Pradesh; Sri Lanka.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Brigantiaeaceae

 

Brigantiaea Treves.

 

Brigantiaea leucoxantha (Spreng.) R.Sant. & Hafellner in Hafellner & Bellemére, Nova Hedwigia 35: 246. 1982.                                                               (Plate,1 C)

Lopadium leucoxanthum (Spreng.) Zahlbr., Sitzungsber. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math. -Naturwiss. Cl. 3: 398. 1902.

Lecidea leucoxantha Spreng., Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Handl. 1820: 46. 1820.

Brigantiaea leucoxantha (Spreng.) R.Sant. & Hafellner in Hafellner & Bellemére, Nova Hedwigia 35: 246. 1982.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Kodagu, Shivamogga, Uttara Kannada), Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu; Brazil, Sri Lanka.

      Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin, zeorin and a yellow spot at Rf value 0.72.

 

 

Brigantiaea nigra  D.D.Awasthi  in D. D. Awasthi & Srivastava, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., Pl. Sci. 99(3): 172. 1989.

Lopadium nigrum (D.D.Awasthi) Kr.P.Singh & G.P.sinha, Indian Lich. Annot. Checklist: 279. 2010.

Brigantiaea nigra  D.D.Awasthi  in D. D. Awasthi & Srivastava, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., Pl. Sci. 99(3): 172. 1989.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Kerala, Tamil Nadu; endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin, zeorin and an unidentified substance.

 

 

Caliciaceae

 

Buellia De Not., nom. cons.

 

Buellia erubescens Arnold, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien 25: 493. 1875.

Buellia stillingiana J.Steiner, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 68: 144. 1919.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (BangaluruUD), Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu; Europe, USA.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin, norstictic acid and zeorin.

 

Buellia pharcidia (Ach.) Malme, Lich. Suec. Exsic. Fasc. 8: 182. 1910.

Lecanora pharcidia Ach., Syn. Meth. Lich.: 147. 1814.

Diplotomma pharcidium (Ach.) M.Choisy, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon 19: 156. 1950.

Distribution:   Karnataka*, Jammu & Kashmir, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu; Europe.

            Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.      

 

Buellia posthabita (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 7: 390. 1931).

Lecidea posthabita Nyl., Lich. Nov. Zel.: 111. 1888.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Hassan), Madhya Pradesh,  Manipur; Nova Granata.

Habitat: Saxicolous on walls.

Chemistry:  No lichen substances.

 

Cratiria Marbach

.

Cratiria dissimilis (Nyl.) Marbach, Biblioth. Lichenol. 74: 177. 2000.

Lecidea dissimilis Nyl., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., ser. 4, 15 : 48. 1861.

Buellia isidiophora D.D.Awasthi & Upreti, Curr. Sci. 50(18): 821. 1981.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Dakshina Kannada), Kerala; New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Norstictic, connorstictic acids and atranorin.

 

Cyphelium Ach.

 

Cyphelium sessile (Pers.) Trevis., Flora 45: 4. 1862.

Calicium sessile Pers., Tentam. Dispos. –Meth. Fungor.: 59. 1797.

Calicium stigonellum Ach., Methodus: 88. 1803.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Western Ghats), Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Europe, N America.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

 

 

Dirinaria (Tuck.) Clem.

Pyxine sect. Dirinaria Tuck.

 

            Dirinaria applanata (Fée) D.D.Awasthi in D. Awasthi & Agarwal, J. Indian Bot. Soc. 49:  135. 1970.

Parmelia applanata Fée, Essai Crypt. Ecorc.: 126. 1824, tab. 32, fig. 2  & Suppl.: 123, tab. 42, fig. 18. 1837.

 

            var. applanata

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Dharwad, Shivamogga), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal; tropical and subPantropical

Habitat: Usually corticolous, occasionally saxicolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin and divaricatic acid and triterpenoids.

 

Dirinaria confluens (Fr.) D.D.Awasthi, Biblioth. Lichenol. 2: 28. 1975.

Parmelia confluens  Fr., Syst. Orb. Veg. 1: 284. 1825.

Physcia confluens (Fr.) Nyl., Syn. Lich. 1(2): 430. 1860.

 

var. confluens

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Kodagu, Mysuru, Shivamogga), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Nagaland, Odisha, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh; Cosmopolitan.

Habitat: Corticolous and saxicolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin and divaricatic acid and triterpenoids.

 

Dirinaria consimilis  (Stirt.) D.D.Awasthi in D.D. Awasthi & Agarwal, J. Indian Bot. Soc. 49: 135. 1970.

Physcia consimilis Stirt., Proc. Roy. Soc. Glasgow 11: 310. 1879.

Pyxine consimilis (Stirt.) Stirt., Trans. & Proc. New Zealand Inst. 30: 395. 1898.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Bangaluru UB, Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; tropical region of Africa and Asia.

Habitat: Corticolous, rarely saxicolous

Chemistry: Atranorin and sekikaic acid.

 

 

Pyxine Fr.

 

Pyxine austroindica D.D.Awasthi, Phytomorphology 30: 364. 1980 .

Distribution: Karnataka (Shivamogga), Kerala;endemic.

Habitat : Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin and terpenes.

           

Pyxine coccifera (Fée) Nyl., Mem. Soc. Imp. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 5: 108. 1857.

Parmelia coccifera Fée, Essaicrypt. Ecorc. Officin. 126. 1824.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga), Assam, Kerala, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, West Bengal; Pantropical.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin, triterpenes and  pyxiferin.

 

Pyxine cöcoes (Sw.) Nyl., Mem. Soc. Imp. Sci. Nat. Cherbourgh 5: 108. 1857.

Lichen cöcoes Sw., Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl.: 146. 1788.                    (Plate,2H)

 

var. cöcoes

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru,Shivamogga), Assam, Goa, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal;Pantropical.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Lichexanthone triterpenes.

 

var. prominula (Stirt.) D.D.Awasthi in D. Awasthi & Upreti, Indian J. Bot. 3(2): 183. 1980;

Pyxine prominula Stirt., Trans. & Proc. New Zealand  Inst. 30: 397. 1898.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Bengaluru UD), Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal; Pantropical.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Pyxine consocians Vain., Philipp. J. Sci., C, 8: 109. 1913.

Distribution: Karnataka (Shivamogga), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Manipur, Nagaland; Africa, Australia, Philippines, Taiwan.

Habitat : Corticolous.

Chemistry: Norstictic acid and triterpenes.

 

Pyxine cylindrica Kashiw., Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus. Tokyo,  B, 3(2): 66. 1977.

Distribution:   Karnataka*, Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Goa, , Kerala, Madhya Pradesh; Papua New Guinea, Taiwan, Thailand. 

Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin, norstictic acid and triterpenes.

 

Pyxine minuta Vain., Acta Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 7(1): 156. 1890.

Pyxine microspora  Vain., Philipp. J. Sci., C, 8: 110. 1913.

Distribution:   Karnataka , (Bangaluru UD,  Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga), Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand; Bhutan, C & S America, E Africa, Philippines.

Habitat: Saxicolous.

Chemistry: Lichexanthone, triterpenes and pigment.

 

Pyxine palniensis D.D.Awasthi, Phytomorphology 30: 374. 1980.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Western Ghats), Tamil Nadu;endemic.

Saxicolous.

Chemistry: Triterpenes.

 

Pyxine petricola Nyl. in Crombie., J. Bot. London 14: 263. 1876.

 

var. petricola

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Bengaluru UD), Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu; Pantropical

Habitat: Corticolous or saxicolous.

Chemistry: Lichexanthone; triterpenes and pigment.

 

var. pallida Swinscow & Krog, Norweg. J. Bot. 22: 62. 1975.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Bengaluru UD); East Africa.

Corticolous.

 

Pyxine reticulata (Vain.) Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 6: 70. 1914.

Physcia reticulata  Vain. in Hiern & al., Cat. Afr. Pl. 2(2): 412. 1901.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Bengaluru UD, Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Tamil Nadu; tropical Africa.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin and triterpenes.

 

Pyxine sorediata (Ach.) Mont. in Sagra, Hist. Cuba Bot. 9: 188. 1824.

Lecidea sorediata Ach., Syn. Meth. Lich.: 54. 1814.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru),  Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal; Bhutan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand; tropical to subtropical  regions.

Habitat: Corticolous and saxicolous

Chemistry: Triterpenes and pigment .

 

Sculptolumina Marbach

 

Sculptolumina japonica (Tuck.) Marbach, Biblioth. Lichenol. 74: 297. 2000.

Lecidea japonica Tuck., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts. 5: 421. 1862.

Buellia conformis Vain., Étud. Class. Lich. Brésil 1: 168. 1890.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu; Africa, S America, Australia, China, Sri Lanka, Thailand

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Flavoobscurin B 1, Flavoobscurin X, Myeloconon D 1 and pigment

 

 

Candelariaceae

 

Candelaria A.Massal.

 

Candelaria concolor (Dicks.) Stein in Cohn, Krypt. Fl. Schles. 2(2): 84. 1879.

Lichen concolor Dicks., Fasc. Pl. Crypt. Br.: Pl. 9, fig. 8. 1783.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Bengaluru UD, Hassan, Mandya, Tumkur), Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Nagaland, Sikkim, Uttarakhand; Africa, Bhutan, Brazil, China, Europe, Japan, Madagascar, N America. New Zealand, Taiwan.

Habitat: Corticolous and saxicolous.

Chemistry:  Calycin and pulvinic dilactone.

 

 

 

Catillariaceae

Catillaria A.Massal.

 

Catillaria leptocheiloides (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 4: 19. 1926.

Lecidea leptocheiloides Nyl. in Crombie, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 16: 225. 1877.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Hassan) Goa, Kerala, Manipur, Tamil Nadu; Pacefic Islands (Tahiti).

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Zeorin and atranorin.

 

Catillaria pulverea (Borrer) Lettau, Hedwigia 52: 136. 1912.

Lecidea pulverea Borrer in Hooker & Sowerby, Engl. Bot. Suppl. 2, tab. 2726. 1834.

            Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Jammu & Kashmir; Europe.New Zealand.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

 

Chrysothricaceae

Chrysothrix Mont., nom. cons.

             

            Chrysothrix candelaris (L.) J.R.Laundo, Lichenologist 13(2): 110. 1981.

            Byssus candelaris L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1169. 1753.

            Lepraria candelaris (L.) Fr., Sched. Critic.: 16. 1824.

            Distribution:   Karnataka  (Bengaluru), Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu; Cosmopolitan.

            Habitat: Corticolous.Chemistry: Calycin.

 

Cladoniaceae

Cladonia P.Browne, nom. cons.

           

            Cladonia cartilaginea Müll.Arg., Flora 63: 260. 1880.

            Distribution:   Karnataka  (Hassan), Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Kerala, Manipur, Meghalaya,  Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal, Nepal; Africa, C and S America, tropical Asia.

            Habitat:Terricolous.Chemistry: Strain (1) Fumarprotocetraric acid; strain (2) fumarprotocetraric, stictic, constictic and cryptostictic acids; strain (3) psoromic and 2-o-demethylpsoromic acids; strain (4) fumarprotocetraric acid complex and homosekikaic acid and strain (5) usnic and isousnic acids.

 

            Cladonia fruticulosa Kremp., Verh. K. K. Zool. -Bot. Ges. Wien. 30: 331. 1881.

            Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru), Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal; Bhutan, Nepal, Sri Lanka; Africa, Australasia Oceania, SE  Asia.

            Habitat:Terricolous.Chemistry: Strain (1) Psoromic acid; strain (2) psoromic and usnic acids; strain (3) fumarprotocetraric, protocetraric and lichesterinic acids.

           

            Cladonia mauritiana Ahti & J.C.David in David & Hawksworth, Biblioth. Lichenol. 57: 94. 1995.

            Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Madagascar, Malaysia, Mauritius, Reunion, Camoro Islands, Seychelles, Thailand.

            Habitat:Terricolous.

Chemistry: Fumarprotocetraric, protocetraric and confumarprotocetraric acids.

           

            Cladonia ramulosa (With.) J.R.Laundon, Lichenologist 16: 225. 1984.

Lichen ramulosus With., Bot. Arr. Veg. Gr. Brit.: 723. 1776.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Kerala, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand and West Bengal; Cosmopolitan.,

Habitat:Terricolous.

Chemistry: Fumarprotocetraric acid and traces of protocetraric acid.

 

Coccocarpiaceae

Coccocarpia Pers.

     

Coccocarpia erythroxyli (Spreng.) Swinscow & Krog, Norweg. J. Bot.  23: 256. 1976.

      Lecidea erythroxyli Spreng., Kungl. Vetensk. Acad. Nya Handl. 1: 47. 1820.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal; Cosmopolitan.

Habitat:Corticolous, saxicolous, muscicolous and terricolous.

 

            Coccocarpia palmicola (Spreng.) Arv. & D.J.Galloway, Bot. Not.. 132: 242. 1979.

Lecidea palmicola Spreng., Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Nya Handl. 1: 46. 1820.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal; Pantropical

Habitat:Corticolous, saxicolous, terricolous and occasionally foliicolous.

 

Coccocarpia pellita (Ach.) Müll.Arg. em. R.Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 420. 1952; Arvidsson, Opera Bot. 67: 76. 1982; D. Awasthi, Beih. Nova Hedwigia 17: 45. 1965; Kavaka 12(2): 86. 1985 & Comp. Macrolich. India, Nepal & Sri Lanka: 120. 2007.

Parmelia pellita Ach., Lichenogr. Universalis: 468. 1810; Zahlbruckner, Cat. Lich. Univ. 3: 285. 1925.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru district), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal; Pantropical.

Habitat:Corticolous, saxicolous and  terricolous.

 

Coenogniaceae

Coenogonium  Ehrenb.

 

Coenogonium dilucidum (Kremp.) Kalb & Lücking in Lücking  & Kalb, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 122: 29. 2000.

Lecidea dilucida Kremp., J. Mus. Godeffroy I (4): 103. 1873.

Dimerella dilucida (Kremp.) R.Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 394. 1952.

Distribution: Karnataka (Kodagu), Andaman & Nicobar Islands;pantropical.

Habitat : Foliicolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

 

Collemataceae

Leptogium (Ach.) Gray

Collema sect. Leptogium Ach.

 

Leptogium austroamericanum (Malme) C.W.Dodge, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 20: 419. 1933.

Leptogium cyanescens var. austroamericanum Malme, Ark. Bot. 19(8): 21. 1924.

Distribution:   Karnataka   (Shivamogga), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Uttarakhand; Pantropical.

Habitat:Corticolous.

 

 

 

Leptogium burnetiae  C.W.Dodge, Beih. Nova Hedwigia 12: 120. 1964.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga) ,Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Kerala,  Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal; Africa, America, Asia, Europe.

Habitat:Corticolous.

 

Leptogium chloromelum (Sw.) Nyl., Syn. Lich. 1(2): 128. 1860

Lichen chloromelus Sw., Fl. Ind. Occid. 3: 1892. 1806.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga), Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Mharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand ; tropical America.

Habitat:Corticolous.

 

Leptogium cochleatum (Dicks.) P.M.Jørg. & P.James, Lichenologist 15: 113. 1983.

Lichen cochleatus Dicks., Fasc. Crypt. Brit. 1: 13. 1785.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand,West Bengal; Australia; Africa, Europe.

Habitat:Corticolous.

 

Leptogium denticulatum  Nyl., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., ser. 5, 7: 302. 1867.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru , Shivamogga), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal;Pantropical

Habitat:Corticolous, saxicolous, muscicolous or terricolous.

 

Leptogium indicum D.D.Awasthi & P.Akhtar, Geophytology 8(2): 197. 1979.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga district, Sivappa,s Fort Complex, Kavaledurga), Kerala, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Sikkim. Endemic to India.

Habitat:Corticolous or saxicolous on the walls of monuments.

 

Leptogium pichneum (Ach.) Malme, Ark. Bot. 19(8): 20. 1924.

Collema tremelloides var. pichneum Ach., Syn. Meth. Lich.: 243. 1814.

Distribution:   Karnataka ( Hassan),  Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh,Tamil Nadu; Japan,Philippines, SAmerica, Sri Lanka.

Habitat:Saxicolous on the walls of monuments.

 

Leptogium ulvaceum (Pers.) Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 15(6): 38. 1921.

Collema ulvaceum Pers. in Gaudich., Voy. Uraine : 203. 1827.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Shimagga), Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Nagaland, Tamil Nadu; SE Asia.

Habitat:Corticolous.

 

Gomphillaceae

Aderkomyces Bat.

                                    

Aderkomyces albostrigosus (R.Sant.) Lücking, Sérus. & Vězda, Lichenologist 37: 161. 2005.

Tricharia albostrigosa R.Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 388. 1952.

Distribution:Karnataka (Kodagu), Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal; tropical America.

Habitat : Foliicolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

Aulaxina Fée

 

Aulaxina quadrangula (Stirt.) R.Sant. in Thorold, J. Ecol. 40: 129. 1952.

Platygrapha quadrangula Stirt., Proc. Roy. Soc. Glasgow 11: 103. 1878.

Distribution:Karnataka (Kodagu), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Goa; Angola, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Haiti, Panama, Peru, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela

Habitat : Foliicolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Echinoplaca Fée

 

Echinoplaca epiphylla Fée, Essai  Crypt. Ecorc. : 50 & 93, tab. I, fig. 29. 1824.

Distribution:Karnataka (Kodagu), Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Sikkim, West Bengal; pantropical.

Habitat : Foliicolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

Chemistry:  Gyrophoric acid.

 

Tricharia Fée

 

Tricharia triseptata R. Sant., Symb.Bot. Upsal. 12(1) : 380. 1952.

Distribution:  Karnataka (Kodagu), Manipur; tropical America & Africa.

Habitat : Foliicolous.

 

Graphidiaceae

Acanthothesis Clem.

Acanthothesis archeri B.O. Sharma, Makhija & Khadilkar, Lichenologist 42(5):   548. 2010.                                                                                          (Plate, 1 A)

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Udupi); endemic.

            Habitat:Corticolous.

 

            Acanthothesis celata B.O. Sharma, Makhija & Khadilkar, Lichenologist 42(5):      550. 2010

            Distribution:   Karnataka  (Udupi); endemic.

            Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Anomomorpha Nyl ex Hue 

 

            Anomomorpha elegans B.O. Sharma, Makhija & Khadilkar, Lichenologist.          42(3):   281. 2010.                                                                                    (Plate,1B)        

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga, Uttara Kannada); endemic.

            Habitat:Corticolous.

            Chemistry: Salazinic acid.

 

Astrochapsa Parnmen, Lücking & Lumbsch

 

Astrochapsa pseudophlyctis (Nyl.) Parnmen, Lücking & Lumbsch, PLoS ONE 7(12): e51392, 9. 2012. Graphis pseudophlyctis Nyl., in Hue, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. 3: 163. 1891.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Meghalaya and Sikkim.

Habitat:Corticolous.

           

Chapsa A.Massal.

 

Chapsa laceratula (Mull.arg.) Rivas Plata & Lucking, Lichrnologist 42 : 183. 2010.

Thelotrema laceratulum Müll.Arg., Flora 70: 399. 1887.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chickkmagaluruu, Shivamogga, Uttara Kannada), Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu); Australia, Sri Lanka.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Chapsa leprocarpa (Nyl.) A. Frisch, Biblioth. Lechenol. 92: 108. 2006.

            Graphis leprocarpa Nyl., Acta Soc. Sci. Fenn. 7 : 472. 1863.

            Thelotrema leprocarpum (Nyl.) Tuck., Gen. Lich.: 139. 1872.

            Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga, Udupi), Andaman & Nicobar Islands; Sri Lanka; Americas, tropical Africa,

Habitat:Corticolous.Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

 

Diorygma Eschw.

 

Diorygma albovirescens Makhija & al., Mycotaxon 109: 382. 2009.

Distribution: Karnataka ( Shivamogga) and  Maharashtra.

 Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Constictic, cryptostictic and stictic (major) acids.

 

 

Diorygma junghuhnii (Mont. & Bosch) Kalb, Staiger & Elix, Symb. Bot. Upsal. 34(1): 157. 2004.

Ustalia junghuhnii Mont. & Bosch. in Junghuhn, Pl. Jungh. 4: 477. 1855.

