Last modified at 10/05/2018 12:53 by System Account

Checklist of Mammals of Karnataka

Ramakrishna

         

          Introduction:

Mammals originated from reptilian ancestors nearly 200 million years ago from 'mammal-like reptiles', and more formally as the non-mammalian Synapsid. The adaptations that made these animals successful have been refined by natural selection as vegetation and climate have changed in response to major geologic changes. Information on the mammalian diversity and utilization dates back to "Vedas" (Rao, 1957) and Linnaeus (1756) describing several Indian species in his monumental work on "Systema naturae". Though several workers attempted to study the Indian mammals (Tickel, Horsfield, Hutton, Blyth, Hardwicke, Gray, Hodgson and others during second and third quarters of nineteenth century), the real picture emerged  for the first time from the work of Jerdon (1857). A consolidated account of the Indian mammals emerged from the work of Sterndale (1884), Blanford (1888-91), Anderson (1881) and Sclater (1891).  A clear picture of the diversity and distribution of Indian mammals came from the work of Pocock (1939-41) on carnivore; Ellerman (1961) on rodentia; Prater (1980) and recently by Prakash (1995), Chakraborty and Agrawal (2000), Alfred & Ramakrishna. (2006), Pradhan & Talmale (2012)  and others.   

Mammals in general have a large number of unique characters they possess viz., 1. The body covered with hair or fur. 2. Warm-blooded (Homeothermic) 3. Usually born alive and relatively well-developed, having grown inside the mother's body (uterus). 4. After birth the young are fed with milk, produced by mammary glands.  5. Have larger and more complex brains than any other group of animals, and 6. The middle ear consists of three bones viz., Malleus, Incus and Stapes.

 

The egg-laying mammals belonging to the order Monotremata are found only in Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea; 7 orders of Marsupials in Australia, Indonesia and South America, orders Hyracoidea, Tilidentata and Macroselidea in Africa; order Xenarthra in South America; and order Dermoptera in Java, Sumatra and the Philippines.

 

Based on the body forms, habit and habitat preferences, mammals are classified  into nine categories viz., 

1.       Four footed mammals                              Artiodactyla, Carnivore, Lagomorpha,

                                                                                        Rodentia

2.      Erect posture mammals                           Some Primate species including man

3.      Flying mammals                                       Chiroptera

4.      Gliding mammals                                     Flying   squirrels  (Rodentia)

5.      Arboreal mammals                                   Chiroptera, Primates, Rodentia

6.      Burrowing mammals                                Some species of Insectivora, Rodentia &

Carnivora

7.      Aquatic mammals                                     Otters (Carnivora) Cetacea, Sirenia

8.      Terrestrial mammals                                Artiodactyla,Carnivora,Primates, Scandentia

9.      Toothless mammals                                  Pholidota (Pangolins)

 

Diversity

Wilson and Reeder (2005) recognized about 1229 genera and 5416 living species of mammals of world.  Most of the species of mammals are already described and only a few new species (10-12) are continued to be named each year. India, the largest among the South Asian countries, has the maximum number of species recorded. As many as 428 species are known to be present in India. The other countries with species richness in descending order are Nepal (197 species), Pakistan (190 species), Bangladesh (134 species), Afghanistan (124 species), Sri Lanka (122 species), Bhutan (112 species), and Maldives (21 species). Out of the total number of 428 species of Mammals recorded from India, which are about 7. 90 % of the global mammalian species, representing 48 families and 14 orders (ZSI checklist).   The estimated species composition of Karnataka is 150, taking subspecies into consideration, the number exceeds 160, and a majority of these are distributed in Western Ghats. The nomenclature and taxonomic arrangement of the species and valid sub species of the Indian mammals was compiled primarily based on Pocock, 1939, 1941; Prater, 1971; Alfred et al., 2002, 2006 and Wilson and Reeder, 2005.

 

Animal breeds and Laboratory animals

 

Livestock sector produced 121.8 (2010-11), 127.9 (2011-12), 132.4 (2012-13) million tonnes of milk. The share from Karnataka is 5114 (2010-11), 5447 (2011-12) and 5718 (2012-13) lakh tonnes, thus there is a quantum jump in the production of milk from the State.

Cattle Breeds in Karnataka are Hallikar, Amrithmahal in the southern part Khillar, Krishavalley and Deoni in the Northern part.  All are draught purpose breeds. Malnad Gidda is a dwarf variety cattle found in Malnad regions of the State. Germplasm of these breeds are conserved. Buffalo breeds in Karnataka: No descript breed of the State exists.  As such the non-descript (swamp) buffalo is upgraded with Surti and Murrah breeds of Northern India for improvement  in milk yield.

Asia accounts for about 60 % of global egg production followed by the US, Brazil and Mexico as they together account for about 20 %, Europe (15 %), Africa (about 4%) and rest of the world accounts for about one per cent.  Mainly India export eggs, egg powder, frozen egg yolk and albumin powder to Europe, Japan and other countries. Export of eggs from Andhra Pradesh goes to West Asia and African countries. Daily export of about 20 lakh eggs in containers are being sent to the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Muscat, Iran, Iraq and several African countries. The egg containers are being shipped to Dubai from where they were distributed to other countries in the Gulf and Africa. Andhra Pradesh ranks second in egg exports, after Tamil Nadu. Egg production in India is likely to surge from the current level of about 7,500 crore to about 9,500 crore by 2015, as per a sector specific analysis by The Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM). Egg production in India is growing at a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of over 8%. With over 2,800 crore eggs produced in the state per year, Andhra Pradesh accounts for the highest share of over 30 per cent in the total egg production across India, according to the ASSOCHAM analysis. The share of Karnataka in terms of egg production is   29, 09,400 (2010-11) 30, 67,400 (2011-12).  

The Indian birds are mostly non-descript, and have several local breed names such as Tenis, Naked Neck, Punjab, Brown, Ghagus, Lolab, Kashmir Faberella, Tilri, Busra, Telllicherry, Danki, Nicorai and Kalahasti. There are only 4 pure breeds Karaknath and the Busra. The last occurs in western India. A large number of fowls of different size, shapes and colours, and for the most part resembling the jungle fowls, are found all over India. They vary in appearance according to the locality in which they have been bred. Danki and KaJasthi breeds of chicken are native to Andhra Pradesh while Ghagus is native to Karnataka.

The Indian wool and woolen textile industry is the seventh-largest in the world. The industry employed 2.7 million people in 2010-11.  India has the 3rd largest sheep population country in the world having 6.40 crores sheep producing 43.30 (2010-110), 44.40 (2011-12)and 46.05 (2012-13) million kg of raw wool. Out of this about 85% is carpet grade wool, 5% apparel grade and remaining 10% coarser grade wool for making rough Kambals etc. Average annual yield per sheep in India is 0.9 Kg. against the world average of 2.4 Kg. The main woolen items producing states of India are Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttrakhand, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Punjab alone accounts for 40 per cent woolen units, while Haryana 27 per cent, Rajasthan for 10 per cent and the rest of the states account for the remaining 23 per cent. India produced 46.4 million kg of indigenous raw wool during 2013-14. Out of the total indigenous raw wool production, only 5 per cent is apparel grade, while 10 per cent is coarse grade. The remaining 85 per cent is used for carpet manufacturing, which is a major source of export earnings.  The share of Karnataka in wool production is 7.779 million kg in 2011-12. India exports various woolen products like tops, yarn, fabrics, Ready Made Garments and Carpets. Carpet enjoys maximum share of total export. The aggregate export of woolen items from wool tops to finished products like textiles, clothing, blankets and carpets is currently estimated around Rs. 7000 Crs.