Graphina junghuhnii (Mont. & Bosch.) Müll.Arg., Flora 65: 386. 1882. Phaeographina junghuhnii (Mont. & Bosch) Zahlbr., Ann. Cryptog. Exot. 1: 148. 1928.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Dakshin Kannada, Kodagu, Shivamogga, Udupi, Uttar Kannada), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Kerala, Maharashtra, Manipur, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu; Brazil, Guatamala, Indonesia, New Caledonia, Paraguay, Solomon Islands, Tahiti and Thailand.

 Habitat:Corticolous.

 

Diorygma megaspermum   Makhija & al., Mycotaxon, 109: 386. 2009.

Karnataka (Shivamogga) and Maharashtra; endemic to India.

Habitat : Corticolous.

Chemistry: Consalazinic, constictic, cryptostictic and stictic(major) acids.

 

Diorygma megasporum Kalb & al., Symb. Bot.  Upsal. 34(1): 160. 2004.

Distribution: Karnataka ( Shivamogga) Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim and West Bengal

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Constictic, cryptostictic and stictic(major) acids.

 

Diorygma soozanum (Zahlbr.) M. Nakan. & Kashiw., in Nakanishi, Kashiwadani & Moon, Bull. Natn. Sci. Mus., Tokyo, B 29(2): 86. 2003.

Graphina soozana Zahlbr., Feddes Repert. 31: 215 (1933

Distribution: Karnataka ( Shivamogga)  Arunachal Pradesh, Assam and Nagaland . Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Norstictic and: connorstictic acids.

 

Diorygma subalbatum (Patw. & Makhija) B.O. Sharma & Makhija, Mycotaxon 109: 216. 2009.                                                                                                (Plate, 1 D)

Helminthocarpon subalbatum Patw. & Makhija, Biovigyanam 7: 128. 1981.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Udupi); endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Norstictic and stictic acids.

 

Diorygma rufosporum (Patw. & C.R. Kulk.) B.O. Sharma & Makhija, Mycotaxon 109: 214. 2009.

Phaeographina rufospora Patw. & C.R. Kulk. Indian. J. Bot. 2(2): 138. 1979.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Belgaun, Koppal, Shivamogga) and Maharashtra; endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

 

Diploschistes Norman

 

Diploschistes euganeus (A.Massal.) J.Steiner, Verhandl. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien 69: 96. 1919.

Limboria euganea  A.Massal., Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 155. 1852.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru) and Uttarakhand; Cosmopolitan.

Habitat:Saxicolous (on siliceous rocks).

 

      Diploschistes muscorum (Scop.) R.Sant. in Hawksworth & al., Lichenologist 12(1): 106. 1980.

      Lichen muscorum Scop., Fl. Carniol., ed. 2, 2: 365. 1772.

 

      subsp. bartlettii Lumbsch, Herzogia 7: 602. 1987; Pant & Upreti, Lichenologist 25(1) : 43. 1993.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru), Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal; Palaeotropical.

Habitat:Saxicolous and muscicolous.

Chemistry : lecanoric acid (major), diploschistesic acid (trace), orsellinic acid (trace).

 

 

Fissurina Fée

 

Fissurina cingalina (Nyl.) Staiger, Biblioth. Lichenol. 85: 128. 2002.

Graphis cingalina Nyl. Acta Soc. Sci. Fenn., 26 (10):21. 1900.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga),  Kerala, Maharashtra Manipur and Tamil Nadu .

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Fissurina coarctata Makhija & Adaw., Lichenologist 39(2): 171. 2007.

Graphis subnitidula Nyl. in Tuckerman, Syn. N. Amer. Lich. 2: 123. 1888.

Graphina subnitidula (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 2: 427. 1923.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Uttara Kannada), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Meghalaya; endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

            Fissurina disposita B.O. Sharma, Khadilkar & Makhija. Lichenologist 44(3):         347. 2012.                                                                                               (Plate, 1E)

Distribution:   Karnataka (Chikmaguluru district, Baba Budangiri road), Meghalaya; endemic to India.

            Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Fissurina dumastioides (Fink) Staiger, Biblioth. Lichenol. 85: 161. 2002;

Graphis dumastioides Fink, Mycologia 19: 213. 1927.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Dominica, Indonesia, Porto Rico, Thailand.

Chemistry: Norstictic acid and traces of stictic acid.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Fissurina immersa B.O. Sharma, Khudilkar & Makhija. Lichenologist. 44(3):        347. 2012.                                                                                                     (Plate,1 F)

            Distribution:   Karnataka  (Kodagu), endemic.

            Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Norstictic acid

 

Fissurina karnatakensis Makhija & Adaw., Lichenologist 39(2): 176. 2007.   (Plate,

1 G)

            Distribution:   Karnataka  (Udupi), endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Protocetraric and fumarprotocetraric acids.

           

            Fissurina longiramea Makhija & Adaw., Lichenologist 39(2): 178. 2007.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Udupi), Andaman & Nicobar Islands; endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances..

 

                ​ Fissurina microcarpa B.O. Sharma, Khudilkar & Makhija. Lichenologist. 44(3):343. 2012.                                                                                           (Plate, 1H)

            Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru), Tamil Nadu; endemic.

            Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Stictic acid.

 

            Fissurina nitidescens (Nyl.) Nyl. Lich. Jab.: 108. 1890; B.O. Sharma & al.,            Lichenologist. 44(3): 350. 2012.

            Graphis nitidescens Nyl. Zahlbr. Cat. Lich. Univ. 2: 410. 1888.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru), Kerala; Africa, Australia, USA and Brazil.

Habitat:Corticolous.

 

            Fissurina monospora C. Knight, Transact. Newzealand Instit. 15: 354. 1883;       B.O. Sharma & al., Lichenologist. 44(3): 349. 2012.

            Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru); Newzealand.

            Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

            Fissurina simplex B.O. Sharma, Khudilkar & Makhija, Lichenologist. 44(3):         351. 2012.

            Distribution:   Karnataka  (Uttara Kannada), Kerala; endemic.

            Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Stictic and hypostictic acid.

 

            Fissurina sporolata B.O. Sharma, Khudilkar & Makhija, Lichenologist. 44(3):                  351. 2012.

            Distribution:   Karnataka  (Udupi), endemic.

            Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Fissurina subcontexta (Nyl.) Nyl., Lich. Nova Zeland.: 125. 1888.

Graphis subcontexta Nyl., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, ser, 2., 2: 118. 1868

Distribution: Karnataka( Shivmogga) and Arunachal Pradesh.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

            Fissurina submonospora B.O. Sharma, Khudilkar & Makhija, Lichenologist.        44(3):   352. 2012.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga, Uttara Kannada), Kerala, Tamil Nadu; endemic.

            Habitat:Corticolous.

            Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

            Fissurina subnitidula (Nyl.) Staiger Biblioth. Lichenol. 82: 153. 2002, B.O.          Sharma & al., Lichenologist. 44(3): 353. 2012.

 Graphis subnitidula Nyl., Syn. N. Amer. Lich. (Boston) 2: 123 .1888.

            Distribution:   Karnataka  (Uttara Kannada); Africa.

            Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

            Fissurina taeniocarpoides Makhija & Adaw., Lichenologist 39(2): 181. 2007.

            Graphis batavana Zahlbr., Ann. Mycol. 29: 76. 1931.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Dakshin Kannad, Shivamogga) Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Indonesia.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Fissurina triticea (Nyl.) Staiger, Biblioth. Lichenol. 85: 156. 2002.

Graphis triticea Nyl., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., ser. 4, 19: 367. 1863.

Distribution:   Karnataka (Udupi), Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Pantropical.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Stictic acid.

 

 

Fissurina verrucosa Makhija & Adaw., Lichenologist 39(2): 183. 2007.

            Distribution:   Karnataka  (Uttara Kannada); endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Fumarprotocetraric and protocetraric (trace) acids.

 

Glyphis Ach.

 

      Glyphis cicatricosa Ach., Syn. Meth. Lich.: 107. 1814.

      Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Goa, Kerala, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal; Pantropical.

      Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No Lichen substances.

 

      Glyphis confluens Zenk. in Goebel & Kunze, Pharmazeut. Waarekunde 1: 163. 1827-29.

      Distribution:   Karnataka (Shivamogga),  , Andamann & Nicobar Islands, Kerala, Odisha, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu; Pantropical

      Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Zeorin, usnic acid (?) and and an unidentified substance.

 

Graphis Adans.

 

Graphis acharii Fée, Essai Crypt. Ecorc. : 39, t. 10, f. 4. 1824.

Graphina acharii (Fée) Müll.Arg., Mem. Soc. Phys. Genève  29 (8): 38. 1887.

Distribution: Karnataka*, Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala, Sikkim, West Bengal; Pantropical.

Habitat:Corticolous.

 

Graphis ajarekarii Patw. & C.R.Kulk., Norweg. J. Bot. 26(1): 45. 1979.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Kodagu), Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu; endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Norstictic, stictic and constictic acids.

 

Graphis alboglaucescens Adaw. & Makhija, Mycotaxon 99: 312. 2007.

      Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkabullapur);endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Norstictic acid.

 

Graphis aurita Eschw. in Martius, Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl. 1: 90. 1833.

Graphis persulcata Stirt., Proc. Roy. Soc. Glasgow 11: 315. 1879.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkabullapur), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Assam, Kerala, Maharashtra, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu; Australia.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Graphis caesiella Vain., Acta Soc. Fauna Fl. Finn. 7: 122. 1890.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga),Arunachal Pradesh and Lakshadweep .

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Stictic and constictic acids.

 

 

Graphis cincta (Pers.) Aptroot in Archer, Fl. Australia 57: 651. 2009.

Opegrapha cincta Pers., Ann. Wetter. Ges. 2: 15, tab. 10, f. 4. 1811.

Graphis guimarana Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 15(6): 248. 1921.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Haveri; Uttara Kannada), Goa, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu; Australia, Philippines, West Indies.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Norstictic acid.

 

Graphis congesta (Fée) Müll.Arg., Mem. Soc. Phys. Genève 29(8): 35. 1887. Opegrapha congesta Fée, Essai Crypt. Ecorc. Suppl. : 155. 1837.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Neotropics, Eastern Palaeotropics.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Norstictic acid.

 

Graphis dendrogramma Nyl. in Cromb., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 16: 226. 1878.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala, Nagaland, Sikkim and West Bengal

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry:

 

Graphis duplicata Ach., Syn. Meth. Lich.: 81. 1814.

Graphis schizograpta Müll.Arg., Flora 65: 335. 1882.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala, Maharashtra, Manipur, Nagaland, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand; China, Costa Rica, Indonesia.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Graphis eburnea Adaw. & Makhija, Mycotaxon 99: 314. 2007.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Uttara Kannada) ; endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Norstictic acid.

 

Graphis filiformis Adaw. & Makhija, Mycotaxon 99: 314. 2007.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga). Eastern Asia.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Norstictic and connorstictic acids.

 

Graphis hiascens (Fée) Nyl., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., ser. 4, 11: 226. 1859.

Opegrapha hiascens Fée, Essai Crypt. Ecorc. Suppl. : 25, pl. 36, fig. 1. 1831.

Graphina hiascens (Fée) Müll.Arg., Mem. Soc. Phys. Genève 29(8): 42. 1887. 

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Manipur, Nagaland, Tamil Nadu; Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka; S America.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Norstictic acid.

 

Graphis insulana (Müll.Arg.) Lücking & Sipman in Lücking & al., Fieldiana, Bot.: 84. 2008.

Graphina insulana Müll.Arg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 4: 56. 1883.

Graphina nylanderi Patw. & C.R.Kulk., Norweg. J. Bot. 26(1): 47. 1979.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Maharashtra; Australia, Costa Rica, Malaysia,Philippines, Sri Lanka.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Norstictic acid.

 

Graphis isidiza Adaw. & Makhija, Lichenologist 36(6): 361. 2004.

Distribution:   Karnataka*, Tamil Nadu; endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Constictic acid and stictic acid (trace).

 

Graphis lineola Ach., Lichenogr. Universalis: 264. 1810.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Bangaluru UD), Arunachal Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal; Pantropical.

Habitat:Corticolous.

 

Graphis longiramea Müll.Arg., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 29: 225. 1892.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal; Guadeloupe Islands.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Constictic and stictic acids.

 

            Graphis parvicarpa B.O. Sharma and Khadilkar, Lichenologist. 43(5): 487.         2011.                                                                                                               (Plate, 2D)

            Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkaballupur) ; endemic.

            Habitat:Corticolous.Chemistry: Norstictic acid.

 

Graphis pertricosa (Kremp.) A.W.Archer, Telopea 11: 73. 2005.

Enterographa pertricosa Kremp., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 7: 39. 1875.

Chiodecton pertricosum (Kremp.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 2: 48. 1922.

Graphina pertricosa (Kremp.) Zahlbr. in Engler, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 60: 480. 1926

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Manipur, Tamil Nadu; Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Tanzania.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Norstictic acid.

 

Graphis pinicola Zahlbr. in Handel-Mazzetti, Symb. Sin. 3:40 & 43. 1930.

Graphis foliicola var. major D.D.Awasthi & Kr.P.Singh, Norweg. J. Bot.  19: 242. 1972.

Distribution: Karnataka (Kodagu), Tamil Nadu; pantropical.

Habitat: Foliicolous.

 

Graphis pseudoaquilonia Lücking, Lichenologist, 44 (3): 393. 2012.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga),  and Assam .

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Norstictic acid.

 

Graphis pyrrhocheiloides Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 2: 321. 1923.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Maharashtra, West Bengal; Pantropical.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Norstictic acid.

 

Graphis rimulosa (Mont.) Trevis., Spighe e Pagile: 11. 1853.

Opegrapha rimulosa Mont. Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., ser. 2, 18: 271. 1842.

Distribution: Karnataka*, Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala, Maharashtar, Manipur, Nagaland, Tamil Nadu and  Uttarakhand; Pantropical.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Graphis salacinilongiramea Adaw. & Makhija, Mycotaxon 99: 318. 2007.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Kodagu); endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Salazinic (major), stictic (major), hypoconstictic and hyposalazinic acids.

 

Graphis scripta (L.) Ach.,Vetensk.-Akad. Nya Handl. (Stockholm): 145. 1809.

Lichen scriptus L., Sp. Pl.: 1140. 1753.

Graphis scripta var. flexuosa A.Massal., Mem. Lichenogr.: 108. 1853.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Bangaluru UD), Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Goa, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Manipur, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal; Cosmopolitan.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Graphis stenotera Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 15(6): 243. 1921.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru), Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Costa Rica, Philippines, Taiwan.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Stictic (major) and constictic (trace) acids.

 

Graphis streblocarpa (Bél.) Nyl., Flora 49: 133. 1866.

Graphina streblocarpa (Bél.) Müll.Arg., Flora 65: 502. 1882.

Graphina fissofurcata (Leight.) Müll.Arg., Flora 65: 385. 1882

Opegrapha streblocarpa Bél., Voy. Indes Or. 2: 426. 1924.

Graphis fissofurcata Leight., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 27: 177, t. 36, f. 18. 1869.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Kodagu, Shivamogga), Kerala, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim,Tamil Nadu, West Bengal; Australia, E Africa, Indonesia,  Japan, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka.

Habitat:Corticolous and saxicolous.

Chemistry: Stictic and constictic acids.

 

Graphis subserpentina Nyl., Acta Soc. Sci. Fenn. 7: 465. 1863.

Graphina subserpentina (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belgique 32: 152. 1893.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala, Maharashtra, West Bengal; Palaeotropics.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Norstictic acid.

 

Graphis subvittata Adaw. & Makhija, Mycotaxon 99: 322. 2007.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkaballapur);endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Stictic (major), constictic and norstictic (major) acids.

 

Graphis vittata Müll.Arg., Flora 65: 335. 1882.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Kodagu; Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Sikkim;Pantropical.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Stictic and constictic acids.

 

Hemithecium Trevis.

 

Hemithecium andamanicum (Makhija, Adw. & Patw) B.O. Sharma & Khadlkar in B.O. Sharma & al., Lichenologist 44(3): 350.2012.

Graphina andamanica Makhija, Adaw. & Patw., Biovigyanam 18(2): 22. 1992.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands; endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Stictic, norstictic and constictic acids.

 

Hemithecium aphanes (Mont. & Bosch) M.Nakan. & Kashiw., Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus. Tokyo, B, 29(2): 88. 2003.

Graphis aphanes Mont. & Bosch in Junghuhn, Pl. Jungh. 4: 474. 1855. 

Distribution: Karnataka  (Belagavi Shivamogga,Uttara Kannada), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala and Maharashtra; Australia, Bonnin Island, Indonesia, Japan, Solomon Islands and Thailand.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Stictic and constictic acids.

 

Hemithecium croceum  Makhija & Adaw., Mycotaxon 91: 348. 2005.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga),Andaman & Nicobar Islands ;endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Stictic acid

 

Hemithecium epixanthum (Mont. & Bosch) Chitale & Makhija in Chitale, Makhija & B.O.Sharma, Mycotaxon 108: 85. 2009.

Graphis epixantha Mont. & Bosch in Junghuhn, Pl. Jungh. 4: 472. 1855.

Graphina epixantha (Mont. & Bosch) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 2: 405. 1923. 

Distribution: Karnataka (Belagavi, Shivamogga), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Maharashtra; Indonesia.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Stictic and constictic acids.

 

Hemithecium flexile (Makhija, Adaw. & Patw.) B. O. Sharma & Khadlkar in B. O. Sharma & al., Lichenologist 44(3) : 358.2012.

Graphina flexilis Makhija, Adaw. & Patw., Biovigyanam 18(2): 25. 1992.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Kodagu, Shivamogga), Andaman & Nicobar Islands; endemic.

Chemistry: Norstictic, stictic and constictic acids.

 

Hemithecium fulvescens Adaw. & Makhija, Mycotaxon 92: 389. 2005.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Dakshin Kannada, Udupi); endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry:  Stictic, constictic and protocetraric acids.

 

Hemithecium lamii (Redinger) V.Tewari & Upreti in Dubey et al., Phytotaxonomy 7: 24. 2007.

Phaeographina lamii Redinger,  Rev. Bryol. Lichénol. 9: 71. 1936.

Distribution: Karnataka (Shivamogga), Andama & Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, West Bengal; Indonesia.

Habitat : Corticolous.

Chemistry: Stictic and constictic acids.

 

Hemithecium nakanishianum (Patw. & C.R.Kulk.) Makhija & A.Dube inMakhija & al., Mycotaxon 93 : 370. 2005.

Graphis nakanishiana Patw. & C.R.Kulk., Norweg. J. Bot. 26: 46. 1979.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Belagavi, Chikkamagalur, Kodagu, Shivamogga, Udupi, Uttara Kannadaa); Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Kerala, Maharashtra, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal; Australia.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Norstictic, stictic and constictic acids.

 

Hemithecium norlabiatum (Patw. & C.R. Kulk.) B.O. Sharma & Khadlkar in B.O. Sharma & al. Lichenologist 44(3): 360. 2012.

Graphina norlabiata Patw. & C.R.Kulk., Biovigyanam 5: 6. 1979.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga, Udupi, Uttara Kannadaa), Kerala; endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Norstictic acid.

 

Hemithecium salacinilabiatum (Patw. & C.R.Kulk.) Chitale & Makhija in Chitale, Makhija & B.O.Sharma, Mycotaxon 108: 88. 2009.

Graphina salacinilabiata  Patw. & C.R.Kulk., Biovigyanam 5: 6. 1979.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Distribution: Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru, Dakshina Kannada, Kodagu,Shivamogga), Kerala, Maharashtra; endemic.

Chemistry: Salazinic acid.

 

Hemithecium staigerae Adaw. & Makhija, Mycotaxon 92: 390. 2005.

Distribution: Karnataka (Western Ghats)*,Tamil Nadu; endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry:  Testacein A, testacein B and consalazinic acid.

 

Hemithecium stictilabiatum (Patw. & C.R.Kulk.) Chitale & Makhija in Chitale, Makhija & B.O.Sharma, Mycotaxon 108: 89. 2009.

Graphina stictilabiata Patw. & C.R.Kulk., Biovigyanam 5: 7. 1979.

Distribution: Karnataka (Belagavi, Dakshina Kannada, Kodagu, Shivamogga), Maharashtra; endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Stictic acid.

 

            Hemithecium verrucellosum B.O. Sharma & Khadilkar in B.O. Sharma & al.,      Lichenologist. 44(3): 361. 2012.

            Distribution:  Karnataka  (Uttara Kannadaa) ; endemic.

            Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Stictic and canstictic acids.

 

 

Leucodecton A.Massal.

 

Leucodecton fissurinum (Hale) A.Frisch, Biblioth. Lichenol. 92: 156. 2006.

Myriotrema fissurinum Hale, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Bot. 8(3): 279. 1981.

Distribution:   Karnataka*, Kerala and Tamil Nadu; Sri Lanka; Africa.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Stictic and constictic acids.

 

Leucodecton glaucescens (Nyl.) A.Frisch, Biblioth. Lichenol. 92: 164. 2006.

Thelotrema glaucescens Nyl., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., ser. 4, 19: 332. 1863.

Myriotrema  glaucescens (Nyl.) Hale, Mycotaxon 11:133. 1980.

Leptotrema glaucescens (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Flora 65: 499. 1882.

Distribution:   Karnataka*, Kerala and Tamil Nadu; Australia, C and S America, Sri Lanka.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Stictic and constictic acids.

 

Melanotrema A.Frisch

 

Melanotrema platystomum (Mont.) A.Frisch, Biblioth. Lichenol. 92: 397. 2006.

Thelotrema platystomum Mont., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., ser. 2, 19: 79. 1843.

Ocellularia platystoma (Mont.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ.2: 598. 1923.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Udupi), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands; Africa, N & S America, Philippines, Pacific region, Sri Lanka.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No. lichen substances.

 

Myriotrema  Fée

 

Myriotrema clandestinum (Fée) Hale, Mycotaxon 11: 133. 1980.

Thelotrema clandestinum Fée, Essai Crypt. Ecorc.: 90. 1837.

Thelotrema terebratulum Nyl., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., ser. 5, 7: 315. 1867.

Ocellularia terebratula (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Mem.  Soc. Phys. Genève 29(8): 12. 1887.

Myriotrema terebratulum (Nyl.) Hale, Mycotaxon 11: 135. 1980.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Dakshina  Kannada, Shivamogga, Udupi, Uttara Kannada),

Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya;Pantropical

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Psoromic  (major) and subpsoromic (minor to trace) acids.

 

Myriotrema masonhalei (Patw. & C.R.Kulk.)  Hale, Mycotaxon 11: 133. 1980.

Thelotrema masonhalei Patw. & C.R.Kulk., Norweg. J. Bot. 24: 128. 1977.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga, UttaraKannada), Kerala, Maharashtra; Sri Lanka.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Psoromic acid.

 

Myriotrema microporum (Mont.) Hale, Mycotaxon 11: 134. 1980.

Thelotrema microporum Mont., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., ser. 3, 10: 130. 1848.

Ocellularia micropora (Mont.) Müll.Arg.,  Flora 74: 112. 1891 & Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 23: 129. 1891.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Kodagu, Udupi, Uttara Kannada), Assam, Kerala, Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal; Africa, Australasia, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Pacific region, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Psoromic  acid (major), ± subpsoromic acid (minor), 2-O-demethylpsoromic acid (minor).

 

Myriotrema trypaneoides (Nyl.) Hale, Mycotaxon 11: 135. 1980.

Thelotrema  trypaneoids Nyl., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., ser. 4, 19: 335. 1863.

Leptotrema trypaneoids (Nyl.) Riddle, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 43: 151. 1916.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (), Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Cuba, Philippines, West Indies.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Constictic and stictic acids (majors), cryptostictic, hypoconstictic and hypostictic (minors) acids.

 

Nadvornikia Tibell

 

Nadvornikia hawaiensis (Tuck.) Tibell, Beih. Nova Hedwigia 79: 672. 1984.

Acolium hawaiense Tuck., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 7: 232. 1866.

Tylophoron diplotylium Nyl., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, ser. 2, 2: 46. 1868.

Nadvornikia diplotylia (Nyl.) G.Pant & D.D.Awasthi, Biovigyanum 15(1): 12. 1989.

Distribution:   Karnataka*, Andaman Islands; Australia, Brazil, Hawaii, New Caledonia.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Stictic, constictic and traces of norstictic  acids.

 

Nitidochapsa Parnmen, Lücking & Lumbsch

 

Nitidochapsa leprieurii (Mont.) Parnmen, Lücking & Lumbsch, Bryologist 116(2): 129. (2013).                                                                                    (Plate, 2E)

            Chapsa leprieurii (Mont.) A.Frisch, Biblioth. Lechenol. 92: 105. 2006.

            Stictis leprieurii Mont., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., ser. 4, 3 : 97. 1855.

            Phaeotrema leprieurii (Mont.) Sherwood, Mycotaxon 5 : 203. 1977.

            Thelotrema leprieurii (Mont.) Hale, Mycotaxon 11 : 131. 1980.

            Distribution: Karnataka*, Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Africa, Australia, Indonesia, Philippines, S America, Sri Lanka.

Habitat:Corticolous.Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ocellularia G.Mey., nom. cons.

 

Ocellularia allosporoides (Nyl.) Patw. & C.R.Kulk., Kavaka 5: 5. 1977.

Thelotrema allosporoides Nyl., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, ser. 2, 7: 167. 1873.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Dakshina Kannada, Shivamogga, Uttara Kannada), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Maharashtra, Kerala, Meghalaya; New Zealand.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Ocellularia arecae (Vain.) Hale, Mycotaxon 11: 136. 1980.

Thelotrema arecae Vain., Hedwigia 46: 174. 1907.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Dakshina Kannada), Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Sri Lanka, Thailand.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Hypoprotocetraric acid.

 

Ocellularia canara Hale in Nagarkar, Sethy & Patw., Biovigyanam 14(1): 29. 1988.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Uttara Kannada), endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Stictic and constictic acids.

           

Ocellularia canariana  Patw., Sethy & Nagarkar, Biovigyanam 11(2): 134. 1985.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Uttara Kannada), endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Psoromic acid.

 

Ocellularia diacida Hale, Mycotaxon 7(2): 378. 1978.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga, Udupi, Uttara Kannada); Sri Lanka.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Unknown  'Diacid' present.

Ocellularia eumorpha (Stirt.) Hale,   Mycotaxon 11: 136. 1980.

Thelotrema eumorphum Stirt., Proc. Roy. Soc. Glasgow 10: 158. 1877.

Distribution: Karnataka(Shivamogga),Uttarakhand; tropical Africa & Asia.

Habitat : Corticolous.

Chemistry: Hypoprotocetraric acid (major).

 

Ocellularia garoana Patw. & Nagarkar, Biovigyanam 6: 7. 1980.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Dakshina  Kannada), Meghalaya; endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Psoromic acid.

                       

Ocellularia groenhartii Hale, Mycotaxon 3: 173. 1975.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Dakshina  Kannada, Kodagu, Shivamogga, Kannada), Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Indonesia, Solomon Island.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: 'Chonestoma' and 'Olivacea' unknowns.

 

Ocellularia jamesii (Patw. & C.R.Kulk.) D.D.Awasthi, Biblioth. Lichenol. 40: 3. 1991.

Leptotrema Jamesii Patw. & C.R.Kulk., Norweg. J. Bot. 24: 131. 1997.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Udupi), endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Ocellularia karnatakensis  Hale, Mycotaxon 7(2): 378. 1978.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga, Uttara Kannada), endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: 'Chonestoma' unknown.

 

Ocellularia mahabalei (Patw. & C.R.Kulk.) D.D. Awasthi, Biblioth. Lichenol.: 40: 3. 1991.

Thelotrema mahabalei Patw. & C.R.Kulk., Norweg. J. Bot. 24: 128. 1977.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru), Kerala; endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

            Ocellularia papillata (Leight.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 2: 597. 1923.

Thelotrema papillatum Leight., Trans. Linn. Soc. London. 27: 169. 1869.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga, Udupi, Uttara Kannada), Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Dominica, New Caledonia, Panama, Philippines, Sri Lanka, West indies.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Ocellularia patwardhanii Hale, Mycotaxon 7(2): 379. 1978.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga), Kerala; endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous or saxicolous.

Chemistry : Norstictic acid and an unidentified pigment.

 

Ocellularia perforata (Leight.) Müll.Arg., Hedwigia 31: 284. 1892.

Thelotrema perforatum Leight., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 25: 447. 1866.

Ocellularia subperforata Nagarkar, Sethy & Patw., Biovigyanam 14(1) : 36. 1987.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga, Udupi), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Assam, Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Brazil, Dominica, Hawaii Islands, Indonesia, Panama, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, West Indies.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Protocetraric acid (major), ± virensic acid (minor or trace).

 

Ocellularia pluripora Hale, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Bot. 8(3): 319. 1981.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Dakshina  Kannada); Sri Lanka.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Psoromic acid.

 

Ocellularia terebrata (Ach.) Müll.Arg., Flora 70: 398. 1887.

Thelotrema terebratum Ach., Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Nya. Handl. 33: 88. 1812.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Dakshina  Kannada), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Maharashtra, Kerala, Tamil Nadu; S America, tropical  Africa, Pacific region.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Psoromic acid (major), 2-O-demethylpsoromic acid (minor),  ± subpsoromic acid (minor).

 

Ocellularia thelotremoides (Leight.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 2: 603. 1923.

Ascidium thelotremoides Leight., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 27: 170. 1870.

Thelotrema thelotremoides (Leight.) Hale in Patwardhan & Kulkarni, Kavaka 5: 13. 1977.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Kerala, Manipur, Tamil Nadu, Sri Lanka, Thailand.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Fumarprotocetraric and protocetraric acids.

 

Ocellularia udupiensis Patw., Sethy & Nagarkar, Biovigyanam 11(2): 135. 1985.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Udupi), endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: An unknown substance.

 

Ocellularia verrucomarginata Patw., Sethy & Nagarkar, Biovigyanam 11(2): 135. 1985.

Distribution:Karnataka  (Shivamogga), endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: 'Chonestoma' and 'olivacea' unknowns.       

 

 

Pallidogramme Staiger

 

Pallidogramme awasthii (Patw. & C.R.  Kulk.) Kr. P. Singh & Pushpi Singh

Phaeographina awasthii Patw. & C.R.Kulk., Norweg. J. Bot. 26: 49. 1979.

Distribution:Karnataka  (Chamarajanagara), Kerala, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal;

endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Phaeographina Müll.Arg.

 

Phaeographina  is now an illegitimate name (Lücking et al. 2007). Therefore, all the following four species have to be transferred to other genera after examination of types. Since type specimens have not been examined so far, these species for time being are accommodated under the genus Phaeographina.

 

Phaeographina canarensis Patw. & C.R.Kulk., Indian J. Bot. 2(2): 135. 1979.

Distribution:Karnataka  (Kodagu, Udupi, Uttara Kannada); endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Norstictic acid.

 

Phaeographina coorgiana Patw. & C.R.Kulk., Norweg. J. Bot. 26(1): 50. 1979.   

Distribution:Karnataka  (Kodagu), Kerala; endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Phaeographina limbata  Müll.Arg., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 30: 461. 1895.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Kerala, Sikkim;Africa.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Phaeographina nakanishii Patw. & Nagarkar, Biovigyanam 5: 136. 1979.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), West Bengal;endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Stictic, norstictic and trace of salazinic acids.

 

Phaeographis Müll.Arg.

 

Phaeographis intricans (Nyl.) Staiger, Biblioth. Lichenol. 85: 329. 2002.

 Graphis intricans Nyl., Acta Soc. Sci. Fenn. 7: 473. 1863.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Kerala, Nagaland and Tamil Nadu; Australia,Brazil,Colombia,CostaRica,Ecuador,Indonesia,NewZealand,SriLanka and Thailand; Africa

 Chemistry: Stictic, constictic and norstictic acids.

 

Phaeographis nilgiriensis Kr.P.Singh & D.D.Awasthi, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 21 (1-4): 105. 1979.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Tamil Nadu, Sikkim;endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

 

Phaeographis subdividens (Leight.) Müll.Arg., Flora 65: 383. 1882.

Graphis subdividens Leight., Trans. Linn. Soc. London  27: 177. 1869.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala; Australia, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Phaeographis submaculata Zahlbr., Ann. Mycol. 30: 433. 1932

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Kodagu), Kerala, Tamil Nadu; China.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Norstictic acid.

 

Phaeographis submarcescens (Leight.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 2:387.1923.

Graphis submarcescens Leight., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 27: 178. 1869.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), West Bengal; Sri Lanka.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Stictic acid.

 

Platygramme Fée

 

Platygramme caesiopruinosa (Fée) Fée, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 21: 30. 1874.

Arthonia caesiopruinosa Fée, Essai Crypt. Ecorc. Suppl.: 36, tab. 40. 1837.

Phaeographina caesiopruinosa (Fée.) Müll.Arg., Mem. Soc. Phys. Genève 29(8): 49. 1887.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chamrajanagar, Hassan), Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Kerala, Manipur, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal; Pantropical.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: An unknown substance.

 

Platygramme platyloma (Müll.Arg.) M.Nakan. & Kashiw., Bull. Natn. Sci. Mus. Tokyo, B, 29(2): 89. 2003.

Phaeographina platyloma  Müll.Arg., Flora 65: 398. 1882.

Phaeographina pudica var. platyloma (Müll.Arg.) Redinger, Rev. Bryol. Lichénol. 9: 97. 1936.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Odisha; Australia, Indonesia, Japan.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Platygramme wattiana (Müll.Arg.) V.Tewari & Upreti, Indian J. Forest. 31(3): 458. 2008.

Phaeographina wattiana Müll.Arg., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 29: 227. 1892.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Assam, Kerala, Manipur, Sikkim; endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Platythecium Staiger

 

Platythecium colliculosum (Mont.) Staiger, Biblioth. Lichenol. 85: 380.  2002.

Sclerophyton colliculosum Mont., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., 16: 61. 1851.

Graphina colliculosa (Mont.) Hale, Lich. Amer. Exsicc. No. 156. 1976.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Western Ghats), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Kerala; Brazil, Dominica, Fiji, Hongkong, Indonesia, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Vanuatu.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Salazinic acid.

 

Platythecium grammitis (Fée) Staiger, Biblioth. Lichenol. 85: 385. 2002.

Graphis grammitis Fée, Essai Crypt. Ecorc. : 47, tab. 11, fig. 3. 1824.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Western Ghats), Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Pantropical

Habitat:Corticolous.

 

Sarcographa Fée

 

Sarcographa labyrinthica  (Ach.) Müll.Arg., Mem. Soc. Phys. Genève  29(8): 62. 1887.

Glyphis labyrinthica Ach., Syn. Meth. Lich.: 107. 1814.

Distribution:   Karnataka (Shivamogga), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Arunanchal Pradesh, Assam, Kerala; Pantropical.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Stictic, constictic and norstictic acids.

 

Stegobolus Mont.

 

Stegobolus berkeleyanus Mont. in Hook., London J. Bot.  4: 4. 1845.

Ocellularia berkeleyana (Mont.) Zahlbr. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam.  Teil 1, Abt 1: 118. 1905.   

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Kerala; Australasia S  America.Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Psoromic acid (major), subpsoromic acid (minor), 2-O-demethylpsoromic acid (minor), and an unknown substance.

 

Thecaria Fée

 

Thecaria austroindica (D.D.Awasthi & Upreti) Kr.P.Singh & G.P.Sinha, Indian Lich. Annot. Check List: 424. 2010.

Lopadium austroindicum D.D.Awasthi & Upreti, Curr. Sci. 50(18): 822. 1981.

Phaeographina austroindica (D.D.Awasthi & Upreti) Kr.P. Singh, Curr. Sci. 52(4): 165. 1983.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Bengaluru UD, Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Assam; endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

 

Thecaria quassiicola Fée, Meth. Lichenogr. Gen. : 92, tab. 1, fig. 16. 1824.

Fissurina quassiaecola Fée, Essai Crypt. Ecorc. : 92. 1824.

Phaeographina quassiaecola (Fée.) Müll.Arg., Mem. Soc. Phys. Genève  29(8): 47. 1887.

Distribution: Karnataka (Belagavi, Chamarajnagar, Chikkamagaluru, Hassan, Kodagu, Shivamogga, Uttara Kannada), Assam, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal; Australia, Brazil, Indonesia, Japan, Madagascar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

 

Thelotrema Ach.

 

Thelotrema albo-olivaceum Vain., Mycologia 21: 38. 1929.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga); Pantropical.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Stictic and constictic acids; constictic and stictic (majors), α-

                  acetylconstictic and cryptostictic (traces) acids.

 

Thelotrema albidopallens Nyl., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, ser. 2, 7: 168. 1873.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Andaman & Nicobar Islands and Western Ghats ;endemic

Habitat:Corticolous.

 

Thelotrema armellense Patw., Sethy & Nagarkar, Biovigyanam 11(2): 136. 1985.   

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Uttara Kannada), endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Thelotrema bicinctulum Nyl., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 4, 15: 46. 1861.

Thelotrema terebrans Nyl., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, ser. 2, 7: 166. 1873.

Ocellularia terebrans (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 2: 602. 1923.

Myriotrema terebrans (Nyl.) Hale, Mycotaxon 11: 135. 1980.

Distribution:   Karnataka*, Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu Africa, Australia, New Caledonia, Sri Lanka.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemsitry: Stictic and constictic acids; stictic (major), constictic, hypostictic (minor

                  to trace), α-acetylconstictic, hypoconstictic, cryptostictic and α-

                 acetylhypoconstictic (traces) acids.

 

Thelotrema canarense Patw. & C.R.Kulk., Norweg. J. Bot. 24: 128. 1977.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Dakshina  Kannada); Tanzania.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Norstictic acid (trace).

 

Thelotrema confertum Nagarkar, Sethy & Patw.,  Kavaka 12(2): 58. 1985.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Udupi), endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

 

Thelotrema glaucopallesens Nyl., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. ser. 4, 19: 327. 1863. 1923; Patw.  & C.R. Kulk., Kavaka 5: 12. 1977.

 

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Uttara Kannada), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands; Philippines, S America, tropical Africa.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Stictic  acid (major), α-acetylconstictic acid (minor), constictic acid

                   (minor), ± consalazinic acid (minor), ± additional traces in the

                   stictic acid chemosyndrome.

 

Thelotrema hiatum Hale, Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 38: 44. 1978.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Udupi); Panama.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Thelotrema kamatii (Patw. & Kulkarni) Hale,  Mycotaxon 6: 8. 1980.

Ocellularia kamatii Patw. & C.R.Kulk., Norweg. J. Bot. 24: 130. 1977.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Dakshina Kannada, Shivamogga, Uttara Kannada), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Kerala; Sri Lanka.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Thelotrema laceratulum Müll.Arg., Flora 70: 399. 1887.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Belagavi, Chikkamagaluru), Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu; Australia, Sri Lanka.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Thelotrema lepademersum Nagarkar, Sethy & Patw.,  Kavaka 12(2): 59. 1985.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), endemic.

 Habitat:Corticolous.

 

Thelotrema lepadinum (Ach.) Ach., Methodus: 132. 1803.

Lichen lepadinus Ach., Lichenogr. Suec. Prodr. : 30. 1798.

Distribution:   Karnataka (Uttara Kannada), Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Cosmopolitan.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances. Sometimes a yellow pigment present.

 

Thelotrema leprocarpoides Hale, Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Bot. 8(3): 259. 1981.

Chapsa leprocarpoides (Hale) Câceres & Lücking, Libri Bot. 22: 52. 2007.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga, Uttara Kannada).  Sri Lanka.

Habitat:Corticolous.

 

Thelotrema monosporum Nyl., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., ser. 4, 15: 46. 1860.

Thelotrema disciforme Leight., Trans. Linn. Soc. London  27: 170. t. 36, f.8. 1869.

Leptotrema monosporum (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belgique 31: 35. 1892.

Phaeotrema disciforme (Leight) Hale, Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 16: 29. 1974.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Belagavi, Shivamogga), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu; Palaeotropical.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Thelotrema porinoides Mont. & Bosch, Pl. Jungh. 4: 484. 1855.

Lecidea stictidea Nyl., Flora 49: 290. 1866.

Ocellularia albidiformis (Leight.) Zahlbr., Ann.  Mycol. 14: 50. 1916.

Ocellularia porinoides (Mont. & Bosch) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 2: 599. 1923.