Sheep and goats are important species of livestock for India. They contribute greatly to the agrarian economy, especially in areas where crop and dairy farming are not economical, and play an important role in the livelihood of a large proportion of small and marginal farmers and landless labourers. The wild goat (Capra hircus), the chief ancestral stock from which the various breeds of domestic goats have been derived. India's vast genetic resources in sheep and goats are reflected by the availability of 40 breeds of sheep and 20 breeds of goats. In the strict sense, there are no specific breeds, since the majority of them do not have specified defined characters.

Sheep breeds Deccani distributed in Bidar, Bijapur, Gulbarga, and Raichur districts, breed Bellary distributed in Bellary district, Mandya (also known as Bannur and Bandur found distributed  in Mandya and Mysore districts, Hassan distributed in Hassan district,   Kenguri  in the hilly tracts of Raichur district (particularly Lingasagar, Sethanaur and Gangavati taluks.

 

Domestic Animal species:

The domestication of animals for agricultural purposes dates back to the beginning of the Neolithic period, 9,000 years ago. Early agriculturalists in the Fertile Crescent of the Near East began breeding goats first, then sheep, pigs, and cattle. A domestic animal is characterized by several attributes. First, it is bred in captivity for economic profit. Second, humans control its breeding, territory organization, and food supply. Animals bred in captivity tend to have different anatomies and behavior from their wild ancestors. Stress and dependence on humans causes hormonal imbalances and disrupts growth in different parts of the organism. Captive breeding exaggerates these effects, leading to the retention of juvenile characteristics, such as submissive behavior, a smaller body, fat deposition under the skin, shortening of the jaws, and smaller teeth and brain. Domestic animals also tend to appear quite different from their wild ancestors, as animal breeders selected them for a variety of idiosyncratic traits in order to identify them easily as property.

The pariah dog (Canis familiaris), the first animal species to become domesticated was the dog (Canis familiarus ), occurring more than 12,000 years ago in west Asia and many experts think dogs descended from the wolf (Canis lupus).  Mudhol hounds are native to Northern Karnataka and parts of Southern Mahrashtra.  Domestic cats are an exception to the rule of domestication. Feral cats (Felis silvestris) helped rid rats and mice from stored grains once agriculture became widespread. Because cats are territorial, nocturnal carnivores, controlled breeding was exceptionally difficult. Consequently, there are relatively few cat breeds even after thousands of years of domestication, and those that exist are not much different from their wild ancestor or each other.

Archaeological evidence of domestic   sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra hircus),  in the Jordan Valley dates back to 7,000 B. C. E. Sheep were domesticated from the Asiatic moufflon (Ovis orientalis ), a grass grazer found in hills and foothills. Domestic goats were derived from the bezoar goat (Capra aegagrus), a hardy browser found in mountainous terrain. Both species were relatively easy to breed in captivity because they were social and adapted to harsh environmental conditions.

Domestic cattle cow (Bos frontalis) buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), appear in the archaeological record 6,000 years ago in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Their ancestor was the wild ox (Bos primigenius ), a browsing and grazing ruminant in forests and scrub, now extinct. Pigs were domesticated from the wild boar (Sus scrofa ) around the same time as cattle.

Horses were domesticated in the third millennium B. C. E. in Russia and western Asia from the wild horse (Equus ferus). In early 2001, scientists from the University of California, Los Angeles, and three Swedish universities published research indicating that the domestic horse was so genetically diverse, it could not have originated at one place. Mitochondrial DNA, which is genetically transmitted from mother to children, indicated several different matrilineal (female-based) lines. Based on this finding, the researchers suggested that wild horses were tamed independently in several different parts of the world. The "idea" of domesticating horses may have originated in one place, probably central Asia, but various cultures captured and tamed their own horses.

 

Laboratory Mammals

Laboratory strains of Mice (Mus musculus strains such as BALB/c, AKR/cdri, C3H/cdri, C57BL/6 cdri, Nzb/cdri, SJL/cdri, SMA/cdri, Swiss/cdri (Inbred), db/db (C57BLKS/Bom-db), Hr/cdri (Hairless), cdri /S (Swiss) (Outbred), cdri/p (Parks), NOD/LtJ, C57Bl/6J, A/J Nii, many more breeds) have been developed from wild mouse which had their origin in temperate Asia.  The long established Swiss Albino mouse became the source of many inbred white laboratory stocks.  A number of out bred and inbred strains with known genetic background are now available. The use of Rats for scientific purposes began as early as 1850.    Rat, Rattus norvegicus strains Fisher 344, Wistar, LEW, Sprague Dawley, Druckery (D), Charles Foster (CF), SHR (Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat), Holtzman, CD y/nin, Wistar (Kyoto) etc., have been developed over past 70 years from the wild brown Norwegian Rat. Hamster, Mesocricetus auratus strains viz., Syrian Golden Hamster (Out bred), Syrian Golden Hamster (Inbred), White (Mutant) Hamster (Inbred) WWSH/cdri) is a recent addition to the list of laboratory animals. All laboratory strains of Syrian hamster are believed to have originated from three littermates captured near Aleppo in Syria in 1930.  Progeny of which is used in the investigation of Kala Azar.  Cotton rat, Sigmodon hispidus, (Cotton Rat cdri) is a wild rat native to North America.  Gerbils ((Meriones unguiculatus, Meriones hurrianea strains Mongolian Gerbil cdri, Indian Desert Gerbil nimhn) is a native of the desert region of Mongolia and northeastern China. It is distinguished by monogamous mating behaviour, water conservation mechanism, spontaneous epileptiform seizures and relative freedom from spontaneous diseases.  Mastomys, Paraomys (Mastomys) coucha, Mastomys (Multimammate Rat) cdri) are recognized agricultural pests in Africa and they also serve as reservoir of plague in South Africa. Guinea Pig, Cavus procellus, Duncan Hartley/English/Hartley) a widely distributed species in Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil, is domesticated in South America.  Rabbit, Oryctolagous cuniculus, New Zealand White, Belgian cdri) is derived from the Wild rabbits of Western Europe and North Western Africa.  Non-human primates' viz., Rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta; Bonnet, Macaca radiata and Langur Semnopithecus entellus have been used for Biomedical Research in India. Besides the above, India has nearly 130 breeds of domestic livestock, goat, sheep, camel, cattle and  the poultry, and the commercial value from these biological resources and their contribution to the national economy are of great significance. Goats (Capra hirus); Sheep Bannur (Ovis aries) and Cow Jersey Holstein Fresian (Bos sp.) are very important as biotechnological tools in recent years.

 

Introduced Species:

The House mouse (Mus musculus) and the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) have reached India through human agencies and established here.

 

Conservation issues

Mammals exhibit a wide distribution within the state of Karnataka, a majority of the endemic and threatened mammals are confined to the wet zone and especially, the montane zone of Western Ghats, where habitat loss and degradation are taking place at a rapid rate.   Furthermore, fragmentation of habitats also has a detrimental effect on mammal populations, especially small mammals who have low mobility. Expansion of human settlements into forested areas has resulted in an influx of invasive and pest species (house rat and brown rat) and domestic predators (cat and dog) into the remaining natural habitats. These compete with indigenous species as well as increase the predator pressure on already stressed natural populations.