Ocellularia stictidea (Nyl.) Vězda in Gilenstar, Ark. Bot., ser. 2, 7: 177. 1969.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga), Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Palaeotropical.

Chemistry: Stictic acid (major) and hypostictic acid (minor to trace); constictic,

                   stictic (majors), hypostictic (minor), hypoconstictic, cryptostictic and α-.

                   acetylhypoconstictic (traces) acids  

 

Thelotrema pycnoporellum Nyl.,  Flora 59: 562. 1876.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru); Cuba, Panama.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Thelotrema subtile Tuck., Amer. J. Sci. Arts, ser. 2, 25:

 426. 1858.

Ocellularia subtilis (Tuck.) Riddle, Mycologia 15: 79. 1923.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru), Maharashtra;Cosmopolitan.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Thelotrema tuberculiferum Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 6(7): 136. 1915.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Uttara Kannadaa), Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Antilles.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

Haematommaceae

Haematomma A. Massal.

 

Haematomma puniceum (Sw.) A.Massal., Atti Reale Ist. Veneto Sci. Lett. Arti, ser. 3, 5: 253. 1860.

Lichen punicens Sw. in Acharius, Methodus : 167. 1803.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Bangaluru UD), Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal; Pantropical.

Habitat:Corticolous.

 

Lecanographaceae

Heterocyphelium Vain.

 

Heterocyphelium leucampyx (Tuck.) Vain., Acta Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 57(1): 16. 1927.

Trachylia leucampyx Tuck., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts  5: 390. 1862.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Belagavi, Shivamogga); Australia, Africa, S America, Thailand.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Zwackhia Körb.

 

Zwackhia robusta (Vain.) Ertz, in Diederich, Ertz, Eichler, Cezanne, Boom, Fischer, Killmann, Van den Broeck & Sérusiaux, Bull. Soc. Nat. luxemb. 113: 106 (2012)

Opegrapha  robusta Vain., Bot. Tidsskr. 29:137 1909.

Distribution: Karnataka(Uttara Kannada), Andaman  & Nicobar Islands; Australia Indonesia,Malaysia, Papua new guinea,Thailand, Philippines, Solomon islands.

Habitat : Corticolous.

Chemistry: Confluentic acid (major).

 

Zwackhia viridis (Ach.) Poetsch & Schied., Syst. Aufzä. samenlos. Pflanzen (Krypt.): 186 .1872.

Opegrapha viridis (Pers. ex Ach.) Nyl., Lich. Scand.: 256. 1861.

Opergrapha rubella var.  viridis Pers. ex Ach., Methodus: 22. 1803.

Distribution:   Karnataka(Shivamogga), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands and Uttarakhand; Europe.

Habitat: Corticolous

 

 

Lecnoraceae

Lecanora Ach.

 

Lecanora albella (Pers.) Ach., Lichenogr. Universalis : 369. 1810.

Lichen albellus Pers.,  Ann. Bot. (Usteri) 5: 18. 1794.

Lichen pallidus Schreb., Spic. Fl. Lips.: 133. 1771.

Lecanora pallida (Schreb.) Rabenh., Deutschl. Krypt. -Fl. 2: 34. 1845.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Bengaluru UD), Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand; temperate regions of the world.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin (major), chloroatranorin (minor), connorstictic acid (minor or

                  absent), conprotocetraric acid (minor), consalazinic acid (minor or absent),

                  constictic acid (minor or absent), norstictic acid (major or absent),

                   protocetraric acid (major), salazinic acid (major or absent), stictic

                  acid (major), virensic acid (major or absent).

 

Lecanora chlarotera Nyl., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, ser. 2, 6: 274. 1872.

Distribution: Karnataka (Bengaluru UD), Jammu & Kashmir, Maharashtra, Manipur, Nagaland, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal; Americas, Asia, Europe.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin.

 

Lecanora cinereofusca H.Magn., Acta Horti Gothob. 7: 86. 1932.

var. cinereofusca

Distribution: Karnataka (Bengaluru UD), Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand; Americas.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin; pannarin, placodialic and roccellic acids.

 

var. himalayensis Upreti, Bryologist 101(2): 258. 1998.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (), Himachal Pradesh, Tamil Nadu,Uttarakhand; endemic.

Habitat:Saxicolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin, pannarin and unknown substances.

 

Lecanora fimbriatula Stirt., Proc. Roy. Soc. Glasgow 11: 311. 1879. Upreti & Chatterjee, Feddes Repert. 108: 578. 1997.

Distribution:   Karnataka*, Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Himachal Pradesh, Maharshtra, Sikkim,Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand; Bhutan, Nepal.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin and 2'-O- methyperlatolic acid.

 

Lecanora flavidomarginata de Lesd., Lich. Mexicque: 14. 1914. Upreti, Feddes Repert. 108: 190. 1997.

Distribution:   Karnataka*, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand; Americas, Asia, Australia, Mexico, New Zealand.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin and zeorin.

 

Lecanora indica  Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 5: 626. 1928. Upreti & Chatterjee, Feddes Repert. 109: 285. 1998.

Placodium demissum  Stirt., Proc. Roy. Soc. Glasgow 11: 311. 1897.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Bengaluru UD, Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga) Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand , West Bengal; Nepal.

Habitat:Saxicolous.

Chemistry: Usnic acid and zeorin.

 

 

Lecanora iseana  Räsänen, J.  Jap. Bot. 16: 91. 1940.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Bengaluru UD,Dakshina  Kannada), Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand , West Bengal; Japan, Nepal.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin and zeorin.

 

Lecanora leprosa  Fée, Essai Crypt. Ecorc.: 118. 1824. Upreti, Feddes Repert. 108: 193. 1997.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Bengaluru UD, Tumkur), Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand; Bhutan; Africa,  Americas, Asia, Austalasia, Pacific Islands.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin and gangaleoidin.

 

Lecanora perplexa Brodo, Beih. Nova Hedwigia 79: 148-150. 1984.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Bengaluru UD ,Shivamogga)), Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Jammu & Kashmir, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand; Nepal.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin and zeorin.

              

Lecanora pseudistera Nyl., Flora 55: 354. 1872; Upreti, Bryologist 101(2): 259.  1998.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Bengaluru UD), Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand; cosmopolitan.

Chemistry: Atranorin (major), chloroatranorin (minor), 2-O-methylperlatolic acid

                 (major), 2-O-methylisohyperlatolic acid (minor), 2-O-methylsuperlatolic

                  acid (minor). 

Habitat:Saxicolous.

 

Lecanora pulicaris (Pers.) Ach., Syn. Meth. Lich.: 336. 1814.

Patellaria pulicaris Pers., Ann. Wetterauischen Ges. Gesammte Naturk 2(1): 13. 1810.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Bengaluru UD), Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Nagaland, Tamil Nadu, Odisha,West Bengal; temperate regions of the world.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin, fumarprotocetraric acid and  an unknown substance.

 

Lecanora subimmersa ( Fée)  Vain., Acta Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 74: 98. 1890; Upreti, Bryologist 101(2): 261. 1998.

            Lecidea subimmersa  Fée, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 20: 315. 1873.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Mandya), Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha,  Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand; Australia, C & S America, Nepal, Thailand.

            Habitat:Saxicolous

            Chemistry: Atranorin, zeorin, chloroatranorin and an unknown substance.

 

Lecanora subrugosa Nyl., Flora 58: 15. 1875.

Distribution:   Karnataka (Bengaluru UD) , Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal; Nepal, Sweden.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin and gangaleoidin.

 

Lecanora sulphurescens  Fée, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 20: 313. 1873.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Mandya) Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal;Pantropical.

            Habitat:Saxicolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin, chloroatranorin and gangaleoidin.

 

Lecanora tropica Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 5: 589. 1928.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Bengaluru UD), Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Sikkim,Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal; Australia, Japan, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, Thailand, tropical America.

Habitat:Saxicolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin, chodatin, demethylchodatin, chloroatranorin, thiophanic acid and Zeorin.

 

Letrouitiaceae

Letrouitia Hafellner & Bellem.

 

Letrouitia domingensis (Pers.) Hafellner & Bellem., Nova Hedwigia 35: 281. 1982.

Patellaria domingensis Pers., Ann. Wetterauisch  Gesammte Ges. Naturk. 2: 12. 1810.

Bombyliospora domingensis (Pers.) Zahlbr. in Wawra & Beck, Itin. Princ. S. Coburgi 2: 153. 1888.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga district, Mattikoppa), Andhra Pradesh, Arunanchal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal; tropical region of the world.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Unidentified substances.

 

Letrouitia muralis Hafellner, Nova Hedwigia 35: 695. 1983.

Distribution:   Karnataka  and Tamil Nadu; Australia, Philippines; Africa.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Zeorin and an unidentifed substance.

 

Letrouitia transgressa (Malme) Hafellner & Bellem. in Hafellner, Nova Hedwigia 35: 710. 1983.

Bombyliospora domingensis f. transgressa Malme, Ark. Bot. 18(12): 5. 1923.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Andhra Pradesh, Arunanchal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Nagaland, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; Australia, Nepal; S America, SE Asia.

Habitat:Corticolous.

 

Letrouitia vulpina (Tuck.) Hafellner & Bellem., Nova Hedwigia 35: 281. 1982.

Lecidea vulpina Tuck. in Nylander, Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., ser. 4, 19: 354. 1863.

Lopadium vulpinum (Tuck.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 4: 316. 1926.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Dakshina  Kannada, Kodagu, Uttara Kannada), Andaman &Nicobar Islands, Manipur, Nagaland, Tamil Nadu; Pantropical.

Habitat:Corticolous.

 

Lichinaceae

Phylliscum Nyl.

           

Phylliscum indicum Upreti, Curr. Sci. 57: (16): 906. 1988.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Hassan, Mandya, Mysuru, Tumkur), Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh;endemic.

Habitat:Calcicolous.

 

Phylliscum tenue Henssen, Svensk Bot. Tridskr. 57: 152. 1963.

Distribution:   Karnataka  ( Belagavi);western N America.

Habitat:Saxicolous.

 

Phylliscum testudineum Henssen, Svensk  Bot. Tidskr. 57(2): 153. 1963.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Bellari), Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu; Brazil.

Habitat:Saxicolous.

 

Lobariaceae

Lobaria (Schreb.) Hoffm.

Lichen sect. Lobaria Schreb.

 

Lobaria quercizans Michx., Fl. Bor.-Amer., ed. 2: 324. 1803.

Distribution:   Karnataka (Shivamogga), Kerala, Uttarakhand; Bhutan; E Asia, Eastern N  America.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Gyrophoric acid.

 

Pseudocyphellaria Vain., nom. cons.

 

Pseudocyphellaria aurata (Ach.) Vain., Acta Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 7: 183. 1890.

Sticta aurata Ach., Methodus: 277. 1803.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala, Manipur, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand; Cosmopolitan.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Calycin and triterpenoids.

 

Lopadiaceae

Lopadium Körb., nom. cons. 

                                                                                            

Lopadium coorgianum Patw. & Makhija, Indian  J. Bot. 4(1): 22. 1981.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Kodagu); endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Malmideaceae

Malmidea Kalb, Rivas Plata & Lumbsch.

 

Malmidea granifera (Ach.) Kalb, Rivas Plata & Lumbsch Biblioth. Lichenol. 106: 165. 2011.

Lecanora granifera Ach., Syn. Lich.: 163. 1814.

Lecidea granifera (Ach.) Vain. In Hiern & al., Cat. Afr. Pl. 2(2): 424. 1901.

Distribution: Karnataka (Uttara Kannada), Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal; Pantropical.

Habitat:Corticolous.

 

Megalosporaceae

Megalospora Meyen

 

Megalospora sulphurata Meyen in Meyen & Flotow, Nov. Actorum Acad. Caes. Leop. –Carol. Nat. Cur. 19 (Suppl.):  228. 1843.

Distribution:   Karnataka*,  Kerala; tropical and subtropical regions.

            Habitat:Corticolous

Chemistry: Usnic acid and zeorin.

 

Megalospora tuberculosa (Fée) Sipman, Biblioth. Lichenol. 18: 156. 1983.

Lecidea tuberculosa Fée, Essai Crypt. Ecorc.: 107, tab. 27, fig.1. 1824.

Bombyliospora tuberculosa (Fée)  A.Massal., Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 116. 1852;

Bombyliospora laevigata  D.D.Awasthi & M.R.Agarwal, Canad. J. Bot. 46: 1029. 1968.

Distribution:   Karnataka (Shivamogga) , Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal; Pantropical

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Usnic acid and zeorin.

           

Megasporaceae

Aspicilia  A.Massal., nom. cons.

 

Aspicilia cinerea (L.) Körb., Syst. Lich. Germ.: 164. 1855.

Lichen cinereus L., Mantissa Pl. 1: 132. 1767.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Bengaluru UD), Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, tropics and subtropics.

Habitat:Saxicolous.

Chemistry: Norstictic, stictic, constictic acids.

 

            Monoblastiaceae

Anisomeridium (Müll.Arg.) M.Choisy, nom. cons

 

Anisomeridium biforme (Borrer) R.C.Harris in Vězda, Lich. Sel. Exicc. Fasc. 61, 1503. 1978

Verrucaria biformis Borrer in Hooker & Sowerby, Engl. Bot. Suppl. 1, t.2617, f. 4. 1831.

Verrucaria alboatra Kremp. in Nylander, Flora 50: 8. 1867.

Arthopyrenia alboatra (Kremp.) Müll.Arg., Flora 66: 306. 1883.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, West Bengal; Australia, Europe, N America, Papua New Guinea SE Asia.

Habitat:Corticolous.

 

Anisomeridium complanatum (Makhija & Patw.) R.C.Harris, More Florida Lichens : 145. 1995.

Ditremis complanata Makhija & Patw., Biovigyanam  16: 15. 1990.

Pleurotrema complantum (Makhija & Patw.) D.D.Awasthi,  Lichenol. Indian Subcontinent: 16. 2000.

Ditremis muelleri Makhija & Patw., Biovigyanam 16: 20. 1990.

Pleurotrema muelleri (Makhija & Patw.) D.D.Awasthi, Lichenol. Indian Subcontinent: 16. 2000.

Ditremis harrisii Makhija & Patw., Biovigyanam 16: 17. 1990.

Pleurotrema harrisii (Makhija & Patw.) D.D.Awasthi, Lichenol. Indian Subcontinent: 16. 2000.

Ditremis karnatakensis Makhija & Patw., Biovigyanam 16: 18. 1990.

Pleurotrema karnatakense (Makhija & Patw.) D.D.Awasthi, Lichenol. Indian Subcontinent: 16. 2000.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Hassn, Kodagu, Koppal, Shivamogga,  Bengaluru RD, Uttara Kannada), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Kerala and Tamil Nadu; endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

 

            Anisomeridium immersum (Makhija & Patw.) R.C.Harris, More Florida Lichens: 147. 1995.

            Ditremis  immersa Makhija & Patw., Biovigyanam 16: 17. 1990.

            Pleurotrema immersum (Makhija & Patw.) D.D.Awasthi, Lichenol. Indian Subcontinent: 16. 2000.

            Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga, Udupi), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Kerala; endemic. 

Habitat:Corticolous.

 

            Anisomeridium indicum (Makhija & Patw.) R.C.Harris, More Florida Lichens: 147. 1995

            Ditremis indica Makhija & Patw., Biovigyanam 16: 18. 1990.

            Pleurotrema indicum (Makhija & Patw.) D.D.Awasthi, Lichenol. Indian Subcontinent: 16. 2000.

            Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Maharashtra; endemic. 

            Habitat:Corticolous.

 

            Anisomeridium monosporum (Makhija & Patw.) R.C.Harris, More Florida Lichens : 148. 1995.

Ditremis monospora Makhija & Patw., Biovigyanam 16: 20. 1990.

Pleurotrema monosporum (Makhija & Patw.) D.D.Awasthi, Lichenol. Indian Subcontinent: 16. 2000.

Distribution:  Karnataka  (Chikkamaguluru); endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

 

Anisomeridium subnexum (Nyl.) R.C.Harris, More Florida Lich.: 150. 1995.

Verrucaria subnexa Nyl., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, ser.  2, 7: 181. 1873.

Arthopyrenia subnexa (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Hedwigia 30: 188. 1891.

Distribution: Karnataka (Shivamogga), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Madhya Pradesh; endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

 

Anisomeridium terminatum (Nyl.) R.C.Harris, More Florida Lichens: 130. 1995.

Verrucaria terminata Nyl., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, ser. 2, 7: 180. 1873.

Verrucaria interspersa  Nyl., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, ser. 2, 7: 181. 1873.

Arthopyrenia terminata (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Flora 73: 345. 1890.

Porina interspersa (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 387. 1922.

Anisomeridium interspersum (Nyl.) Makhija, Adaw. & Patw., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 18(3): 544. 1994.

Distribution: Karnataka (Dakshin Kannada, Shivamogga, Uttara Kannadaa), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Goa, Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Australia, Caribbean islands, Cuba, USA.

Habitat:Corticolous.

 

Mycosphaerelliaceae

Stigmidium Trevis

 

Stigmidium allogenum (Nyl.) D. Hawksw., Kew Bull. 30(1): 201.1975.

Verrucaria innata Nyl., Expos. Syn. Pyrenocarp. : 39. 1858.

Verrucaria allogena Nyl., Flora, Regensburg 48: 357.1865.

Sphaerella psorae Anzi, Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. (Modena) 11: 27. 1868.

Arthopyrenia allogena (Nyl.) Arnold, Flora 53 : 484. 1870.

Sphaerella innata (Nyl.) Arnold, Flora, Regensburg 53: 488.1870.

Arthopyrenia innata (Nyl.) Arnold, Flora, Regensburg 57: 139.1874.
Porina innata (Nyl.)  Müll.Arg., Flora 65: 517. 1882.

Porina innata (Nyl.) Müll. Arg., Flora, Regensburg 65(no. 33): 517.1882.

Metasphaeria psorae (Anzi) Sacc., Syll. fung. (Abellini) 2: 183.1883.

Arthopyrenia psorae (Anzi) Müll. Arg., Revue mycol., Toulouse 6(no.
21): 15.1884.
Pharcidia psorae (Anzi) G. Winter, Rabenh. Krypt.-Fl., Edn 2 (Leipzig)
1.2: 345.1885.

Pharcidia allogena (Nyl.) Sacc. & D. Sacc., Syll. fung. (Abellini) 17:
648 .1905.

Pharcidia innata (Nyl.) Sacc. & D. Sacc., Syll. fung. (Abellini) 17: 647. 1905.

Endococcus psorae (Anzi) H. Olivier, Bull. Acad. Intern. Géogr. Bot.
17: 127. 1907.
Pharcidia allogena f. innata (Nyl.) Keissl., Rabenh. Krypt.-Fl., Edn 2
(Leipzig) 8: 363. 1930.
Stigmidium psorae (Anzi) Hafellner in Vězda, Lichenes Selecti Exsiccati, Fascicle 79 (Průhonice): 7, no. 1975 .1984.

Distribution:Karnataka  (Bangaluru UD, Chikkamangulur, Shivamogga,  Udupi), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Mauritius, Sri Lanka.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Naetrocymbaceae

Naetrocymbe Körb.

 

Naetrocymbe fraxini (A.Massal.) R.C.Harris, More Florida Lichens :  62. 1995.

Arthopyrenia fraxini A.Massal., Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost. : 167, f. 333. 1852.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Kerala; Europe, N America.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Note: The occurrence of this species in India is doubtful (Harris, l.c.).

 

Naetrocymbe punctiformis (Pers.) R.C.Harris, More Florida Lichens : 63. 1995.

Verrucaria punctiformis Pers., Ann. Bot. (Usteri) 11: 19. 1794.

Arthopyrenia punctiformis  auct., non A.Massal., 1852.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Cosmopolitan.

Habitat:Corticolous.

 

Ochrolechiaceae

Ochrolechia A.Massal.

 

Ochrolechia africana Zahlbr. in Engler, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 60: 504. 1926.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Bengaluru UD, Chikkamagaluru, Tumkur), Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu;tropical and subtropical areas.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Cortex with lichexanthone (major), atranorin (± trace); apothecia with

                  gyrophoric acid (major), lecanoric acid (trace).

 

Ochrolechia androgyna (Hoffm.) Arnold,  Flora 68: 236. 1855.