A number of small predators, such as the fishing cat and the mongoose, live in small urban forests and marshes which are at risk of being converted to human use, endangering these small urban populations. Increased mortality due to hunting and conflict also remains a major concern, especially for the large charismatic species.

The current conservation status of the Indian mammals as per IUCN Red list of Threatened Species, 2012, Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 and CITES, 2012 are given below.

 

IUCN Criteria

IUCN is the world's oldest and largest global environmental network–a democratic membership union with more than 1,000 government and NGO member organizations, and almost 11,000 volunteer scientists in more than 160 countries. The IUCN Species Programme working with the IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC) has for more than four decades been assessing the conservation status of species, subspecies, varieties, and even selected subpopulations on a global scale in order to highlight taxa threatened with extinction, and therefore promote their conservation. Red List is the outcome of this exercise which is the most objective and scientifically based information on the current status of globally threatened animal and plants. The Red List provides taxonomic, conservation status and distribution information of species that have been globally evaluated using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (see below for details). This system is designed to determine the relative risk of extinction, and the main purpose of the IUCN Red List is to catalogue and highlight those plants and animals that are facing a higher risk of global extinction (i.e. those listed as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable). The IUCN Red List also includes information on plants and animals that are categorized as Extinct or Extinct in the Wild; on taxa that cannot be evaluated because of insufficient information (i.e., are Data Deficient); and on plants and animals that are either close to meeting the threatened thresholds or that would be threatened were it not for an ongoing taxon-specific conservation programme (i.e., are Near Threatened). Plants and animals that have been evaluated to have a low risk of extinction are classified as Least Concern. The Least Concern assessments did not appear on IUCN Red Lists produced before 2003 (except for a few that were listed in 1996) because the main focus of attention has been on threatened species. However, for the sake of transparency and to place threatened assessments in context, all Least Concern assessments are now included on the IUCN Red List. Thus, despite its title, The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species does not just focus on threatened species; it considers the status of all species across an increasing number of taxonomic groups.

 

Documentation Requirements and Taxonomic Standards

All taxa added to the Red List and any listings that are changed must be documented for following heads as these are minimum requirements. The degree of documentation achieved is extremely variable across the list but an increasing number of species are now meeting the minimum requirements. For Extinct species (and infra-specific taxa), extra documentation is required indicating the effective date of extinction, the causes of the extinction and the details of surveys which have been conducted to search for the species. The starting date for the inclusion of extinctions is 1500 AD.

i) Taxonomy

ii) Assessment Information

iii) Geographic Range

iv) Population

v) Habitat & Ecology

vi) Threats

vii) Conservation Actions

viii) Links to Images and Other Sources of Information

ix) Bibliography

x) Extinct, Extinct in the Wild and Possibly Extinct Species

 

Definitions of IUCN Red List Categories

 

Extinct (EX): A taxon is Extinct when there is no reasonable doubt that the last individual has died.

 

Extinct In The Wild (EW) : A taxon is Extinct in the wild when it is known only to survive in cultivation, in captivity or as a naturalized population (or populations) well outside the past range.

 

Critically Endangered (CR): A taxon is Critically Endangered when it is facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild in the immediate future, as defined by any of the criteria.

 

Endangered (EN): A taxon is endangered when it is not Critically Endangered but is facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild in the near future, as defined by any of the criteria.

 

Vulnerable (VU): A taxon is Vulnerable when it is not Critically Endangeredor Endangered but is facing a high risk of extinction in the wild in the mediumterm future, as defined by any of the criteria.

 

Lower Risk (LR) : A taxon is Lower Risk when it has been evaluated, does not qualify for any of the threatened categories Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable or Data Deficient (LR/nt- near threatened, LR/lc- least concerned, LR/ cd conservation dependent).

 

Near Threatened (NT): A taxon is Near Threatened when it has been evaluated against the criteria but does not qualify for Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable now, but is close to qualifying for, or is likely to qualify for, a threatened category in the near future.

 

Least Concern (LC): A taxon is Least Concern when it has been evaluated against the criteria and does not qualify for Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable or Near Threatened. Widespread and abundant taxa are included in this category.

 

Data Deficient (DD): A taxon is Data Deficient when there is inadequate information to make a direct, or indirect, assessment of its risk of extinction based on its distribution and/or population status.

 

Not Evaluated (NE): A taxon is Not Evaluated when it is has not yet been assessed against the criteria.

 

THE CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES)

 

One of the reasons for high extinction rate is an illegal trade. Annually, international wildlife trade is estimated to be worth billions of dollars and include hundreds of millions of plant and animal specimens. The trade is diverse, ranging from live animals and plants to a vast array of wildlife products derived from them, including food products, exotic leather goods, wooden musical instruments, timber, tourist curios and medicines. Levels of exploitation of some animal and plant species are high and the trade in them, together with other factors, such as habitat loss, is capable of heavily depleting their populations and even bringing some species close to extinction. Because the trade in wild animals and plants crosses borders between countries, the effort to regulate it requires international cooperation to safeguard certain species from over-exploitation. Although, many wildlife species in trade are not endangered, but the existence of an agreement to ensure the sustainability of the trade is important in order to safeguard these resources for the future. CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an instrument working in this direction and was conceived in the spirit of such cooperation.

 

 

CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement to which States (countries) adhere voluntarily. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. To achieve this, varying degrees of protection is accorded to more than 33,000 species of animals and plants. States that have agreed to be bound by the Convention ('joined' CITES) are known as Parties. It has its Secretariat located in Geneva in Switzerland and is administered by UNEP. Although CITES is legally binding on the Parties– it does not take the place of national laws. Rather it provides a framework to be respected by each Party, which has to adopt its own domestic legislation to ensure that CITES, is implemented at the national level. Presently with 175 Parties (Table 2.1) it is one of the best represented convention of the world though 26 countries yet to join it (Map 2.1). India became a party to convention on 18th October, 1976.

 

APPENDICES TO CITES

The species are grouped in different Appendices according to how threatened they are by international trade. There are altogether three Appendices under CITES, their criteria are listed below.

 

APPENDIX - I

Appendix I include species threatened with extinction. Trade in specimens of these species is permitted only in exceptional circumstances. Trade in the species listed in Appendix –I is possible only in presence of both import and export certificate issued by the Management Authorities of importing /exporting countries.

 

APPENDIX II

Appendix II include species not necessarily threatened with extinction, but in which trade must be controlled in order to avoid utilization incompatible with their survival.

 

APPENDIX III

Appendix III contain species that are protected in at least one country, which has asked other, CITES Parties, for assistance in controlling the trade.

THE INDIAN WILDLIFE (PROTECTION) ACT, 1972

The Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 is the major legislation which specifically enacted for the protection of the wildlife in India. Besides this, there are many legislation enacted for the protection and preservation of the Wildlife. They are The Wildlife Protection Act, 1972; The Wildlife (Transactions and Taxidermy) Rules, 1973; The Wildlife (Stock Declaration) Central Rules, 1973; The Wildlife (Protection) Licensing (Additional Matters for Consideration) Rules, 1983; The Wildlife (Protection) Rules, 1995; The Wildlife (Specified Plants – Conditions for Possession by Licensee) Rules, 1995; Forest Conservation Act, 1980; Forest (Conservation) Rules, 1981; National Forest Policy, 1988; Biological Diversity Act, 2002; Besides these Acts, there are many legislations on Air, Water, Environment, Hazardous substance management, Solid waste management, Noise Pollution prevention, and so on. Such laws also have the provisions to protect the wildlife.

 

THE INDIAN WILDLIFE (P) ACT, 1972

 

The key environmental challenges that the country faces relate to the nexus of environmental degradation with poverty in its many dimensions, and economic growth. These challenges are intrinsically connected with the state of environmental resources, such as land, water, air, and their flora and fauna. The proximate drivers of environmental degradation are population growth, inappropriate technology and consumption choices, and poverty, leading to changes in relations between people and ecosystems, and development activities such as intensive agriculture, polluting industry, and unplanned urbanisation. The status of wildlife in a region is an accurate index of the state of ecological resources, and thus of the natural resource base of human well-being. This is because of the interdependent nature of ecological entities, in which wildlife is a vital link. Moreover, several charismatic species of wildlife embody incomparable values, and at the same time, comprise a major resource base for sustainable development. Conservation of wildlife, accordingly, involves the protection of entire ecosystems. We have to keep these perspectives in mind while going through the Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972.

 

The Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 refers to a sweeping package of legislation enacted in 1972 by the Government of India. The Act provides for the protection of wild animals, birds and plants; and for matters connected therewith or ancillary or incidental thereto. It extends to the whole of India, except the State of Jammu and Kashmir which has its own wildlife Act. The Wildlife Protection Act, 1972, provides for protection to listed species of flora and fauna and establishes a network of ecologically important protected areas. The Act consists of 66 Sections and VI Schedules-divided into Seven Chapters. The Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 empowers the central and state governments to declare any area a wildlife sanctuary, national park, or conservation and community reserve. There is a blanket ban on carrying out any industrial activity inside these protected areas. It provides for authorities to administer and implement the Act; regulate the hunting of wild animals; protect specified plants, sanctuaries, national parks and conservation and community reserve; restrict trade or commerce in wild animals or animal articles; and miscellaneous matters. The Act prohibits  hunting of animals except with permission of authorized officer when an animal has become dangerous to human life or property or as disabled or diseased as to be beyond recovery.

 

The Act underwent many amendments. The working of 1972 Act was not satisfactory & hence, in 1986 the Act was suitably amended. Under the 1972 Act, trade & commerce in wild animals, animal articles & trophies was permissible within the country. But many traders smuggled the animal skins, animal articles & trophies to foreign countries for getting huge profit. Hence, it became necessary to prohibit trade in certain specified wild animals. Accordingly, by 1986 Amendment it was provided that no one will be allowed to carry on trade in wild animals specified in Schedules I & II of the Act. Further the then existing licenses for internal trade of animals & animal articles were revoked. Further total ban was imposed on trade in Indian ivory.

 

In 1991 the Wildlife Act was further amended. This amendment was made on the basis of recommendations of the Indian Wildlife Board. It was felt that due to continuous poaching & illegal trade in animal articles, the wildlife population in India has rapidly declined. Hence, in 1991 Amendment, hunting of all wild animals except vermin was prohibited. But in certain exceptional circumstances such as for protection of life & property, education, research, scientific management & captive breeding, hunting of wild animals was permitted. Further to control the death rate of animals on account of communicable diseases, compulsory immunization was provided for cattle around national parks & sanctuaries. The provisions of national park & sanctuary were extended to territorial waters without seriously affecting the interests of local fishermen. Further, it was provided that without settling the rights of tribal people, no area can be declared as a national park or a sanctuary. Moreover, the Amendment recognized the importance of zoos in protection of wild animals in the country & hence it was provided that the management of zoos will be monitored by the Central Zoo Authority established under the Act. Further, widespread changes have been made by the Wildlife (Protection) Amendment Act, 2002 and a new chapter has been incorporated as Chapter VI-A to deal with the forfeiture of property derived from illegal hunting and trade. Further, through this amendment the Act also introduced the concept of co-operative management through conservation reserve management committee and community reserve committees.

 

 

Animal

 

 

Body/ organ

 

Part used as

 

Purpose

 

 

Remarks

 

 

Elephant   

 

 

                  

Molar teeth Ivory                                                  Statues, jeweler   boxes, decorative items

Synthetic material available

At present ban on Ivory trade, included under CITES, IUCN & WLP, 1972

Tiger & Leopards

 

Skin, bones claws teeth

 

Skin, bones, claws, teeth

 

 

Skin for making coats, bones for oriental medicine, teeth and claws as talisman and faith healing

 

Undesirable clothing as better cloths available. Faith healings have not proven curing capabilities. Now protected  under CITES, IUCN & WLP, 1972

 

Fishing, Marbled, Jungle, Golden cat, fox

 

Skin

 

 

- Do -

For making small coats, gloves

 

- Do -

Now protected  under CITES, IUCN & WLP, 1972

 

Bear

 

Gall bladder

 

Bear bile

 

 

Oriental medicine

 

 

 

No proven ability to cure

 Now protected under CITES, IUCN & WLP, 1972

 

 

Monkeys, gibbon

 

 

----

Used in circus, street plays, biomedical researches, pets.

 

All are avoidable

Now protected under CITES, IUCN & WLP, 1972

 

 

Slow Loris, slender Loris

 

----

Pet trade

 

 

All are avoidable

Now included under CITES, IUCN & WLP, 1972

 

 

Pangolin

 

----

As talisman

 

- Do-

Now protected under CITES, IUCN & WLP, 1972

 

 

 

  List of species used in  Siddha, Unani and Aurveda

Mammal species System of Medicine & Parts used Action and Uses
Bandicota indica

Unani

Flesh, blood, heart, brain, excreta and skin.

Anti-epileptic, depilatory and beneficial to eye.

Flesh: of head is useful in cataract.

Blood: cures warts and scars.

Heart: is made into 7 pieces, one piece if taken daily for 7 days, cures epilepsy.

Brain: is useful in cataract.

Excreta:  with honey is useful in alopecia.

Skin:  Fumes from skin are given in piles.

Now protected under WLP, 1972

 

Pteropus giganteus

Unani

Whole organism, flesh, blood, brain, bile, milk and excreta

Detoxicant, anti-inflammatory and depilatory.

Whole animal:  is boiled in water. The decoction so obtained, when mixed with Sesame oil, forms a useful emulsion for application in rheumatism, sciatica and paralysis.

Flesh: is detoxicant and anti-inflammatory.  It is useful in dropsy, rheumatism, paralysis and gout.  Ash is mixed with urine and given in intoxication.

Blood:  is depilatory and it depresses memory growth.

Bile: Local application on vagina facilitates delivery.

Milk: of bat produces feeling of warmth.  It is incorporated in 'Surma' for promoting growth of eyelashes and for curing eye diseases.

Now protected under CITES, IUCN & WLP, 1972

 

Melursus ursinus

Ayurveda and Unani

Flesh, fat, lungs, urethra, bile, bones and teeth.

Flesh:  It is fibrous, indigestible and of low nutritive value but it possesses aphrodisiac properties.

Fat: It is useful as an external application in rheumatism, leucoderma and alopecia cases.

Lungs: Warm ash cures shoe sores.

Urethra: Aphrodisiac properties.

Bile: is given with honey for the treatment of Epilepsy. Instillation in eyes improves eye-sight and promotes the growth of eye lashes.

Bone & Teeth: Teeth if rubbed in water and given to infants, facilitate early teething.

Now protected under CITES, IUCN & WLP, 1972

 

Lutra lutra

Ayurveda, Unani and Homeopathy

Castoriumor jundbedstar, brain, tongue and bones

Costoreum: Used in paralysis, epilepsy, whooping cough, nervous disorders and scorpion poisoning.