Lichen androgynus Hoffm., Enum. Lich.: 56. 1784.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Madhya Pradesh; boreal to arctic circumpolar with a notable disjunct south western population especially along the Sierra Nevada mountains.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Gyrophoric acid.

 

Ochrolechia subpallescens Verseghy,  Beih. Nova Hedwigia 1: 118. 1962.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Bengaluru UD, Chikkamagaluru), Tamil Nadu; Australia, Brazil;  Asia, N America. 

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Gyrophoric acid, lecanoric acid along with other compounds.

 

Ochrolechia subviridis (Hoeg) Erichsen, Verh. Bot. Vereins Prov. Brandenburg 72: 3. 1930; Nayaka & Upreti, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 26(3): 635. 2002.

            Pertusaria subviridis Hoeg, Nyt Mag. Naturvidensk. 61: 150. 1924.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Central European mountains extending south to Corisca and Maderia.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Gyrophoric and lecanoric acids.

 

Varicellaria Nyl.

 

Varicellaria velata (Turner) Schmitt& Lumbsch, Myco Keys, 4:31. 2012.

Pertusaria velata (Turner) Nyl., Lich. Scand.: 179. 1861.

Parmelia velata Turner, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 9: 143. 1806.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Nagaland and Tamil Nadu; Cosmopolitan.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Lecanoric acid; lecanoric acid (major), gyrophoric acid (trace), orsellinic

                   acid (trace), ± lichexanthone (trace to major) by Archer (1997, p. 216).

 

Opergraphaceae

Opergrapha Ach., nom. cons. 

 

Opergrapha leptoterodes Nyl., Acta Soc. Sci. Fenn. 26(10): 18. 1900.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Western Ghats), Tamil Nadu, West Bengal; Sri Lanka.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Opegrapha subvulgata Nyl., Flora 52: 71. 1869.

Distribution:   Karnataka(Shivamogga), Lakshadweep Islands, West Bengal; New Caledonia.

Habitat: Corticolous.

.

Opegrapha vulgata (Ach.) Ach., Methodus: 20. 1803; 21. 1798.

Lichen vulgatus Ach. Lichenogr. Suec. Prodr.: 21.1798.

Opegrapha cinerea Chevall., J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. Arts 96: 41. 1822; Upreti & Ajay Singh, Cryptog. Bryol. Lichénol. 8(4): 294. 1987.

Opegrapha longula Nyl., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, ser. 2, 7: 171. 1873.

Distribution: India (Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Assam, Karnataka Tamil Nadu and West Bengal  -plains), Papua New Guinea, Singapore; Africa.

Chemistry: No lichen substances or yellow to orange unidentified substance .

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Pannariaceae

Lepidocollema Vain.

 

Lepidocollema fuscatum (P.M. Jørg.) P.M. Jørg., in Ekman, Wedin, Lindblom & Jørgensen, Lichenologist 46(5): 650 (2014)

Parmeliella fuscata P.M.Jørg., Bryologist 106(1): 123. 2003.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Peninsular India; endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Lepidocollema stylophorum (Vain.) P.M. Jørg., in Ekman, Wedin, Lindblom & Jørgensen, Lichenologist 46(5): 651 (2014)

Parmeliella stylophora (Vain.) P.M.Jørg., Bryologist 103(4): 698. 2002.

Pannaria stylophora Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 6(7): 102. 1915.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Mexico, Philippines, USA (Florida), West Indies.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Parmeliaceae

Bulbothrix  Hale

 

Bulbothrix isidiza (Nyl.) Hale, Phytologia 28 : 480. 1974.

Parmelia isidiza Nyl. in Henriques, Bol. Soc. Brot. 3 : 130. 1884.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Bengaluru UD, Chikkabullapura, Chikkamagaluru, Kodagu, Koppa, Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Maharashtra, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal; Africa, Australia, C  and S America China, Japan, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, SE Asia.

Habitat:Corticolous, saxicolous and terricolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin and salazinic acid.

 

Bulbothrix setschwanensis (Zahlbr.) Hale, Phytologia 28:  480. 1974 & Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 32: 22. 1976.

Parmelia setchwanensis Zahlbr. in Handel-Mazzetti, Symb. Sin. 3: 182 & 189. 1930.

Distribution:Karnataka (Shivamogga), Arunanchal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Manipur, Nagaland, Sikkim, Uttarakhand, West Bengal; China, Nepal.

Habitat :Corticolous and saxicolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin and salazinic acid.

 

Bulbothrix tabacina  (Mont. & Bosch) Hale, Phytologia 28: 481.1974 & Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 32: 24. 1976.

Parmelia tabacina Mont. & Bosch, Syll. Gen. Sp. Crypt.: 327. 1856.

Distribution:Karnataka(Shivamogga), Nagaland; pantropical.

Habitat : Corticolous, rarely saxicolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin; salazinic and consalazinic acids. 

 

Canoparmelia Elix & Hale

 

Canoparmelia aptata (Kremp.) Elix & Hale in Elix, Johnston & Verdon, Mycotaxon 27 : 278. 1986.

Parmelia aptata  Kremp.  in Nylander, Flora 52 : 291. 1869.

Pseudoparmelia aptata (Kremp.) Hale, Phytologia 29: 189. 1974.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Belagavi), Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal; Africa, Australia, Indonesia, Japan, Nepal, Philippines.

Habitat:Corticolous and saxicolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin; perlatolic, stenosporic acids and an unidentified pigment.

 

Canoparmelia texana (Tuck.) Elix & Hale, Mycotaxon 27: 279. 1986.

Parmelia texana Tuck., Amer. J. Sci. Arts, ser. 2, 25: 424. 1858.

Pseudoparmelia texana (Tuck.) Hale, Phytologia, 28: 191. 1974.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Belagavi), Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand; pantropical and subtemperate regions of the world

Habitat:Corticolous, rarely saxicolous, in open forests.

Chemistry: Atranorin; divaricatic, nordivaricatic and stenosporic acids.

 

Hypotrachyna (Vain.) Hale

 

Hypotrachyna awasthii Hale & Patw., Bryologist 77: 637. 1974.

Parmelia awasthii (Hale & Patw.) D.D.Awasthi, Biol. Mem. 1: 165. 1976.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga), Kerala, Maharashtra, Manipur, Nagaland,Tamil Nadu; endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous, in open moist places.

Chemistry: Atranorin, salazinic and norstictic acids.

 

Hypotrachyna cirrhata (Fr.) Divakar & al.,  Phytotaxa 132(1): 31.2013.

Parmelia cirrhata Fr., Syst. Orb. Veg. 1: 383. 1825.

Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr.) Hale, Mycotaxon 3 : 347. 1976.

Cetrariastrum cirrhatum (Fr.) W.L.Culb., Bryologist 84 : 283. 1981.

Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr.) Hale ex Sipman, Mycotaxon 26 : 239. 1986.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Chikmagaluru), Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Himanchal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Kerala, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand and West Bengal; Bhutan, China, Japan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, C & S America.

Habitat: Corticolous, saxicolous and terricolous, in open and dense forest-hills.

Chemistry: Atranorin; protolichesterinic and salazinic acids.

 

Hypotrachyna coorgiana Patw. & A.V.Prabhu, Bryologist 80(2): 348. 1977.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Kodagu), Arunachal Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal; Thailand.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin and salazinic acid.

 

Hypotrachyna crenata (Kurok.) Hale, Phytologia 28: 341. 1974.

Parmelia crenata Kurok. in Hale & Kurokawa, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 36: 168. 1964.

Distribution: Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru, Kodagu, Shivamogga), Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal; Japan,Nepal, Taiwan, Thailand.

Habitat:Corticolous, muscicolous over rocks.

Chemistry: Atranorin; constictic, stictic and norstictic acids.

 

Hypotrachyna  nepalensis (Taylor) Divakar & al., Phytotaxa 132(1): 32.2013.

Parmelia nepalensis Taylor, London  J. Bot. 6: 172. 1847.

Cetrariastrum nepalense (Taylor) W.L.Culb., Bryologist 84: 301.1981.

Everniastrum nepalense (Taylor) Hale ex Sipman, Mycotaxon 26: 241. 1986.

Distribution:  Karnataka  (Chikmagaluru ), Arunanchal Pradesh, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal; Bhutan, Nepal;pantropical to temperate parts of Asia.

Habitat:Corticolous, rarely saxicolous and terricolous usually in alpine regions.

Chemistry: Atranorin; salazinic and protolichesterinic acids.

 

Hypotrachyna dodapetta Hale & Patw., Bryologist 77: 637. 1974.

Parmelia dodapetta (Hale & Patw.) D.D.Awasthi, Biol. Mem. 1: 171. 1976.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Kodagu), Tamil Nadu; endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin; salazinic acid and trace of norstictic acid.

 

Hypotrachyna expallida (Kurok.) Divakar & al.,  Phytotaxa 132(1): 33.2013.

Parmelia expallida Kurok., Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus. (Tokyo)  11: 191. 1968.

Parmelina expallida (Kurok.) Hale, Phytologia 28 : 482. 1974.

Parmelinopsis expallida (Kurok.) Elix & Hale, Mycotaxon 29 : 242. 1987.

Distribution:  Karnataka (Kodagu), Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand and West Bengal-hills; Japan, Nepal, Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin and  protolichesterinic acid.

 

Hypotrachyna infirma (Kurok.) Hale, Phytologia. 28: 341. 1974.

Parmelia infirma Kurok., Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 36: 179. 1964.

Distribution: Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru,Shivamogga), Arunanchal Pradesh, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal; Japan, Indonesia,  Nepal, Taiwan, Thailand.

Habitat:Corticolous and saxicolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin; caperatic and protolichesterinic acids.

 

Hypotrachyna masonhalei Patw. & A.V.Prabhu, Bryologist 80(2): 348. 1977.

Distribution: Karnataka (Uttara Kannada, Shivamogga)), Arunachal Pradesh and Maharashtra; Thailand.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin; salazinic and norstictic acids.

 

Hypotrachyna thryptica (Hale) Hale, Phytologia 28: 342. 1974.

Parmelia thryptica Hale, Bryologist 75: 99. 1972.

Distribution: Karnataka (Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu; endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous, rarely saxicolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin; stictic and constictic acids.

 

Myelochroa (Asahina) Elix & Hale

Parmelia sect. Hypotrachyna subsect. Myelochroa Asahina

 

Myelochroa perisidians  (Nyl.) Elix & Hale, Mycotaxon 29 : 241. 1987.

Parmelia perisidians Nyl., Acta  Soc. Sci. Fenn. 26 : 6, 1900.

Parmelina perisidians (Nyl.) Hale, Phytologia 28: 483. 1974.

Distribution: Karnataka  (), Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu; Japan, Sri Lank, Thailand.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin, leucotylin and Zeorin.

     

Myelochroa xantholepis (Mont. & Bosch) Elix & Hale, Mycotaxon 29 : 241. 1987.

Parmelia xantholepis Mont. & Bosch, Pl. Jungh.: 428. 1855.

Parmelina xantholepis (Mont. & Bosch) Hale, Phytologia 28 : 483. 1974.

Distribution: Karnataka*, Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala, Manipur, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal; tropical and temperate regions.

Habitat:Corticolous and saxicolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin, zeorin, leucotylin, leucotylic acid and secalonic acid A.

 

 

 

Parmelinella Elix & Hale

 

Parmelinella simplicior  (Hale) Elix & Hale, Mycotaxon 29: 242. 1987.

Parmelia simplicior Hale, Bryologist 75: 99. 1972.

Parmelina simplicior (Hale) Hale, Phytologia 28: 483. 1974; Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 33: 44. 1976.

Distribution: Karnataka (Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala,  Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu; E Africa.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin; salazinic acid.

 

Parmelinella wallichiana (Taylor) Elix & Hale, Mycotaxon 29: 242. 1987.

Parmelia wallichiana Taylor, London J. Bot. 6: 176. 1847.

Parmelina wallichiana  (Taylor)  Hale, Phytologia 28: 483. 1974.

Pseudoparmelia wallichiana (Taylor) Krog & Swinsow, Lichenologist 19: 424. 1987.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal; Australia; Africa, SE Asia.

Habitat:Corticolous, saxicolous and terricolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin, consalazinic acid and salazinic acid.

 

Parmotrema A.Massal.

 

Parmotrema andinum (Müll.Arg.) Hale, Phytologia 28 : 334, 1974.

Parmelia andina Müll.Arg., Rev. Mycol. (Toulouse) 1: 169.1869.

Distribution: Karnataka (Bengaluru UD, Hassan), Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand; Thailand; Africa, Asia, S America.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin, chloroatranorin, lecanoric acid and orsellinic acid (trace).

 

Parmotrema austrosinense (Zahlbr.) Hale, Phytologia 28 : 335. 1974.

Parmelia austrosinensis  Zahlbr., Symb. Sin. 3: 192. 1930.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Bengaluru UD, Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga, Dharwad), Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand; Americas, Australia, Bhutan, China, Indonesia, Japan, Nepal, Sri Lanka.

Habitat:Corticolous, rarely saxicolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin and lecanoric acid.                            

 

Parmotrema awasthii Divakar & Upreti, Lichenologist 35(1): 21. 2003.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru), endemic.

Habitat:Saxicolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin, alectoronic acid and a- collatolic acid.

 

      Parmotrema crinitum (Ach.) M.Choisy, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Soc. Bot. Lyon  21: 175. 1952.

Parmelia crinita Ach., Syn. Meth. Lich.: 196. 1814.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chamrajanagar, Shivamogga), Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand; Cosmopolitan.

Habitat:Corticolous, rarely terricolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin; stictic, constictic and norstictic acids.

 

Parmotrema cristiferum (Taylor) Hale, Phytologia 28 : 335. 1974.

Parmelia cristifera Taylor, London J. Bot. 6: 165. 1847.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Kerala, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Odisha, West Bengal;Pantropical.

Habitat:Corticolous and saxicolous.

Chemistry:  Atranorin; consalazinic and salazinic acids.

 

Parmotrema  grayanum (Hue) Hale, Phytologia 28 : 336. 1974.

Parmelia grayana Hue, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist., ser. 4, 1: 184.1899. 

Distribution: Karnataka  (Bengaluru UD, Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga), Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand; Pantropical.

Habitat:Saxicolous, rarely terricolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin, protolichesterinic acid and unknown fatty acids.

 

Parmotrema hababianum (Gyeln.) Hale, Phytologia 28 : 336. 1974.

Parmelia hababiana Gyeln., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 29: 288. 1931.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru district and Shivamogga districts, Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary and Hubse), Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Kerala, Manipur, Nagaland, Odisha,  Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand and West Bengal; Africa, Americas, China, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin and protolichesterinic acid.

 

Parmotrema kamatii Patw. & A.V.Prabhu, Bryologist 80(2): 350. 1977.

Distribution:  Karnataka*, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu; endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin; alectoronic and  a- collatolic acids.

 

Parmotrema margaritatum (Hue) Hale, Phytologia 28: 337. 1974.

Parmelia margaritata Hue, Nuov. Arch. Mus. Nat. Hist., ser. 4, 1: 193. 1899;

Distribution:  Karnataka  (Dharwad); USA.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin and salazinic acid.

 

Parmotrema mellissii (C.W.Dodge) Hale, Phytologia, 28 : 337. 1974.

Parmelia mellissii C.W.Dodge, Ann. Missouri  Bot. Gard. 46: 134. 1959.

Distribution:  Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Kerala, Manipur, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal; Pantropical.

Habitat:Corticolous, saxicolous or terricolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin; alectoronic and  a-collatolic acids.

 

Parmotrema mesotropum (Müll.Arg.) Hale, Phytologia 28: 337. 1974.

Parmelia mesotropa  Müll.Arg., Rev. Mycol. (Toulouse) 10: 55. 1888.

Distribution: Karnataka  (), Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Uttarakhand; Americas.

Habitat:Corticolous and saxicolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin and caperatic acid.

 

Parmotrema planatilobatum (Hale) Hale, Phytologia 28: 338. 1974.

Parmelia planatilobatum Hale, J. Jap. Bot. 40: 200. 1965.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Hassan), Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Thailand; E Africa.

Habitat:Corticolous or saxicolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin, gyrophoric acid and skyrin.

 

Parmotrema praesorediosum (Nyl.) Hale, Phytologia 28: 338. 1974; D. Awasthi, Comp. Macrolich. India, Nepal & Sri Lanka : 347. 2007.

Parmelia praesorediosa Nyl., Sert. Lich. Trop.: 18. 1891.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Belagavi, Chikkamagaluru district and Shivamogga district, Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary and Moolagadde), Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Nagaland, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; Pantropical

Habitat:Corticolous or saxicolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin (minor), chloroatranorin (minor),  protopraesorediosic acid. (major), praesorediosic acid (minor).

 

Parmotrema pseudonilgherrense (Asahina) Hale, Mycotaxon 5: 441. 1977.

Parmelia pseudonilgherrensis Asahina, J. Jap. Bot. 29: 370. 1954.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru), Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Maharashtra, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu and Uttarakhand; ; Africa, Australia, China, Korea, Malaysia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand

Habitat:Corticolous, rarely terricolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin, alectoronic and a- collatolic acid.

 

Parmotrema rampoddense (Nyl.) Hale, Phytologia 28 : 338. 1974.

Parmelia rampoddensis Nyl., Acta  Soc. Sci. Fenn. 26 (10): 7. 1900.

Distribution: Karnataka (Belagavi, Chamrajanagar, Chikkamagaluru, Hassan), Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal; Bhutan, Nepal, Sri Lanka; Pantropical.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin and alectoronic acid.

 

Parmotrema reticulatum (Taylor) M.Choisy, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Soc. Bot. Lyon. 21: 175. 1952.

Parmelia reticulata Taylor, Fl. Hibern. 2: 148. 1836.

Rimelia reticulata  (Taylor) Hale & A.Fletcher, Bryologist 93: 28. 1990.

Parmelia ghattensis Hue, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Nat. Hist. Paris, ser. 4, 1: 198. 1899.

Distribution: Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru),  Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal; Pantropical to subtemperate regions of the world.

Habitat:Corticolous, saxicolous or terricolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin; salazinic and consalazinic acids.

 

Parmotrema sancti-angelii (Lynge ) Hale, Phytologia 28 : 339. 1974.

Parmelia sancti-angelii Lynge, Ark. Bot. 13: 35. 1914; D. Awasthi, Biol. Mem. 1: 220.  1976.

Distribution:   Karnataka (Shivamogga), Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Jammu & Kashmir, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal; Africa, Australia, China, Indonesia, Laos, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, S America. Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand.

Habitat:Corticolous and saxicolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin and gyrophoric acid.

 

Parmotrema tinctorum (Despr. ex Nyl.) Hale, Phytologia 28: 339. 1974.

Parmelia tinctoria Despr. ex Nyl., Flora 55: 547. 1872.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Belagavi, Bengaluru UD, Chamrajanagar, Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga, Dharwad), Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Odisha,  Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal; Pantropical.

Habitat:Corticolous or saxicolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin; lecanoric and orsellinic (trace) acids.

 

Parmotrema vartakii Hale, Mycotaxon 5(2): 436. 1977.

Distribution:  Karnataka ( Chamrajanagar, Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga), Maharashtra; Philippines.

Habitat:Corticolous .

Chemistry: Atranorin; a-collatolic and alectoronic (trace) acids.

 

Relicina (Hale & Kurok.) Hale

Parmelia sect. imbricaria subsect. bicornutae ser. relicinae Hale & Kurok.

 

Relicina abstrusa (Vain.) Hale, Phytologia 28: 484. 1974.

Parmelia abstrusa Vain., Acta  Soc. Faun. Fl. Fenn. 7(7): 64. 1890.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Western Ghats), Kerala;Americas, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan.

Habitat:Corticolous, saxicolous.

Chemistry: Norstictic acid, usnic acid and hyposalazinic acid.

 

Usnea Dill. ex Adans.

 

Usnea aciculifera Vain., Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 35: 45. 1921.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga), Arunanchal Pradesh, Assam,  Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal; China, Japan, Nepal.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Usnic, constictic and stictic acids.

 

Usnea albopunctata Nyl. in Crombie, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 17: 554. 1880.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Western Ghats), Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Sri Lanka.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Unknown substances.

 

Usnea eumitrioides Motyka, Lich. Gen. Usnea Monogr. 2(1): 322. 1937.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga) , Himachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal;  Bhutan, China, Philippines, Taiwan.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chiemsitry: Usnic acid and stictic acid complex.