Brain is mixed with oil of Viola odorata and instilled in nostrils for relief in hemicrania.

Tongue: It is applied on dog bite wound and its ash for healing wounds.

Bones: Fumigation from burnt cures hemicrania.

Now protected under CITES, IUCN & WLP, 1972

 

Antilope cervicapra

Ayurveda and Unani

Flesh, fat, testicles, milk, excreta and horn.

Flesh: It is easily digestible, palatable and tonic for the heart, body and sexual function. It is useful in jaundice, paralysis and nervine disorders. It cures fever.

Fat:  Promotes hair growth.

Milk: It is lighter than mare's milk. It possesses aphrodisiac properties.

Excreta: It is good for eye diseases.

Horn: Ash of horns is nutritive and demulcent. It is of value in sciatica, gout, lumbago, loss of appetite, cough, asthma and diseases of the heart.

Skin: It is insect repellent.

Now protected under CITES, IUCN & WLP, 1972

 

Boselaphus tragocamelus

Unani

Flesh, heart, brain and spinal chord, kidneys and horns.

Cardiac tonic, nervine and sexual tonic and styptic.

Flesh: It is easily digestible, palatable, nervine and sexual tonic.

Heart is cardiotonic, so use in heart diseases.

Brain and spinal chord: It is used in loss of memory and weakness of the brain.

Kidneys invigorate kidneys.

Horns: Ash of horn is styptic. It is mixed with gum tragacanth and given in cases of leucorrhoea and bleeding

Now protected under CITES, IUCN & WLP, 1972

 

Fellis chaus

Ayurveda and Unani

Flesh, bone and urine

It is beneficial for those suffering from diseases of eye.  The flesh is also used in Rajayakshma (tuberculosis).  The urine of cat is efficacious as snuff in case of Epilepsy.   Flesh is also good for old people and is indicated on backache, pain in joints, hernia and piles.  Warm flesh from a freshly killed animal is applied externally on gout and fractures.  The powder of rib bones is applied on fistula.

Now protected under CITES, IUCN & WLP, 1972

 

Viverra zibetha

Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani

Secretion from Scent glands

It is used in hysteria, nervous exhaustion and oriental incense.  It is also used in abdominal pain, asthma, cardiac disease and libido.

It is of value in fasting, nervous exhaustion, hysteria and piles. It is good for eyesight and sensory organs. Inhalation is useful in colds and accompanied headache.

Now protected under CITES, IUCN & WLP, 1972

 

Vulpes bengalensis

Unani

Lomri as a whole, flesh, fat, skin

Anti-inflammatory and aphrodisiac

Whole Organism: Live fox is boiled in water. The decoction, so prepared, is used for gout.

Flesh: Aphrodisiac and useful for patients of dropsy.

Fat: is good for gout and earache.

Skin: Ash of skin heals burns and wounds.

Now protected under CITES, IUCN & WLP, 1972

 

Sus salvanius

Ayurveda and Unani

Lard (purified internal fat of the hog), flesh, lungs, bile, milk and horns

It is aphrodisiac. It acts well in general debility.

It is used in abdominal pain, Vata Dosha, fractures, piles and paralysis. It is used for preparing benzoated lard which contains lard incorporated in benzene powder 3% and which is employed for preparing ointments. Lard oil (oleum adepis) is obtained from it. It is also useful in inflammations, deafness and aphrodisiac

Flesh:  cures indigestion, headache, rheumatism, filariasis, mental damage, impotence.

Lungs: Warm ash cures shoe sores.

Bile: Application with honey and black pepper promotes hair growth. It is of value in the treatment of ear diseases and piles.

Milk: It is nutrient and tonic.

Horns: Ash of hooves is curative for urinary obstruction.

Now protected under CITES, IUCN & WLP, 1972

 

Hyaena hyena

Ayurveda and Unani

Tongue, fat, heart, skin, bone marrow, bile, blood and flesh

It is applied on wounds. In rheumatism, fat of Hyaena is applied on diseased organs.

Flesh improves complexion and prevents phlegmatic and bilious humours. It is indicated in palpitation of the heart. Decoction of flesh alleviates rheumatic pains.

Blood is claimed to cure mental disorders

Bile is good for eye diseases.

Bone marrow and teeth is rubbed in olive oil for the treatment of gout. Teeth are rubbed in water and given in cases of rabid dog bite.

Now protected under CITES, IUCN & WLP, 1972

 

Gazella gazella

Ayurveda and Unani

Flesh

Flesh is appetizing, cardiotonic and antispasmodic

It is good for paralysis, colic, phlegm and biliousness.

Now protected under CITES, IUCN & WLP, 972

 

Hystrix indica

Ayurveda & Unani

Urine, bile, faeces, skin, hair, nails and hide, fat and flesh 

Meat soup acts as carminative and digestive used to cure cough, breathlessness, in retention of stool and flatus

Faeces + Skin + Hair + Nails + hide of porcupine adminatered in Melancholia, epilepsy, paralysis, tremors, nervine disorders, scrofula, leprosy, filariasis and bed wetting in children.

Fat used as local application to cure skin pigmentation.

Bile: Oral ingestion or administration in the form of a pessary made with wax facilitates expulsion of dead foetus.

Now protected under CITES, IUCN & WLP, 1972

 

Canis aureus

Ayurveda & Unani

Flesh, bile, milk, urine and excreta

Anti-epileptic and nutritive.

Flesh:   Prescribed in melancholia.  The patients who are drying up and emaciated in Rajayakshma (tuberculosis) should be given the meat of jackal, fox, large mongoose and cats in the name of rabbit.

Milk:    If instilled in eyes, cures cataract.

Urine: Urine of jackal is very efficacious as snuff in case of Apasmara (epilepsy).

Excreta: It is useful in skin diseases.

Bile: Instilled in eyes for the treatment of cataract.

Now protected under CITES, IUCN & WLP, 1972

 

Panthera pardus

Unani

Flesh, blood & brain

Anti-inflammatory and aphrodisiac

Flesh: alongwith fat is cooked with water and olive oil to form a useful application for rheumatism, gout and paralysis.

Blood is used for skin pigmentation.

Now protected under CITES, IUCN & WLP, 1972

 

Herpestes auropunctatus

Ayurveda & Unani

Flesh, blood, leg bone, faeces and beak

Anti-inflammatory, anti-epileptic, depilatory, anti-poioning and nutritive.

Now protected under CITES, IUCN & WLP, 1972

 

Moschus moschiferus

Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani

Musk is embedded in a sac which is oval or round with a diameter about 1½ inches .  Musk when fresh is milky but later turns viscid and assumes a brownish red-colour. It retains its strong diffusible odour for a long time and has a bitter aromatic taste; it is soluble in alcohol to the extent of about 10% in water to about 50% also in ether and alkalies.  The watery solution is faintly acid.  It stains the paper yellow and when burnt, it gives off urinous smell, leaving grayish ash about 8%.

It is used in hysteria, hiccup, asthma, palpitation & other cardiac diseases, insanity, epilepsy and coma, loss of memory, paralysis, facial paralysis, numb-ness, colicky pain, Parkinson's disease, bronchitis, pleurisy, typhoid, plague, meningitis, hydrophobia, lock jaw, general debility, Rakta Pitta (bleeding from any part of the body), whooping cough, gonorrhoea, spermatorrhoea, melancholia, eye diseases and sexual debility.  Inhalation is good for coryza and headache, deep inhalation may, however, cause epistaxis.  It has been listed among Avicenna's tract as cardiac drugs.  Anti-inflammatory activity of musk has been investigated on modern scientific lines.  Its actions were found to be similar to those of hydrocortisone.  Testing on mycobacterium adjuvant induced arthritis in rats revealed that musk was more active than phenylbutazone.  It caused improved in secondary lesions also. It strengthens the external and internal sense organs. Due to its good smell commercially, it is used in the perfume.

In Homeopathy:

Preparation of the tincture: The whole musk bag is dissolved in diluted alcohol in the proportion of 1 to 20. Dilute alcohol, in the proportion of 20 to 80, is used in making the Ix and 2x dilutions.

It is used in curing  hysteria, with symptoms like the patient faints from the least excitement, the hysterical spasm is ushered in by a contractive feeling about the throat, suffocation, glubus hystericus, spasms about the chest and alternate crying and laughing.

The moschus also useful in other important symptoms, like a great deal of flatulence, which may cause the fainting by pressure on the solar plexus. Spasmodic asthma and attacks of sudden dyspnoea.

Now protected under CITES, IUCN & WLP, 1972

 

Suncus murinusUnani  :  Flesh

Anti-leprotic.

It is poisonous and unfit for ingestion. With rose oil it forms a useful application for scrofula and leucoderma.

Now protected under WLP, 1972

 

Manis  crassicaudataUnani : Flesh and scales

Flesh acts as tonic and produces warmth

Scales: Powder of scales is useful in epilepsy.

Now protected under CITES, IUCN & WLP, 1972

 

Mellivora indicaUnani : Flesh and skin

Anti-emetic, carminative, anti–inflammatory and  detoxicant.

Now protected under CITES, IUCN & WLP, 1972

 

Axis axis

Ayurveda & Unani

Flesh, horn, blood &  excreta

Digestive stimulant. It is delicious, constipative, cooling and light. It is an appetizer

Flesh:  It cures asthma and fever. It alleviates three Doshas as well as the vitiated blood.

Horns: Ash of horns is styptic and anti-dysenteric, pessary of ash checks uterine bleeding and discharges. Ash of hooves is good for healing wounds.

Now protected under CITES, IUCN & WLP, 1972

 

Funambulus  pennantiAyurveda  & Unani: Flesh

Aphrodisiac, anti-tussive and anti-epileptic

The meat of these animals is aphrodisiac, promoter of eye sight and useful in the correction of the vitiation of blood. It cures Svasa (Asthma),  Arsha (Piles) and Kasa (Bronchitis). It helps in the elimination of urine and stool.  Flesh is given for the treatment of epilepsy

Now protected under CITES, IUCN & WLP, 1972

 

 

Felis tigrisAyurveda : Flesh, teeth, nail, clavicle, brain, bile, hair, excreta, fat, bone and tail

Flesh : It is  promoter of strength. It is always wholesome for patients suffering from the diseases of the eye and anus.

Fat : In Malaria, Nasya of fat is given. Tiger's face fat along with rose water when rubbed on  face acts as vaseline.

Bone : Tiger's bile alongwith bone of tiger is rubbed on abscess of hand and feet.

Clavicle : It is used as Scrap's pin. Apart from its ornamental  use, it has its traditional belief that it brings good luck. For that very reason, it is also known as lucky bone.

Bile : For eye diseases, the anjana's that are prepared, bile of tiger is used.

Excreta: It is considered as a good cure for piles. Their excreta is white like chalk. It is applied on pile mass.

Nails: In all kinds of swelling and poisonings, tiger's nail alongwith other medicines, is rubbed and given e.g. for eyes as Anjana, in nose as nasal drops and given in form of Lepa.

Brain: Brain of tiger along with Til oil, prepared and applied to pimples.

Tail: It is dried and grinded. This powder alongwith  soap when applied to the body removes skin diseases.

Teeth: It has its mythological value that its wearing protects the child from all evil spirits.

Now protected under CITES, IUCN & WLP, 1972

 

Canis lupus

Ayurveda and Unani

Fat, liver, brain, penis, bile, excreta, urine, skin, hair, nails and hide

Fat: It is useful as an external application in alopecia.

Liver: It is useful in jaundice, colic of hepatic origin, liver diseases and enlargement of spleen.

Brain: is given with milk for the treatment of epilepsy.

Bile: External application of bile is useful in skin diseases.

Excreta: is given in colic and inflammed condition.

Bones: Ash of tibial bones is useful in diarrhoea, haemorrhages and alopecia.

Now protected under CITES, IUCN & WLP, 1972

 

 