 

Usnea galbinifera Asahina, J. Jap. Bot. 38: 257. 1963.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga),  Meghalaya, Sikkim, West Bengal; China, Indonesia, Nepal.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Galbinic

 

Usnea ghattensis G. Awasthi, J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 61: 373. 1986.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga), Maharashtra; endemic.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry: Usnic acid, sometimes with an unknown substance.

 

Usnea leucospilodea Nyl., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 20: 30. 1883.

Distribution: Karnataka (Shivamogga), Sikkim, West Bengal; China, Japan, Madagascar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, SE Asia.

Habitat:Ramicolous and pendulous

Chemistry: Usnic and stictic acids.

 

Usnea picta (J.Steiner) Motyka, Lich. Gen. Usnea Monogr. 2(1): 325. 1937.

Usnea ceratina var.  picta J.Steiner, Sitzungsber. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Wien, Math. -Naturwiss. Cl., Abt. 1, 106(1): 210. 1897.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga),  Nagaland, Tamil Nadu;  Bhutan, E Africa, Madagascar.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Strain (1) usnic acid (trace), salazinic acid; strain (2) usnic acid and stictic

                   acid complex.

 

Usnea pictoides G.Awasthi, J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 61: 380. 1986.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga), Kerala, Tamil Nadu; endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Usnic acid and two unknown substances.

 

Usnea sinensis Motyka, Lich. Gen. Usnea Monogr. 1: 248. 1936.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru),Sikkim; China.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances

 

Usnea stigmatoides G.Awasthi, J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 61: 354. 1986.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga), Tamil Nadu; endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Usnic and stictic acid complex.

 

Usnea vegae Motyka, Lich. Gen. Usnea Stud. Monogr. 2(2): 636. 1938.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga), Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Sri Lanka.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Usnic and norstictic acids.

 

Usnea undulata Stirt., Scott. Naturalist (Perth) 6: 104. 1881.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Western Ghats), Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand West Bengal; Bhutan,  Madeira, S & E  Africa.

 Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Strain (1) Salazzinic acid; strain (2) Galbinic, norstictic and salazinic acids strain (3) Stictic acid complex; strain (4) Protocetraric acid, and strain (5) No lichen substance in medulla.

 

Xanthoparmelia (Vain.) Hale, nom. cons. 

Parmelia sect. Xanthoparmelia Vain.

 

Xanthoparmelia congensis (B.Stein) Hale, Phytologia 28: 486,1974.

Parmelia congensis B.Stein, Jahresber. Schles. Ges. Vaterl. Cult. 66: 140. 1889. 

Distribution: Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga), Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand; Australia, China, S  Africa, S America.

Habitat: Saxicolous.

Chemistry: Usnic, stictic, constictic and norstictic acids.

 

Petulaceae

Peltula Nyl.,

 

Peltula impressa (Vain.) Swinscow & Krog, Norweg. J. Bot. 26: 219. 1979.

Heppia impressa Vain., Beibl. Hedwigia 37: 43. 1898.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Bellari, Raichur); Australasia, Africa, S W North America.

Habitat: Saxicolous.

 

Pertusariaceae

Lepra Scop.

 

Lepra albescens (Huds.) Hafellner, Stapfia, 104:171.2016.

Pertusaria albescens  var. albescens  (Huds.) M.Choisy & Werner in Werner, Cavanillesia 5: 165. 1932.

Lichen albescens Huds., Fl. Angl., ed. 1 : 445. 1762.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir,Uttarakhand; temperate parts of the world.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Fatty acids.

 

Lepra amara (Ach.) Hafellner, Stapfia, 104:171.2016.

Pertusaria amara (Ach.) Nyl., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, ser. 2, 6: 288. 1872;

Variolaria amara Ach., Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Nya Handl. 30: 163. 1809.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru), Himachal Pradesh, E. & N. W. Himalaya, Tamil Nadu; temperate regions of the world.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Strains of picrolichenic, hypothamnolic acids and an unknown substance.

 

Lepra corallina (L.) Hafellner, Stapfia, 104:172.2016.

            Pertusaria corallina (L.) Arnold, Flora, Regensburg 44: 658. 1861.

            Lichen corallinus L., Mant. Pl. 1: 131 (1767)

            Distribution: Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru),Maharashtra; Japan.

Habitat: Saxicolous.

 

Lepra leucosora (Nyl.) Hafellner, Stapfia, 104:172.2016.

Pertusaria leucosora Nyl., Flora 60: 223. 1877.

Distribution: Karnataka*, NW Himalaya, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu; Europe.

Habitat: Saxicolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin and unknown substances.

 

Lepra leucosorodes (Nyl.) I. Schmitt.,Hodkinson& Lumbsch,PLoS ONE,12(7): 8. 2017

Pertusaria leucosorodes Nyl., Lich. Jap.: 56. 1890.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Bengaluru UD, Shivamogga), Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Nagaland, Himalayas, Tamil Nadu, Nepal, Sri Lanka.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Thamnolic, protocetraric and stictic acids.

 

Lepra multipuncta(Turn.) Hafellner, Stapfia, 104:173.2016.

Pertusaria multipuncta (Turn.) Nyl., Lich. Scand.: 179. 1861.

Variolaria multipuncta Turn., Trans. Linn. Soc. London  9: 137. t.10, f.1. 1806.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Madhya Pradesh, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal; Northern hemisphere.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin.

 

Pertusaria DC., nom. cons.  

 

Pertusaria colorata D.D.Awasthi & Preeti Srivast., Bryologist 96(2): 210. 1993.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Tamil Nadu; endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Norstictic acid.

 

Pertusaria concinna Erichsen, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 41: 79. 1936.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Bengaluru, Shivamogga), Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu; endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Unknown substances.

 

Pertusaria coronata (Ach.) Th. Fr., Lichenogr. Scand. 1: 321. 1871.

Porina coronata Ach., Syn. Meth. Lich.: 111. 1814.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim; Europe.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Stictic, norstictic and constictic acids.

 

Pertusaria granulata (Ach.) Müll.Arg., Flora 68: 354. 1884.

Porina granulata Ach., Syn. Meth. Lich.: 112. 1814.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Dakshina  Kannada), Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Sri Lanka.

Habitat: Corticolous

Chemistry: Perlatolic acid and atranorin.

 

Pertusaria indica Preeti Srivast. & D.D.Awasthi in D. Awasthi & Srivastava, Bryologist 96(2): 212. 1993.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Bengaluru UD), Arunachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Sikkim; endemic.

Habitat: Saxicolous.

Chemistry: 2'-O-methylperlatolic acid.

 

Pertusaria leioplacella Nyl., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, ser. 2, 2: 71. 1868.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Bengaluru UD, Dakashina Kannada), Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Kerala, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand; Pantropical.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Stictic, constictic and salazinic acids and an unknown substance.

 

Pertusaria punctata Nyl., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, ser. 2, 2: 71. 1868.

Distribution:  Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Himachal Pradesh, Distribution: Karnataka , Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu; endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Pertusaria pustulata (Ach.) Duby, Bot. Gall. 2(2): 673. 1830.

Porina pustulata Ach., Lichenogr. Universalis: 309. 1810.

Lichen melaleucus Turner& Borrer in Smith & Sowerby, Eng. Bot. 35:  t. 2461. 1813.

Pertusaria melaleuca (Turner & Borrer) Duby, Bot. Gall. 2(2): 673. 1928.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Distribution:   Karnataka , Sikkim, Tamil Nadu; Cosmopolitan.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Norstictic, stictic and constictic acids.

 

Pertusaria quassiae (Fée) Nyl., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., ser. 4, 15: 45. 1861..

Porina quassiae Fée, Essai Crypt. Ecorc. : 81. 1824.

Distribution: Karnataka (Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Nagaland and Sikkim; Nepal, Sri Lanka; Pantropical

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Norstictic, stictic and constictic acids.

 

Pertusaria tetrathalamia (Fée) Nyl., Acta  Soc. Sci. Fenn. 7: 448. 1863.

Trypethelium tetrathalmium Fée, Essai Crypt. Ecorc.: 69. 1824.

Pertusaria tuberculifera Nyl., Acta. Soc. Sci. Fenn. 7: 448. 1863; D. Awasthi, Biblioth. Lichenol. 40: 220. 1991.

Distribution: Karnataka*, Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Sri Lanka.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Perlatolic acid, 4,5 dichlorolichexanthone, stictic acid (both major),

                  constictic, cryptostictic, menegazziaic and norstictic acids (all minor).

 

 

Phlyctidaceae

            Phlyctis (Wallr.) Flot, nom. cons.

Peltigera Sect. Phlyctis Wallr..

 

Phlyctis   karnatakana S. Joshi & Upreti, Bryologist. 113(4): 725. 2011.  (Plate, 2F)

            Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Goa;endemic.

            Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Norstictic acid.

 

Physciaceae

Heterodermia Trevis. em. Poelt

 

Heterodermia albidiflava (Kurock.) D.D. Awasthi, Geophytology 3: 113.

Anaptychia albidiflava Kurok. Beih. Nova Hedwigia 6: 42. 1962.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga), Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Sikkim, West Bengal; endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Heterodermia dendritica (Pers.) Poelt. Nova Hedwigia 9: 31. 1965.

Borrera dendritica Pers. In Gaudich., Voy. Uraine: 207. 1827.

Anaptychia dendritica (Pers.) Vain., Acta Soc. Fauna Fl. Finn. 7: 134. 1890.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Manipur, Nagaland, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal; China, Japan, Nepal, Taiwan, Thailand.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin, norstictic and Salazinic and an unknown substances.

 

Heterodermia angustiloba (Müll.Arg.) D.D.Awasthi, Geophytology 3: 113. 1973.

Anaptychia speciosa var. angustiloba Müll.Arg., Flora 66: 78. 1883.

Anaptychia angustiloba (Müll.Arg.) Kurok., Beih. Nova Hedwigia 6: 39. 1962.

Distribution: Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Sikkim, Uttarakhand; Australia, China, Japan, Nepal, Taiwan.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin, zeorin, norstictic acid, salazinic acid and an unknown substance.

 

Heterodermia antillarum (Vain.) Swinscow & Krog, Lichenologist 8: 114. 1976.

Anaptychia granulifera var. antillarum Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 6: 63. 1914.

Anaptychia antillarum (Vain.) Kurok., J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 37: 596. 1973. 

Distribution: Karnataka  (Kodagu), Maharashtra; Australia, Mexico, New Guinea, S Africa, Thailand, West Indies.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin, zeorin, salazinic acid and an unknown substance.

 

 

            Heterodermia comosa (Eschw.) Follmann & Redón, Willdenovia 6: 446. 1972.

            Parmelia comosa  Eschw. in Martius, Icon. Fl. Crypt. 2: 26. 1828.

Anaptychia comosa (Eschw.) A.Massal., Mem. Lichenogr.: 39. 1853.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Kodagu, Shivamogga), Kerala, Manipur, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand and West Bengal ; America, Asia, E Africa.

            Habitat: Corticolous and foliicolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin, zeorin and an unknown substance.

 

Heterodermia diademata (Taylor) D.D.Awasthi, Geophytology 3: 113. 1973.

            Parmelia diademata  Taylor,  London J. Bot. 6: 165. 1847.

Anaptychia diademata (Taylor) Kurok., Beih. Nova Hedwigia 6: 28. 1962.

Distribution: Karnataka (Bangaluru UD, Chamarajanagar,Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal; Africa, Asia, C & S America.

            Habitat: Corticolous, terricolous or saxicolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin and zeorin.

 

Heterodermia dissecta (Kurok.) D.D.Awasthi, Geophytology 3: 113. 1973.

Anaptychia dissecta Kurok.,  J. Jap. Bot. 34: 182. 1959.

Distribution:  Karnataka  (Bengaluru UD, Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga), Himachal Pradesh, Kerala,  Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand West Bengal; China, Japan, Nepal, Taiwan, C America.

Habitat: Corticolous and saxicolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin, zeorin, norstictic and salazinic acids and an unknown

                               substance.

 

            Heterodermia firmula (Nyl.) Trevis., Atti. Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. 11: 615. 1868.

            Physcia firmula Nyl. Syn. Lich. 1(2): 418. 1860.

            Anaptychia firmula (Nyl.) C.W. Dodge & D.D. Awasthi in D.D. Awasthi, J.          Indian Bot. Soc. 39: 423. 1960.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Uttarakhand and West Bengal;China, Nepal.

            Habitat: Terricolous or corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin, zeorin and an unknown substances.

 

Heterodermia flabellata (Fée) D.D.Awasthi, Geophytology 3: 113. 1973.

Parmelia flabellata Fée, Essai  Crypt. Ecorc. Suppl.: 122. 1837.

Anaptychia flabellata (Fée) A.Massal., Mem. Lichenogr.: 41. 1853.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Chamarajanagar, Shivmogga, Uttara Kannad), Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala, Maharashtra, Manipur, Nagaland, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand; Africa, Brazil, China, Japan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand.

Habitat: Saxicolous and corticolous .

Chemistry: Atranorin, zeorin and an unknown yellow pigment.

 

Heterodermia hypocaesia (Yasuda) D.D. Awasthi, Geph. 3: 113. 1973.

Anaptychia hypocaesia Yasuda in Räsänen, J. Jap. Bot. 16: 139. 1940.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttara Kannada, West Bengal; Africa, Australia, China, Hawaii, Japan, Indonesia, Philippines.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin, zeorin and Salazinic acid.

 

Heterodermia hypochraea (Vain.) Swinscow & Krog, Lichenologist 8: 119. 1976.

Anaptychia hypochraea Vain., Bot. Mag. Tokyo 35: 59. 1921; Kurokawa, Beih. Nova Hedwigia 6: 94. 1962.

Distribution: Karnataka (Shivamogga), Nagaland; China, E Africa, Japan, S America, Taiwan.

Habitat : Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin, zeorin and an unidentified yellow substance.

 

Heterodermia incana (Stirt.) D.D.Awasthi, Geophytology 3: 114. 1973.

Physcia incana Stirt., Proc. Roy. Soc. Glasgow 11: 322. 1879.

Anaptychia incana (Stirt.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 7: 727. 1931.

Distribution: Karnataka (Belagavi, Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga), Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Kerala, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal; Indonesia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand.

Habitat: Corticolous, rarely saxicolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin and zeorin.

 

Heterodermia japonica (M.Satô) Swinscow & Krog, Lichenologist 8(2): 122. 1976.

Anaptychia dendritica var. japonica M.Satô, J. Jap. Bot 12: 427. 1936.

Anaptychia japonica (M.Satô) Kurok., J. Jap. Bot. 35: 353. 1960.

Distribution: Karnataka (Shivamogga), Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal; Cosmopolitan.

Habitat: Corticolous or terricolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin, zeorin, norstictic and salazinic acids.

 

Heterodermia leucomelos (L.) Poelt, Nova Hedwigia 9: 31. 1965.

Lichen leucomelos L., Sp. Pl., ed. 2, 2: 1613. 1763.

Anaptychia leucomelos (L.) A.Massal., Mem. Lich.: 35. 1853.

Distribution: Karnataka (Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal; Cosmopolitan.

Habitat: Corticolous or terricolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin, zeorin, norstictic and salazinic acids and unknown pigment and

                 triterpenoids.

 

Heterodermia microphylla (Kurok.) Skorepa, Bryologist  75: 490. 1972.

Anaptychia hypoleuca var. microphylla Kurok., J. Jap. Bot. 34: 123. 1959.

Anaptychia microphylla (Kurok.) Kurok., Beih. Nova Hedwigia 6: 44. 1962.

Distribution: Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru), Sikkim, Uttarakhand; Africa, Australia, Bhutan, China, Japan, New Zealand, N America, Papua New Guinea, Taiwan, Thailand, Zimbabwe.

Habitat: Saxicolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin, zeorin; norstictic and salazinic acids occasionally present.

 

Heterodermia obscurata (Nyl.) Trevis., Nouvo Giorn Bot. Ital 1: 114. 1869.

Physcia obscurata Nyl., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., ser. 4, 19: 310. 1863.

Anaptychia obscurata (Nyl.) Vain., Acta Soc. Faun. Fl. Fenn. 7: 137. 1890.

Distribution: Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru,Kodagu, Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Kerala, Maharashtra, Manipur, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal; Cosmopolitan.

Habitat: Corticolous and foliicolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin, zeorin and an unidentified pigment.

 

Heterodermia pseudospeciosa (Kurok.) W.L.Culb., Bryologist 69: 484. 1966.

Anoptychia pseudospeciosa Kurok., J. Jap.Bot. 34: 176. 1959.

Distribution: Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal; Africa, C & S America, China, Hawaii Islands, Japan, Nepal, Taiwan. 

Habitat: Corticolous or terricolous or saxicolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin, zeorin; norstictic acid and salazinic acid.

 

Heterodermia tremulans (Müll.Arg.) W.L.Culb., Bryologist 69: 485. 1966.

Physcia hypoleuca var. tremulans Müll.Arg., Flora 63: 277. 1880.

Anaptychia speciosa var. tremulans (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 15: 505. 1893.

Distribution: Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga), Madhya Pradesh, Nagaland, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal; Americas, China, Hawaii, Japan.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin and zeorin.

 

Phaeophyscia Moberg

 

Phaeophyscia hispidula (Ach.) Moberg, Bot. Not. 131: 260. 1978 & Nordic J. Bot. 3 : 515. 1983.

Parmelia hispidula Ach., Lichenogr. Universalis: 468. 1810.

 

var. hispidula

Distribution: Karnataka (Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Nagaland, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand; cosmopolitan.

Habitat : Corticolous, saxicolous, terricolous or muscicolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Phaeophyscia orbicularis (Neck.) Moberg, Symb. Bot. Upsal. 22(1): 44. 1977.

Lichen orbicularis Neck., Delic. Gallo-Belg.: 509. 1768.

Physcia orbicularis Poetsch in Poetsch & Schiedermayr, Syst. Aufz. Krypt. : 247. 1872.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga), Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand; Cosmopolitan.

Habitat: Corticolous or saxicolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances, rarely skyrin present.

 

Phaeophyscia sciastra (Ach.) Moberg, Symb. Bot. Upsal. 22(1): 47. 1977.

Parmelia sciastra Ach., Methodus Suppl.: 49. 1803.

Physcia sciastra (Ach.) Du Rietz, Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 15: 168. 1921.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (), Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand; Cosmopolitan.

Habitat: Saxicolous or ramulicolous (over rocks, rarely lignicolous).

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

            Physcia (Schreb.) Michx.

Lichen sect. Physcia Schreb.

 

Physcia aipolia (Ehrh. ex Humb.) Fürnr., Naturh. Topogr. Regensburg 2:  249. 1839.

Lichen aipolius Ehrh. ex Humb., Flor. Friburg. Spec.: 19. 1793.

Distribution:   Karnataka   (Shivamogga), Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Tamil Nadu; Bhutan, Japan, Nepal; temperate regions.

Habitat: Corticolous, rarely on rocks.

Chemistry: Zeorin.

 

Physcia dimidiata (Arn.) Nyl., Flora 64: 537. 1881..

Parmelia pulverulenta var. dimidiata Arn., Flora 48: 594. 1864.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Sikkim; Europe, Southern hemisphere.

Habitat:Corticolous.

 

Physcia stellaris (L.) Nyl., Actes  Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 21: 307. 1856

Lichen stellaris L., Sp. Pl.: 1144. 1753.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Bengaluru UD), Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttarakhand; Africa, Americas, Europe, Japan, Nepal, New Zealand, Sri Lanka.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Physcia tribacia (Ach.) Nyl., Flora 57: 307. 1874.

Lecanora tribacia Ach., Lichenogr. Universalis : 415. 1810.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Bengaluru UD, Shivamogga), Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand; Africa, Australia, Europe, Japan, Nepal, N America.

Habitat: Saxicolous, corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin, zeorin, leucotylin and unknowns.

 

Physcia tribacoides Nyl., Flora 57: 307. 1874.

Distribution: Karnataka(Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Nagaland,  Sikkim, Tamil Nadu; Australia, Bhutan, Europe, Japan, Nepal, New Zealand.

Habitat : Corticolous, terricolous or saxicolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin, zeorin and an unidentified substance.

 

 

Pilocarpaceae

Byssoloma Trevis.

 

Byssoloma subdiscordans (Nyl.) P.James, Lichenologist 5(1-2): 126. 1971.

Choidecton subdiscordans Nyl., Flora 62: 221. 1879.

Patellaria rotuliformis Müll.Arg., Flora 64: 228. 1881.

Byssoloma rotuliforme (Müll.Arg.) R.Sant. in Thorold, J. Ecol. 40: 129. 1952.

Distribution:Karnataka (Kodagu), Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu; cosmopolitan.

Habitat : Foliicolous.

Chemistry: no lichen substances.

 

Calopadia Vězda

 

Calopadia fusca (Müll.Arg.) Vězda, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 21: 215. 1986.

Lopadium fuscum Müll.Arg., Flora 64:108. 1881.

Distribution:Karnataka  (Uttara Kannadaa), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Arunachal

Pradesh, Kerala, Nagaland, Tamil Nadu; Pantropical.

Habitat:Foliicolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Calopadia phyllogena (Müll.Arg.) Vězda, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 21: 215. 1986.

Heterothecium phyllogenum Müll.Arg., Flora 64: 106. 1881.

Lopadium phyllogenum (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Denkschr. Math.-Nat. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien 81: 251. 1907.

Distribution:Karnataka (Kodagu), Andaman & Nicobar Islands;pantropical.

Habitat : Foliicolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

 

Sporopodium Mont.

 

Sporopodium xantholeucum (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 2: 681. 1924.

Gyalectidium xantholeucum Müll.Arg., Flora 64: 101. 1881.

Distribution:Karnataka (Kodagu), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tamil Nadu; pantropical.

Habitat : Foliicolous.

Chemistry: Pannarin, zeorin, 2,7-dichlorolichexanthone, 5,7-dichlorolichexanthone, 5,7-dichloro-3-O-methylnorlichexanthone, 2,5,7-trichlorolichexanthone, arthothelin, isoarthothelin, asemone, 2,5,7-trichloro-3-O-methylnorlichexanthone, thiophanic acid

 

Porinaceae

Porina  Ach., nom. cons.

 

Porina africana Müll. Arg., Linnaea 63: 41. 1880.

Verrucaria africana (Müll. Arg.) Stizenb., Ber. Tätigk. St. Gallisch. Naturw. Ges. 1889–90: 452.  1891.

Porina platystoma  Müll.Arg., Bull. Herb. Boissier 3: 326. 1895.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Uttara Kannada), Maharashtra, Meghalaya; Angola, Australia, Brazil, Christmas Island, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Taiwan, Tanzania.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

 

 

Porina andamanica Makhija, Adaw. & Patw., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 18(3): 528. 1994.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Dakshina Kannada) Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Tamil Nadu; endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Porina angusta Makhija, Adaw. & Patw., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 18(3): 530. 1994.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Uttara Kannada), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya; endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Porina atroperiostiola Makhija, Adaw. & Patw., J. Econ.Taxon. Bot.18(3): 530. 1994.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Uttara Kannada), Arunachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu; endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Porina decamera Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 15(6): 359. 1921.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Bangaluru RD), Kerala; Philippines.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Porina dolichophora (Nyl.) Müll. Arg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst.  6: 400. 1885.

Verrucaria dolichophora Nyl., Ann.  Sci. Nat., Bot., ser.4, 20: 245. 1863.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Belagavi), Maharashtra, Sikkim; Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Nicaragua.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Porina elliptica Makhija, Adaw. & Patw., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 18(3): 533. 1994.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Belagavi); endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Porina epiphylla (Fée) Fée, Essai Crypt. Ecorc.: 76. 1837.

Porina americana Fée var. epiphylla Fée, Dict. Class. Hist. Nat.: 26. 1831.

Phylloporina epiphylla (Fée) Müll.Arg., Lich. Epiph. Novi: 21.1890.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Uttara Kannada), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tamil Nadu; Pantropical.

Habitat: Foliicolous.

 

Porina glaucoflava Makhija, Adaw. & Patw., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot.  18(3): 534. 1994.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Uttara Kannadaa),Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Tamil Nadu; endemic..

 

Porina internigrans (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Rep. Australas. Assoc. Advancem. Sci. 1895: 452. 1895.

Verrucaria mastoidea var. internigrans Nyl., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, ser. 2, 2: 123. 1868.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga, UttaraKannada), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Goa, Kerala, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal; Australia, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Thailand, Vanuatu, Vietnam.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Porina karnatakensis Makhija, Adaw. & Patw., J. Econ. Taxon.Bot. 18(3): 538. 1994.                                                                                             (Plate,2G)

Porina santesonii Makhija, Adaw. & Patw.,  J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 18(3): 542. 1994.

Distribution: Karnataka, (Uttara Kannada), Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Pantropical.

Habitat: Foliicolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Porina lucida R.Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 240. 1952.

Porina multiloculata Makhija, Adaw. & Patw., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 18(3): 540. 1994.

Distribution: Karnataka (Uttara Kannada, Shivamogga), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Pantropical.

Habitat: Foliicolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Porina microcarpa Makhija, Adaw. & Patwardhan, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 18(3): 540. 1994.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Chamrajanagar),endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Porina monocarpa (Kremp.) F.Schill., Hedwigia 67: 274. 1927.

Verrucaria monocarpa Kremp., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 7: 63. 1875.

Phylloporina monocarpa (Kremp.) Müll.Arg., Lich. Epiph. Novi: 21. 1890.

Distribution: Karnataka (Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tamil Nadu; Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore.

Habitat: Foliicolous.

 

Porina ochrostoma Makhija, Adaw. & Patw., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 18(3): 541. 1994.

Distribution: Karnataka, (Udupi), endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Porina platystoma Müll.Arg., Bull. Herb. Boissier 3: 326. 1895.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Uttara Kannada), Maharashtra, Meghalaya;  Angola, Australia, Brazil, Christmas Island, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Taiwan, Tanzania.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Porina subcutanea Ach.,  Syn. Meth. Lich.: 113. 1814.

Sphaeromphale anceps Trevis., Conspect. Verruc.: 7. 1860.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Kerala, Manipur, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal; tropical regions.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Porina subgigantospora Makhija, Adaw. & Patw., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 18(3): 542. 1994.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Kodagu, Uttara Kannada), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu; endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Porina subhibernica Upreti, Bryologist 97(1): 76. 1994.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu; endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Porina subinterestes (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 21: 364. 1889.

Verrucaria subinterestes Nyl., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, ser. 2, 7: 178. 1873.

Porina curtula Malme, Ark. Bot. 23(A): 20. 1929.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Nagaland; Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, French Guiana, Guyana, Mexico, Paraguay.

Habitat: Corticolous and Saxicolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances .

 

Porina subsanctirosae Makhija, Adaw. & Patw., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 18(3): 543. 1994.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Maharashtra; endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Porina tetracerae (Afz.) Müll. Arg. in Engler, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 6: 401. 1885.

Verrucaria tetracerae Afz. in Acharius, Methodus: 121. 1803.

Verrucaria interestes Nyl., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, ser. 2: 123. 1868.

Porina interestes (Nyl.) Harm., Bull. Séances. Soc. Sci. Nancy, ser. 3, 12: 126, t. 1, f. 3, 1911.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga,UttaraKannada), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Madhya Pradesh, Nagaland, Odisha, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal; Pantropical.

Habitat: Corticolous; foliicolous as well.

Chemistry: No lichen substances .

 

Pyrenulaceae

Anthracothecium Hampe ex A.Massal.

 

Anthracothecium macrosporum (Hepp) Müll.Arg., Linnaea 63: 44. 1880.

Verrucaria macrospora Hepp in Zollinger, Syst. Verz.: 9. 1854.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Kodagu, Shivamogga, Uttara Kannada), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala, Manipur, Tamil Nadu; Africa,  Indonesia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, NAmerica.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Lithothelium Müll.Arg.

 

Lithothelium filisporum (Patw., Makhija & D.Rane) Kr.P.Singh & G.P.Sinha, Indian Lich. Anno T. Checklist: 273. 2010. 

Pleurotrema filisporum Patw., Makhija & D.Rane, Curr. Sci. 49 (23): 917. 1980.

Trichotrema filisporum (Patw., Makhija & D.Rane) Makhija & Patw., Biovigyanam 16(1): 25. 1990.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Udupi) , Maharashtra; endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Lithothelium obtectum (Müll.Arg.) Aptroot, Biblioth. Lichenol. 44: 62. 1991.

            Sagedia obtecta Müll.Arg., Linnaea 43: 42. 1880.

Lithothelium indicum Patw., Makhija & Rane, Curr. Sci. 49 (23) : 918. 1980, non Ajay Singh, 1986.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga, Udupi,Uttara Kannada), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Maharashtra; Pantropical.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Lichexanthone absent.

 

Pyrenula Ach., nom. cons.

 

Pyrenula astroidea (Fée) R.C.Harris, Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 49: 87. 1989.

Parmentaria astroidea Fée, Essai Crypt. Ecorc. : 70. Pl. 1, f. 14, Pl. 20 f, i. 1824.

Parmentaria mamillata Ajay Singh, Feddes Repert. 96: 266. 1986.

Parmentaria immersa (Patw. & Makhija) Ajay Singh, Nova Hedwigia. 44(3-4): 373. 1987.

Parmentaria maculata Makhija & Patw., Biovigyanam 15(2): 74. 1989.

Parmentaria verrucosareolata Makhija & Patw.,  Biovigyanam 15(2); 78. 1989.

Pyrenula karnatakensis Upreti,  Nova Hedwigia 66(3-4): 569. 1998.

Pyrenula mamillata (Ajay Singh) Upreti, Nova Hedwigia 66(3-4): 571. 1998.

Distribution: Karnataka (Chamrajanagar, Chikhabalapura, Kodagu, Shivamogga), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala, Manipur Sikkim, Tamil Nadu; Africa, Philippines, Sri Lanka.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Pyrenula cayennensis Mull., Arg., Flora 67: 662. 1884.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Andaman & Nicobar Island, Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal;  French Guiana.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Pyrenula confinis (Nyl.) R.C.Harris, More Florida Lichens: 109. 1995.

Verrucaria confinis Nyl., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., ser. 4, 3: 174. 1855.

Distribution: Karnataka  (), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal; tropical regions.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

            Pyrenula globifera (Eschw.) Aptroot, Biblioth. Lichenol. 97: 103. 2008.

Verrucaria globifera Eschw. in Martius, Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl. 1(1): 131. 1833.

Anthracothecium globiferum (Eschw.) Müll.Arg., Flora 67: 666. 1884.

Distribution: Karnataka*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Kerala, Manipur, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal; Africa, Costa Rica, South America, Sri Lanka, Thailand.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Pyrenula immersa Müll.Arg., Flora 70: 429. 1887.

Pyrenula subumbilicata (C.Knight) Aptroot, Australas. Lichenol. 60: 39. 2007.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Manipur, Sikkim, Uttarakhand, West Bengal; Australia.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Pyrenula immissa (Stirt.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 433. 1922.

Verrucaria immissa Stirt., Proc. Roy.Soc. Glasgow 13: 191.1881.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; Australia, Japan, Nova Granata; S America.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Pyrenula interducta (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 433. 1922.

Verrucaria interducta Nyl., Flora 49: 134. 1866.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Western Ghats), Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala, Sikkim;Sri Lanka.  

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Pyrenula maravalensis Vain., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts & Sci. 58: 132 (1923

Pyrenula subacutalis Upreti, Feddes Repert 102: 429. 1991.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Odisha; endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Pyrenula mamillana (Ach.) Trevis., Consp. Verruc. : 13. 1860.

Verrucaria mamillana Ach., Methodus: 120. 1803.

Pyrenula subglabriuscula Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 15: 244. 1920.

Pyrenula elegans Ajay Singh & Upreti, Geophytology 17: 80. 1987.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh; Australia, Costa Rica, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Pyrenula mastophoriza (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 439. 1922.

Verrucaria mastophoriza Nyl., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, ser. 1, 7: 180. 1873

Pyrenula glabrescens Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., Ser.A, 6: 191. 1915.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala; Insula Antillanae.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Pyrenula ochraceoflava (Nyl.) R.C.Harris, Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 49: 96. 1989.

Verrucaria ochraceoflava Nyl., Expos. Syn. Pyrenocarp : 50. 1858.

Anthracothecium ochraceoflavum (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Linnaea 63: 44. 1880.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Kerala, Lakhadweep, Islands,

Tamil Nadu, West Bengal; America, Australia.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Pyrenula ochraceoflavens (Nyl.) R.C.Harris, Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 49: 97. 1989.

Verrucaria ochraceoflavens Nyl., Acta  Soc. Sci. Fenn. 7: 491. 1863.

Anthracothecium ochraceoflavens (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 464. 1922.                                                                                    

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Andaman Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal; Equador, West Indies.

Habitat: Corticolous.

                                                                                                     

Pyrenula pyrenuloides (Mont.) R.C.Harris, Mem. New York  Bot. Gard. 49: 99. 1989.

Trypethelium pyrenuloides Mont., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., ser. 2, 19: 69. 1843.

Anthracothecium pyrenuloides (Mont.) Müll.Arg., Linnaea 63: 44. 1880.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Western Ghats), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Kerala, Tamil Nadu; tropical regions.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Pyrenula quassiaecola Fée, Essai Crypt. Ecorc., Suppl.: 79. 1837.

Pyrenula pinguis Fée, Essai Crypt. Ecorc.: 75. 1824.

Pyrenula mastophorizans  Müll.Arg., Flora 68: 515. 1885.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Bengaluru UD), Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Goa, Manipur, Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh;tropical regions.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Pyrenula sublaevigata (Patw. & Makhija) Upreti,  Nova Hedwigia 66(3-4): 574. 1998.

Anthracothecium sublaevigatum Patw. & Makhija, Kavaka 8: 25. 1980.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh; endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

 

Pyrgillus Nyl.

 

Pyrgillus idukkiensis Kr. P. Singh and Pushpi Singh Taiwania, 57(4): 392. 2012.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga),Kerala; Australia, Indonesia, French Guinea, Tasmania.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Ramalinaceae

Bacidia De Not.

 

Bacidia nigrofusca (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 4: 230. 1926.

Patellaria nigrofusca Müll.Arg., Flora 65: 330. 1882.

Distribution:Karnataka(Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Uttarakhand; Indonesia.

Habitat : Corticolous.

 

Bacidia subannexa (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 4: 242. 1926.

Lecidea subannexa Nyl.,  Acta Soc. Sci. Fenn. 26(10): 15. 1900.

Distribution:Karnataka(Uttara Kannada),West Bengal; Sri Lanka.

Habitat : Corticolous.

 

Bacidia incongruens (Stirt.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 4: 208. 1926.

Lecidea incongruens Stirt., Proc. Roy.  Soc. Glasgow 2: 314. 1879.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga),  Tamil Nadu, West Bengal; endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

            Bacidia sabletorum (Schreb.) Lettau, Hedwigia 52: 132. 1912.

            Lichen sabuletorum Schreb., Spic. Fl. Lips.: 134. 1771.

            Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga); Australia, Europe, N America, New Zealand.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

            Bacidia submedialis (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 4: 243. 1926.

            Lecidea submedialis Nyl., Acta Soc. Sci. Fenn. 26(10): 14. 1900.

            Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; Sri Lanka.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Bacidina Vězda, nom. cons.

 

Bacidina apiahica (Müll.Arg.) Vězda, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 25(4): 432. 1990.

Patellaria apiahica Müll.Arg., Lich. Epiph. Novi : 9. 1890.

Bacidia apiahica (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 4: 174. 1926; D. Awasthi & K. Singh, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., B, 76(3): 127. 1972.

Distribution:Karnataka(Kodagu), Arunachal Pradesh, Tamil Nadu; Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, New Zealand, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Venezuela.

Habitat : Foliicolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

           

Phyllopsora Müll.Arg.

 

Phyllopsora buetteneri (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 4:396. 1926.

Psora buettneri Müll.Arg., Bot. Jaarb. 15: 506. 1893.           

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand; Pantropical.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Pannarin and zeorin.

 

            Phyllopsora chlorophaea (Mull. Arg.) Zahlbr. Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wein 83:    133. 1909; G.K. Misra & al. Mycotaxon 115: 33. 2011.

Psora chlorophaea Müll. Arg., Flora, Regensburg 70: 320. 1887.

            Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Odisha; Kenya, Peru; Mauritius, Tanzania.

            Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin.

 

            Phyllopsora confusa Swinscow & Krog, Lichenologist 13: 229. 1981.

            Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Assam, Himachal    Pradesh,Kerala, Uttarakhand;Kenya, Mauritius, Reunion, Tanzania.

            Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Phyllopsora corallina (Eschw.) Müll.Arg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 20: 264. 1894.

Lecidea corallina Eschw. in Martius, Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl. 1(1): 256. 1833.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga) Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand; Pantropical.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin (in traces or absent).

 

Phyllospora furfuracea (Pers.) Zahlbr. in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 1(1): 138. 1905.

Lecidea furfuracea Pers., in Gaudichaud, Voy. Uran.: 192. 1827.

Phyllopsora haemophaea (Nyl.) Müll. Arg., Hedwigia 34: 141. 1895.

Lecidea haemophaea Nyl., Flora 52: 122. 1869.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Kerala Uttarakhand; Brazil, Japan, Kenya, Tanzania.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Furfuracein.

 

            Phyllopsora isidiotyla (Vain.) Riddle, Mycologia 15: 81. 1923.

            Lecidea isidiota Vain., Etud. Lich. Bresil 2: 49. 1890.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga) Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand; Brazil, Costa Rica,USA,Venezuela.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin.

 

Phyllopsora manipurensis (Müll.Arg.) Gotth.Schneid., Biblioth. Lichenol. 13: 177. 1980.

Psora manipurensis Müll.Arg., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 29: 219. 1892.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Uttarakhand; endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin and unknown triterpenes.

 

Phyllopsora parvifolia (Pers.) Müll.Arg., Bull. Herb. Boissier 2: 90. 1894.

Lecidea parvifolia Pers. in Gaudich., Voy. Uraine : 192. 1827.

 

var. parvifolia

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Goa, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Manipur, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand; Brazil, Indonesia, New Caledonia, S Africa.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

            Phyllopsora subcrustacea (Malme) Brako, Mycotaxon 35(1): 15. 1989.

            Lecidea corallina var. subcrustacea Malme, Ark. Bot. 28A(7): 47. 1936.

            Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Kerala; Paraguay. 

            Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

            Phyllopsora swinscowii Timdal & Krog, Mycotaxon 77: 88. 2001.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Kerala; E  Africa, Kenya, Mauritius,

Tanzania.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Ramalina Ach., nom. cons.

 

Ramalina conduplicans Vain., Ann. Soc. Zool. Bot. Fenn 1 (3): 35. 1921.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga)  Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Kerala, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal;  Nepal, E Asia.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Strain (1) Usnic acid and salazinic acid; strain (2) Usnic, sekikaic acid

                  aggregate and salazinic acid; strain (3) Usnic acid and sekikaic acid

                  aggregate. 

 

Ramalina hossei Vain., Ann. Soc. Zool. Bot. Fenn. 1(3): 36. 1921.

var. divaricata H.Magn. & G.Awasthi in Pant & D. Awasthi, Indian  J. Forest. 26(3): 307. 2003.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga), Tamil Nadu; endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Ramalina nervulosa (Müll.Arg.) Abbayes, Bull. Inst. Franç. Afriue Noire 14: 25. 1952.

Ramalina farinacea var. nervulosa Müll.Arg., Flora 66: 21. 1883.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Western Ghats), Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Australia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Fiji, Pacific Islands, Philippines, Sri Lanka.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Strain I: Usnic, divaritic and stenosporic acids; Strain II: Usnic acid,

                  sekikaic acid with or without ramalinolic and salazinic acids.

 

Ramalina pollinaria (Westr.) Ach., Lichenogr. Universalis: 608. 1810.

Lichen pollinarius Westr., Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Nya Handl. 16: 56. 1795.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga), Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttarakhand; Cosmopolitan.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Cortex with usnic acid; medulla with evernic (major) and obtusatic (major) acids.

 

Ramalina pacifica Asahina, J. Jap. Bot. 15: 213. 1939.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Kerala, Nagaland, Tamil Nadu;Palaeotropical.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Salazinic and usnic acids.

 

Ramalina taitensis Nyl, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, ser. 2, 4: 119. 1870.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Sikkim, West Bengal; Tahiti Island.