Mammal species of Karnataka and its conservation status

Sl. No Species Common Name IUCN CITES WLP
1.          Elephas maximus Indian Elephant Endangered Appendix-I Schedule- I
2.          Loris lydekkerianus Loris LC Appendix-I Schedule- II
3.          Loris tardigradus Red Slender Loris Endangered Appendix - I Schedule- II
4.          Macaca radiata Bonnet Macaque LC Appendix-II Schedule- II
5.          Macaca silenus Lion Tailed Macaque Endangered Appendix-I Schedule- I
6.          Semnopithecus hypoleucos  Black footed Gray Langur Vulnerable Appendix - I Schedule- II
7.          Trachypithecus johnii Nilgiri Langur Vulnerable Appendix-II Schedule- I
8.          Ratufa indica Malabar Giant Squirrel L C Appendix-II Schedule- II
9.          Ratufa macroura Grizzled Giant Squirrel N T Appendix-II Schedule- I
10.       Petinomys fuscocapillus     Travancore Flying  Squirrel N T Appendix-I Schedule- I
11.       Funambulus layardi Layard's Striped Squirrel Vulnerable Appendix-II Schedule- I
12.       Funambulus palmarum Three striped Palm Squirrel L C   Schedule - IV
13.       Funambulus pennantii Indian Five striped Squirrel L C Appendix-II Schedule- IV
14.       Funambulus sublineatus Dusky Striped Squirrel L C Appendix-II Schedule- IV
15.       Funambulus tristriatus Jungle Palm Squirrel L C Appendix-II Schedule- IV
16.       Platacanthomys lasiurus Malabar Spiny Tree Mouse Vulnerable   Schedule- V
17.       Cremnomys cutchicus Katchchh Rat L C   Schedule- IV
18.       Tatera indica Indian Gerbil L C   Schedule- V
19.       Bandicota bengalensis Lesser Bandicoot Rat L C   Schedule- V
20.       Bandicota indica Greater Bandicot Rat L C   Schedule- V
21.       Golunda elliotii Indian Bush Rat L C   Schedule- V
22.       Madromys blanfordii Blanford's Rat, L C   Schedule- V
23.       Millardia meltada Soft-furred Rat L C   Schedule- V
24.       Mus booduga Indian Field Mouse L C   Schedule- V
25.       Mus cookii Ryley's Spiny Mouse L C   Schedule- V
26.       Mus famulus Bonhote's Mouse Endangered   Schedule- V
27.       Mus musculus House Mouse L C   Schedule- V
28.       Mus phillipsi Phillip's Mouse, L C   Schedule- V
29.       Mus platythrix Brown Spiny Mouse L C   Schedule- V
30.       Mus saxicola Elliot's Spiny Mouse L C   Schedule - V
31.       Mus terricolor Earth Coloured Mouse L C   Schedule- V
32.       Rattus norvegicus   Norway Rat L C   Schedule- V
33.       Rattus rattus House Rat L C   Schedule- V
34.       Rattus satarae Sahyadri Forest Rat Vulnerable   Schedule- V
35.       Rattus tanezumi Tanezumi's Rat L C   Schedule- V
36.       Vandeleuria nilagirica Nilgiri Vandeluria Endangered   Schedule- V
37.       Vandeleuria oleracea  Vandeleuria oleracea  L C   Schedule- V
38.       Hystrix indica Creasted Porcupine L C   Schedule- V
39.       Lepus nigricollis Indian Hare L C   Schedule- V
40.       Suncus etruscus  Pygmy White-toothed Shrew L C   Schedule-
41.       Suncus montanus Asian Highland Shrew Vulnerable   Schedule- V
42.       Suncus murinus Asian Musk Shrew L C   Schedule- V
43.       Suncus  stoliczkanus Anderson's Shrew L C   Schedule- V
44.       Anathana ellioti Tree Shrew L C   Schedule - V
45.       Crocidura horsfieldii Horsfield's shrew D D    
46.       Cynopterus brachyotis Lesser Dog-faced Fruit Bat L C    
47.       Cynopterus sphinx Greater Short-nosed Fruit Bat, L C   Schedule- V
48.       Eonycteris spelaea Common Nectar Bat L C   Schedule-V
49.       Latidens salimalii Salim Ali's Fruit Bat Endangered   Schedule- I
50.       Pteropus giganteus  Indian Flying Fox L C   Schedule- V
51.       Rousettus leschenaultii Leschenault's Rousette L C   Schedule- V
52.       Rhinolophus beddomei Beddome's Horseshoe bat L C   Schedule- V
53.       Rhinolphus Lepidus Blyth's Horse-shoe Bat L C    
54.       Rhinolophus pusillus Least Horse shoe bat L C   Schedule- V
55.       Rhinolophus rouxii Rufous Horseshoe Bat L C    
56.       Rhinolophus luctus None L C    
57.       Hipposideros ater Dusky Leafnosed Bat L C   Schedule- V
58.       Hipposideros fulvus Fulvus Leaf nosed Bat L C    
59.       Hipposideros galeritus Cantor's Leaf nosed bat L C   Schedule- V
60.       Hipposideros hypophyllus Kolar Leaf-nosed Bat Endangered   Schedule- V
61.       Hipposideros lankadiva Kelaart's Leaf-nosed Bat L C   Schedule- V
62.       Hipposideros pomona Pomona Leaf-nosed bat L C   Schedule- V
63.       Hipposideros schistaceous None L C   Schedule - V
64.       Hipposideros speoris Schneider's Leaf-nosed Bat L C   Schedule- V
65.       Megaderma lyra Greater False Vampire L C    
66.       Megaderma spasma Lesser False Vampire Bat L C   Schedule- V
67.       Rhinopoma hardwickii Lesser mouse-tailed bat L C    
68.       Rhinopoma micropyllym Mouse tailed Bat L C    
69.       Saccolaimus saccolaimus Naked-rumped Pouched Bat, L C   Schedule- V
70.       Taphozous longimanus Long winged Tomb Bat L C   Schedule - V
71.       Taphozous melanopogon Balck-beareded Tomb Bat L C   Schedule-V
72.       Taphozous nudiventris Naked rumped tomb bat L C   Schedule - V
73.       Taphozous theobaldi Theobald's Tomb-bat L C   Schedule- V
74.       Chaerephon plicatus Wrinkle lipped free tailed bat L C   Schedule- V
75.       Otomops wroughtoni Wroghton's Free-tailed Bat D D   Schedule- I
76.       Hesperoptenus tickelli   Tickel's Bat D D    
77.       Pipestrellus ceylonicus Kelaart's Pipestrelle D D    
78.       Pipestrellus coromandra Coramandel Pipistrelle D D    
79.       Pipestrellus dormeri Dormer's bat, L C   Schedule- V
80.       Pipestrellus javanicus Javan Pipestrelle L C    
81.       Pipestrellus tenuis Indian Pygmy Bat, L C   Schedule - V
82.       Taphozous longimanus Long Winged Tomb Bat L C    
83.       Taphozous melanopogon Naked Rumped Tomb Bat L C    
84.       Taphozous nudiventris Naked Rumped Tomb Bat L C    
85.       Taphozous theobaldi Theobalds Bat L C    
86.       Tadarida aegyptiaca Egyptian Free-tailed Bat L C    
87.       Tadarida plicata Wrinkle lipped Free-tail Bat L C    
88.       Scotozous dormeri Dormer's Bat L C   Schedule- V
89.       Tylonycteris pachypus Lesser Bamboo Bat L C   Schedule- V
90.       Scotophilus kuhlii Asiatic Lesser Yellow House Bat L C    
91.       Scotophilus heathii Asiatic Lesser Yellow House Bat L C    
92.       Myotis formosus Hodgson's Myotis L C   Schedule-V
93.       Myotis horsfieldii Horsfield's Myotis L C   Schedule-V
94.       Myotis montivagus Burmese Wiskered Myotis L C    
95.       Miniopterus pusillus Small Long Fingered Bat L C   Schedule-V
96.       Miniopterus schreibersii Schreibers's Long-fingered Bat N T    
97.       Harpiocephalus harpia Lesser Hairy Winged Bat L C    
98.       Kerivoula picta Painted Bat L C   Schedule-V
99.       Manis crassicaudata Indian Pangolin,  N T Appendix- II Schedule- I
100.    Felis Chaus Jungle Cat Jungle Cat L C Appendix- II Schedule- II
101.    Felis silvestris Wild Cat L C   Schedule- V
102.    Prionailurus rubiginosus Rusty-spotted Cat Vulnerable Appendix- I Schedule - I
103.    Prionailurus viverrinus Fishing Cat Endangered Appendix- II Schedule- I
104.    Panthera pardus Leopard N T Appendix- I Schedule - I
105.    Panthera tigris Royal Bengal Tiger Endangered Appendix- I Schedule- I
106.    Paradoxurus hermophroditus Common Palm Civet L C Appendix- I Schedule - I
107.    Paradoxurus jerdoni Brown Palm Civet L C Appendix- II Schedule- II
108.    Viverra civettina Malabar Large-spotted Civet Critically Endangered Appendix- II Schedule - I
109.    Vivericula indica Small Indian Civet L C Appendix- III Schedule- II
110.    Herpestes brachyurus None L C   Schedule - II
111.    Herpestes edwardsii Grey Mongoose L C Appendix- III Schedule- II
112.    Herpestes fuscus Indian Brown Mongoose Vulnerable Appendix- III Schedule - II
113.    Herpestes smithii Indian Brown Mongoose Vulnerable Appendix- III Schedule - II
114.    Herpestes vitticollis Stripe necked mongoose L C   Schedule - V
115.    Hyaena hyaena Striped Hyaena L C   Schedule - V
116.    Canis aureus Golden Jackal L C Appendix- II Schedule - II
117.    Canis lupus Grey Wolf L C Appendix- I Schedule - I
118.    Cuon alpinus Dhole, Red Dog Endangered Appendix- II Schedule - II
119.    Vulpes benglensis Indian Fox L C Appendix- III Schedule - II
120.    Melursus ursinus Sloth Bear Vulnerable Appendix- I Schedule - I
121.    Aonyx cinera Asian Small Clawed Otter Vulnerable Appendix- II Schedule - I
122.    Lutra lutra Old World Otter N T Appendix- II Schedule - I
123.    Lutrogale perspicillata Smooth-coated Otter Vulnerable Appendix- II Schedule - II
124.    Martes flavigula Yellow-throated Marten L C Appendix- III Schedule - II
125.    Martes gwatkinsii  Nilgiri Marten Vulnerable Appendix- III Schedule - II
126.    Mellivora capensis Honey Badger L C Appendix- III Schedule - I
127.    Sus scrofa Wild boar L C   Schedule - III
128.    Moschiola Indica Indian Mouse Deer L C   Schedule - I
129.    Axis axis Spotted  Deer L C   Schedule - III
130.    Muntiacus muntjack Barking deer L C   Schedule - III
131.    Rusa unicolor Sambar Vulnerable   Schedule - III
132.    Antilope cervicapra Blackbuck N T   Schedule - I
133.    Gazella benettii Chinkara L C   Schedule - I
134.    Bos gaurus Indian Bison Vulnerable Appendix- I Schedule - I
135.    Bubalus bubalis Water Buffalo Endangered Appendix- II Schedule - I
136.    Boselaphus tragocamellus Neelghai L C   Schedule - III
137.    Tetracerus quadricornis Four-horned Antelope Vulnerable   Schedule - I
138.    Nilgiritragus hylocrius Nilgiri Tahr Endangered   Schedule - I
139.    Balaenoptera borealis Sei Whale Endangered Appendix- I Schedule - II
140.    Balaenoptera edini Bryde's Whale D D Appendix- I Schedule - II
141.    Balaenoptera musculus Blue whale Endangered Appendix- I Schedule - II
142.    Balaenoptera physalus Fin whale Endangered Appendix- I Schedule - II
143.    Pseudorca crassidens False Killer Whale L C   Schedule - V
144.    Sousa chinensis Pacific Humpback Dolphin N T Appendix- I Schedule - II
145.    Stenella coeruleoalba Striped Dolphin L C Appendix- II Schedule - II
146.    Stenella longirostris Long-snouted Dolphin D D Appendix- II Schedule - II
147.    Neophocaena phocaenoides Indo Pacific Finless Porpoise Vulnerable Appendix- I Schedule - I
148.    Kogia breviceps Pygmy Sperm Whale D D Appendix- II Schedule - II
149.    Kogia sima Dwarf Sperm Whale D D Appendix- II Schedule - II
150.    Physeter macrocephalus Sperm Whale Vulnerable Appendix- I Schedule - II
Details of subspecies given when present in the checklist