Habitat: Terricolous, saxicolous and lignicolous

Chemistry: Sekikaic acid aggregate.

 

 

Rolfidum Moberg

 

Rolfidum peltatum Moberg, Lichenologist 18(4): 305. 1986.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Bengaluru); Sri Lanka

Habitat: Saxicolous.

 

Ramboldiaceae

Ramboldia Kantvilas & Elix

 

Ramboldia russula (Ach.) Kalb, Lumbsch & Elix in Kalb et al., Nova Hedwigia 86: 37. 2008.

Lecidea russula Ach., Methodus: 61. 1803.

Protoblastenia russula (Ach.) Räsänen, Revista Sudamer. Bot. 5: 67. 1938.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Bengaluru UD, Dakshina Kannada), Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal;tropical, subtropical to temperate regions.

Habitat:Corticolous.

Chemistry:  Strain (1) fumarprotocetraric acid  and atranorin; strain (2) norstictic,

                    fumarprotocetraric, protocetraric acids and atranorin.

     

 

Roccellaceae

Chiodecton Ach.

           

Chiodecton congestulum  Nyl., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, ser. 2, 2: 106. 1868.

Distribution: Karnataka (Udupi); Australia, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Sri Lanka.

            Chemistry: Roccellic acid.     

Habitat: Corticolous, occasionally saxicolous.

 

Chiodecton leptosporum Müll.Arg., Flora 65: 332. 1882.

Chiodecton flavicans Müll.Arg., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 29:  229. 1892.

            Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal; Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia,  Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Enterographa Fée

 

Enterographa pallidella (Nyl.) Redg., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 43: 61. 1939.

Platygrapha pallidella Nyl., Flora 50: 6. 1867.

Distribution:Karnataka(Shivamogga), West Bengal; pantropical.

Habitat : Corticolous.

 

Dichosporidium Pat.

 

Dichosporidium boschianum (Mont.) G.Thor, Opera Bot. 103: 64. 1990.

Chiodecton boschianum Mont., Syll. Gen. Sp. Crypt. : 356. 1856.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Uttara Kannada), Kerala; America, Australia, Samoa, SE Asia, Sri Lanka,

Habitat: Corticolous, occasionally saxicolous.

Chemistry: Protocetraric acid or salazinic acid.

 

Roccella  DC., nom. cons.

 

Roccella montagnei Bél. in Bélanger & Bory, Voy. Ind. Or. 2: 117. 1838.

Roccella belangeriana D.D.Awasthi, Bryologist  84 (2): 219. 1981.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Bengaluru UD, Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga), Gujarat, Kerala, Odisha, Pondicherry, Tamil Nadu; Africa,N Australia.

Habitat: Corticolous, rarely saxicolous.

Chemistry: Erythrin.

 

Syncesia Taylor 

 

            Syncesia indica S. Joshi & Upreti in S. Joshi, Upreti & Divakar, Bryologist114(1):            216. 2011.

            Distribution: Karnataka  (Hassan), endemic.

            Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Protocetraric acid and traces of roccellic acid and Unknown      substances.

 

 

Sphaerophoraceae

Bunodophoron A.Massal.

 

Bunodophoron diplotypum (Vain.) Wedin, Pl. Syst. Evol. 187: 232. 1993.

Sphaerophorus diplotypus Vain., Hedwigia  37: 36. 1898.

Distribution:Karnataka  (Western Ghats), Kerala; Australia, E. Africa, Japan, Indonesia, Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Taiwan.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Stictic, constictic acids and sphaerophorin.

 

Stereocaulaceae

Lepraria Ach., nom. cons.

 

Lepraria coriensis (Hue) Sipman, Herzogia 17: 28. 2004.

Crocynia coriensis Hue, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 71: 386. 1924.        

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Tumkur); Australia, Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan.

Habitat: Terricolous and saxicolous.Chemistry: Three chemotypes with usnic acid, zeorin (major) and a number of minor and trace lichen substance reported.

 

Lepraria lobificans Nyl., Flora 56: 196. 1873.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (), Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand; Cosmopolitan.

Habitat: Muscicolous, saxicolous or corticolous.

Chemistry: Atranorin, zeorin, stictic acid, ± constictic acid, cryptostictic acid, connorstictic acid, constictic acid and an unidentified fatty acid.

 

Strigulaceae

Flavobathelium Lücking, Aptroot & Thor

 

Flavobathelium epiphyllum Lücking, Aptroot & Thor, Lichenologist 29221.1927.

Karnataka (Kodagu); Colombia,CostaRica, Ecuador,French Guiana,Guatamala,Guyana, Panama, and Peru; neotropical regions.

Habitat : Foliicolous.

Chemistry: Unknown yellow pigment.

Note: The identity of the taxon is doubtful.

 

Strigula Fr.

 

Strigula melanobapha (Kremp.) R.Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 188. 1952.

Verrucaria melanobapha Kremp., Lich. Foliicol. : 18. 1874.

Distribution:Karnataka(Chikmagalur), Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya;pantropical.

Habitat : Foliicolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances .

 

Strigula nemathora Mont. in  Sagra, Hist. Phys. Cuba Bot. Pl. Cell. 42: 143. 1838.

 

f. nemathora

Distribution:Karnataka (Shivamogga), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Tamil Nadu; pantropical.

Habitat :Foliicolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances .

 

f. hypothelia  (Nyl.) Lücking, Foliicolous Lichenized Fungi, Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 103: 248. 2008

Strigula hypothelia Nyl., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, ser. 2, 2: 520. 1868.

Strigula nemathora var. hypothelia (Nyl.) R.Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 156. 1952.

Strigula complanata f. major Nyl. in Triana & Planchon, Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., ser. 5, 7: 346. 1867, nom. inval.

Distribution:Karnataka (Chikmagaluru), Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya; pantropical.

Habitat : Foliicolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Strigula nitidula Mont. in Sagra, Hist. Phys. Cuba Bot. Pl. Cell. 42: 139. 1838.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala, Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal;Pantropical.

Habitat: Foliicolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Strigula smaragdula Fr., Linnaea 5: 550. 1830.

Phyllocharis elegans Fée, Essai  Crypt. Ecorc. : 94, 100. 1824.

Strigula elegans (Fée) Müll.Arg., Flora 63: 41. 1880.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Goa, Kerala, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tamil Nadu; Pantropical.

Habitat: Foliicolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances

 

Strigula orbicularis Fr., Linnaea 5: 549. 1830.

Phyllocharis complanata  Fée, Essai  Crypt. Ecorc.: 94 & 99. 1824.

Strigula complanata (Fée) Mont. in  Sagra, Hist. Phys. Cuba Bot. Pl. Cell. 9(2): 140. 1842..

Distribution:Karnataka(Udupi), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala, Meghalaya; pantropical.

Habitat :Foliicolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances.

 

Strigula subelegans Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 19: 23. 1923; Zahlbruckner, Cat. Lich. Univ. 8: 144. 1931; D. Awasthi & K. Singh, Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci., B, 76(3): 123. 1972.

Distribution:Karnataka (Kodagu), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, ITamil Nadu; tropical S & C  America, Pacefic Islands, tropical Asia.

Habitat : Foliicolous.

Chemistry: No lichen substances .

 

 

Teloschistaceae

Caloplaca Th.Fr., nom. cons.

 

Caloplaca subdulosa (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 7: 184. 1931; Chatterjee & al., Geophytology 24(2): 199. 1995.

Lecanora subdulosa Nyl., Acta Soc. Sci. Fenn. 26(10): 10. 1900.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Raichur); Sri Lanka.

Habitat: Saxicolous.

 

Blastenia A. Massal.

 

Blastenia ferruginea (Huds.) A. Massal., Atti Inst. Veneto Sci. lett., ed Arti, Sér. 2,       3: 102 (1852)

Lichen ferrugineus Huds., Fl. Angl.: 444. 1762.

Caloplaca ferruginea (Huds.) Th.Fr., Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Upsal., ser. 3, 3: 223. 1861.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand; Cosmopolitan.

Habitat: Corticolous and Saxicolous.

Chemistry: Emodin, parietin, fallacinal, xanthorin, chloremodin and fragilin.

 

 

Brownliella S.Y. Kondr., Kärnefelt, Elix & Hur

 

Brownliella cinnabarina (Ach.) S.Y. Kondr., Kärnefelt, A. Thell, Elix, J.Kim, A.S.Kondr. & J.-S.Hur, in Kondratyuk et al., Acta bot. hung. 55(3-4): 271. 2013.

 

Caloplaca cinnabarina (Ach.) Zahlbr. in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam.1(1): 228. 1908.

Lecanora cinnabarina Ach., Lichenogr. Universalis: 402. 1810.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Belgaun), Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand; Cosmopolitan.

Habitat: Saxicolous.

Chemistry: Parietin, xanthorin, fallacinal and parietinic acid,

Gyalolechia A. Massal.

 

Gyalolechia flavorubescens (Huds.) Søchting, Frödén & Arup, Nordic J. Bot. 31(1): 70. 2013

Caloplaca flavorubescens  (Huds.) J.R.Laundon, Lichenologist 8: 147. 1976.

Lichen flavorubescens Huds., Fl. Angl.: 443. 1762.

Distribution: Karnataka (Western Ghats) Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Nagaland, Uttarakhand; Cosmopolitan.

Habitat: Saxicolous and corticolous.

Chemistry: Parietin.

 

 

Huneckia S.Y. Kondr., Kärnefelt, Elix & al.

 

Huneckia pollinii (A. Massal.) S.Y. Kondr., Kärnefelt, A. Thell, Elix, J. Kim, A.S. Kondr. & Hur, in Kondratyuk, Jeong, Yu, Kärnefelt, Thell, Elix, Kim, Kondratiuk & Hur, Acta bot. hung. 56(1-2): 111 (2014

Caloplaca pollinii (A. Massal.) Jatta, Syll. Lich. Ital. 244. 1900. Joshi & Upreti, Lichenologist 39(6): 507. 2007.

Blastenia pollinii A. Massal., Atti Istit. Veneto, ser. 2, 3: append., p. 111, fig. 27. 1852.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Bengaluru, Tumkur), Odisha; Europe, Mexico, U.S.A.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Teloschistes Norman

 

Teloschistes flavicans (Sw.) Norm., Nyt Mag. Naturvidensk. 7: 229. 1853.

Lichen flavicans Sw., Prodr.: 147. 1788.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga), Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Cosmopolitan.

Habitat: Corticolous, rarely terricolous.

 

 

Tephromelaceae

Tephromela M. Choisy 

 

Tephromela atra (Huds.) Hafellner in Kalb, Lich. Neotrop. Fasc. 7: 15, No. 297. 1983.

Lichen ater Huds., Fl. Angl. 1: 445. 1762.

Lecanora atra (Huds.) Ach., Lichenogr. Universalis: 344. 1810.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur and Tamil Nadu; Cosmopolitan.

Habitat: Saxicolous.

 

Trapeliaceae

Xylographa (Fr.) Fr.

Stictis subgen. Xylographa Fr.

 

Xylographa vitiligo (Ach.) J.R.Laundon, Lichenologist 2: 147. 1963.

Spiloma vitiligo Ach., Methodus: 10, tab. 1, fig. 4. 1803.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga); Europe, N America.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Stictic acid complex.

​ 

Trypetheliaceae

Astrothelium Eschw.

 

Astrothelium ochrothelizum Müll.Arg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 6: 382. 1885; Makhija & Patwardhan, Biovigyanam 15(2): 63. 1989.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Udupi); Cuba, Singapore.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry:  Lichexanthone present.

 

Bathelium Trevisan, nom. cons.

 

Bathelium benguelense Müll.Arg., Flora 68: 256. 1885.

Laurera benguelensis (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 503. 1922; Upreti & A. Singh, Bull. Jard. Bot. Natl. Belg. 57(3-4): 371. 1987.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Dakshina Kannada), West Bengal; endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Bathelium tuberculosum (Makhija & Patw.) R.C.Harris, More Florida Lichens: 118. 1995.

Laurera tuberculosa Makhija & Patw., Mycotaxon 31: 584. 1988.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Uttara Kannad). Endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Mycomicrothelia Keissl.

 

Mycomicrothelia thelena (Ach.) D. Hawksw., Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Bot. 14(1):

112. 1985.

Verrucaria thelena Ach., Syn. Meth. Lich.: 92. 1814.

Distribution:   Karnataka *, Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Pantropical.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Laurera Rchb.

 

Laurera aurantiaca Makhija & Patw., Mycotaxon 31: 572. 1988.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga); Papua New Guinea.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Laurera columellata Makhija & Patw., Mycotaxon 31: 574. 1988.

Distribution: Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru, Shivamogga, Udupi), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Kerala; endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Laurera fusispora Makhija & Patw., Mycotaxon 31: 576. 1988.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Uttara Kannada); endemic.

Habitat: Cortcolous.

 

Laurera subbenguelensis Upreti & Ajay Singh, Bull. Jard. Bot. Natl. Belg. 57(3-4) : 380. 1987.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Shivamogga), Kerala, Sikkim; endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Laurera subphaeomelodes Upreti & Ajay Singh, Bull. Jard. Bot. Natl. Belg. 57(3-4): 382. 1987.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Western Ghats), Kerala, West Bengal; endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

 Polymeridium (Müll.Arg.) R.C.Harris

Arthopyrenia sect. Polymeridium Müll.Arg.

 

Polymeridium proponens (Nyl.) R.C.Harris, Bol. Mus. Paraense Emilio "Goeldi", n.s. Bot. 7(2): 637. 1991.

Verrucaria proponens Nyl., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, ser. 2, 2: 130. 1868.

Campylothelium nitidum  Müll.Arg., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 23: 401. 1891.

Polyblastiopsis proponens (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 351. 1922.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Udupi), Himachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, West Bengal; Americas, Australia, Papua New Guinea.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Pseudopyrenula Müll.Arg.

 

Pseudopyrenula pupula (Ach.) Mull Arg., Flora 68: 331, 338. 1885.

Pyrenula pupula Ach., Syn. Meth. Lich.: 123. 1814.

Pyrenula cartilaginea Fée, Essai Crypt.  Ecorc.: 77, tab. 23, fig. 3. 1824.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Western Ghats), Arunachal Pradesh, West Bengal; tropical regions.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Trypethelium Spreng., nom. cons.

 

Trypethelium catervarium (Fée) Tuck., Gen. Lich. : 260. 1872.

Verrucaria catervaria Fée, Essai  Crypt. Ecorc.: 190, t. 22, f. 1. 1824.

Distribution: Karnataka  (), Sikkim,West Bengl; Pantropical.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Trypethelium  eluteriae Spreng., Anleit. Kenntn. Gew. 3: 351. 1804. Trypethelium sprengelii Ach., Lichenogr. Universalis : 306, pl. 4, f. 8. 1810.

Distribution: Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Kodagu, Shivamogga, Udupi, Uttara Kannada), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tamil Nadu; Brazil, China, Cuba, Indonesia, Philippines.

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Lichexanthone absent.

 

Trypethelium karnatakense R.C.Harris, More Florida Lichens : 147. 1995.

Pleurotrema megaspermum Makhija & Patw.,  Biovigyanam 16(1): 24. 1990.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Shivamogga); endemic.

Habitat: Corticolous.

 

Trypethelium subnitidiusculum Makhija & Patw., J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 73: 207. 1993.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Kodagu) Arunachal Pradesh, Assam; endemic.

Habitat: Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Lichexanthone absent.

 

Trypethelium tropicum (Ach.) Müll.Arg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 6: 393. 1885.

Verrucaria tropica Ach., Lichenogr. Universalis : 278. 1810.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Dakshina  Kannada, Kodagu, Shivamogga), Andaman &  Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu,West Bengal; Australia, Brazil, China, Cuba, Indonesia, Malaysia, Paraguay Singapore, USA (Florida).

Habitat: Corticolous.

Chemistry: Lichexanthone absent.

 

Verrucariaceae

Endocarpon Hedw

 

Endocarpon nanum Ajay Singh & Upreti, Candollea 39: 541. 1984

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Hassan), Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh; endemic.      

Habitat: On lime plaster of walls

 

Endocarpon pusillum Hedw., Descr. Adumbr. Muscor. Frond. 2: 56. 1789.

Distribution:   Karnataka  (Hassan), Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh; temperate region of the world.

Habitat: On old walls, brick, lime plaster.

 

 

Acknowledgements

 

Author is  thankful to the Director, Botanical Survey of India (BSI), Kolkata and Dr. G.P. Sinha, Head of Office, BSI, Allahabad for facilities, to Dr. M . Sanjappa, Former Director, BSI, Kolkata  for editing, to Dr. Bharti Adawadkar Sharma, Agarkar Reserach Institute, Pune for providing most of the photographs and  Dr.Pushpi Singh, NPDF, BSI, Allahabad for assistance.The manuscript was updated during the period of NASI  Senior Scientistship .

 

References

 

Adawadkar, B. & Makhija, U. 2007. New species and new records of Graphis from India

with partially carbonized exciples and transseptate ascospores. Mycotaxon 99: 303 – 326.

Awasthi D.D. and Upreti, D.K. 1980. A note on the lichens from Lalbagh garden,                                              

   Bangalore. Indian. J. Bot. 3(2): 181 – 184, 1980.

Chatterjee, S., Sinha, G. P. & Singh, A. 1996.  Lichens from some monuments in

Distribution:   Karnataka  and Odisha. Geophytology 25: 83 – 90.

Dudani, S.N., Nayaka, S., Mahesh, M.K., Chandran, M.D.S, Ramachandra, T.V. 2015.

           Lichen Diversity in the Sacred Forest Fragments of Central Western Ghats. J.            

           Biodivers.  Manage. Forestry 4 (2): 1 – 6.

Lücking, R., Kalb, K., Staiger, B & McNeill, J. 2007. (1792) –Proposal to conserve the name Phaeographis, with conserved type, against Creographa, Ectographis, Flegographa, Hymenodecton,Platygramma,andPyrographa(Ascomycota:Ostropales: Graphidaceae), along with notes on the names Graphina and Phaeographina. Taxon 56: 1296-1299.

Makhija, U., Adawadkar, B. & Patwardhan, P. G.  1994. The Lichen genus Porina

(Family-Trichotheliaceae) from India. J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 18(3): 521-

545.

Makhija, U. & Patwardhan, P. G. 1985. A Contribution to our knowledge of the genus

Cryptothecia. Biovigyanam 11(1): 1 – 13.

Makhija, U. & Patwardhan, P. G. 1990. On the Lichen Genus Pleurotrema Müll.

Arg. Biovigyanam 16(1): 10 – 37.

Makhija, U. & Patwardhan, P. G. 1994. A Contribution towards a monograph of the

Lichen Genus Cryptothecia (Family Arthoniaceae): In Sarma et al (eds.) Current Researches in Plant Sciences, pp. 57 – 72. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun.

Nagarkar, M. B., Sethy, P.K. & Patwardhan, P.G. 1988. Lichen Genus Ocellularia

(Family Thelotremataceae) from India. Biovigyanam 14(1): 24 – 43.

Nayaka, S. & Upreti, D. K. 2002. Lichen flora of Shravathi river basin, Shivamogga

district, Distribution:   Karnataka , India, with six new records. J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 27(3): 626 – 648.

Nayaka, S., Upreti, D. K., Gadgil, M. & Pandey, V. 2003. Distribution pattern and heavy

metal accumulation in lichens of Bangalore city with special reference to Lalbagh Garden. Curr. Sci. 84(5): 674 – 680.

Patwardhan, P. G. & Kulkarni, C. R. 1977. A contribution to our knowledge of the

Lichen flora India I: Family Thelotremataceae. Kavaka 5: 1 – 17.

Patwardhan, P.G. & Makhija, U. 1981. The Lichen genus Lopadium (Family

Lecideaceae) in the Western Ghats, Southwestern India. Indian J. Bot.

                        4(1): 20-26.

Patwardhan, P. G., Sethy, P. K. & Nagarkar, M. B. 1985. A Contribution to our

          knowledge of the Lichen Family Thelotremataceae from South India.

         Biovigyanam 11(2): 133 – 140.

Rashmi, S and Rajkumar, H.G. 2015. First Report of Foliicolous Lichen Biota in South

          Karnataka-India. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 4(6): 250 – 256.

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Survey of India, Salt lake city, Kolkata. 571 pp.

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