 

 

 

Analysis

 

 

 

No. of Species = 150

 

 

Critically Endangered = 1

Endangered = 15

Vulnerable = 18

Near Threatened = 08

Least Concern = 99

Data Deficient =08

 

 

 

 

 

Schedule-I= 27

Schedule-II= 28

Schedule – III - 5

Schedule-IV= 5

Schedule-V= 58

Species not included under Schedules- 27

Total - 150

 

mammal%201 mammal2

 

 

​Mammals of Karnataka- Checklist

1. Elephas maximus Linnaeus,1758
 ClassificationMammalia : Proboscidia : Elephantidae
 Synonyms

Elephas asiaticus Blumenbach, 1797

Elephas ceylanicus de Blainville, 1845

Elephas zeylanicus Lyddekar,1907

Elephas indicus Cuvier,1798

Elephas bengalensis de Blainville,1845

Elephas birmanicus Deraniyegala,1950

Elephas dakhunensis Deraniyegala,1950

Elephas gigas Perry,1811

Elephas heeterodactylus Hodgson, 1841

Elephas isodactylus Hodgson,1841

Elephas  sondaicus Deraniyegala,1950

Elephas sumatranus Temmnick,1847

 Authors name & Year of description

Linnaei, C. (1760) Elephas maximus In: Caroli Linnæi Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Halae Magdeburgicae.

1758 Elephas maximus Linnaeus, Syst. Natur. 10th Edn. 1 : 33

 Type locality "Zeylonae" [Sri Lanka]
 Common Name (English)Asian Elephant, Indian Elephant
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Aane, Gaja, Hasti,
 Distribution in Karnataka

Chamarajanagar, Chikkamagaluru, Dakshina Kannada, Hassan, Kodagu, Mandya, Mysore, Ramanagara, Shimoga, , Uttara Kannada,

Introduced in Andaman & Nicobar Islands

 Distribution in IndiaAndhra Pradesh, Assam,Bihar, Karnataka, Kerala, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakand, Uttara Pradesh, West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhereBangladesh, China, Cambodia, Myanmar, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand
 Threat Category

IUCN :                  Endangered

CITES :                  Appendix - I

W.P. A.                 Schedule - I

 Remarks

Three subspecies are recognized—Elephas maximus maximus from Sri Lanka, the Indian elephant or E. m. indicus from mainland Asia, and E. m. sumatranus from the island of Sumatra. Asian elephants are the largest living land animals in Asia

Project Elephant (PE) was launched by the Government of India in the year 1992 as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme with the objectives :  to protect elephants, their habitat & corridors, to address issues of man-animal conflict and for the welfare of domesticated elephants. Till now 26 Elephant Reserves (ERs) extending over about 60,000 sq kmt have been formally notified by various State Governments

 

 

 

2. Loris lydekkerianus lydekkerianus Cabreara,1908
 ClassificationMammalia : Primates : Loricidae
 Synonyms

Loris tardigradus sub species grandis Hill & Phillips,1932

Loris tardigradus lydekkerianus Cabrera, 1908

Loris gracilis typicus (Lydekker, 1904)

 

 Authors name & Year of description

1908 Loris lydekkerianus Cabreara,  Bol. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. , Madrid vol. 1908 p. 139

 

 Type locality NA
 Common Name (English)Mysore Gray Slender Loris, Gray Slender Loris
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Kaadupapapa
 Distribution in KarnatakaChamarajanagar, Chikkamagaluru, Dakshina Kannada, Hassan, Kodagu, Mysore, Ramanagara, Shimoga, , Tumakuru
 Distribution in IndiaAndhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu
 Distribution elsewhereSri Lanka
 Threat Category

IUCN :                  Least Concern

CITES :                  Appendix - I

W.P. A.                 Schedule - II

 Remarks

Loris lydekkerianus malabaricus Wroughton, 1917. This taxon was formerly considered a subspecies of Loris tardigradus

Malabar Gray Slender Loris distributed in South India Loris tardigadus malabaricus wroughton was collected at Jogfalls

 

 

3. Loris tardigradus (Linnaeus, 1758)
 ClassificationMammalia : Primates : Loricidae
 Synonyms

Loris  tardigradus nycticeboides (Hill, 1942)

Loris tardigradus tardigradus (Linnaeus, 1758)

 Authors name & Year of description 1758 Loris tardigradus Linnaeus Syst. Natur. 10th Edn. 1 :
 Type locality Sri Lanka
 Common Name (English) Red slender loris
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Kaadupapapa
 Distribution in KarnatakaRecord of this species is known from Jog falls (Shimoga) and Malur October, 1912
 Distribution in India Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu
 Distribution elsewhereSri Lanka
 Threat Category

IUCN :                  Endangered

CITES :                   Appendix - II

W.P. A.                 Schedule – I(

 Remarks

Usually known from the rain forests of Sri Lanka

The red slender loris was identified as one of the top-10 "focal species" in 2007 by the Evolutionarily Distinct and Globally Endangered (EDGE) project.

This small, slender primate is distinguished by large forward-facing eyes used for precise depth perception, long slender limbs, a well-developed index finger, the absence of tail, and large prominent ears, which are thin, rounded and hairless at the edges. The soft dense fur is reddish-brown color on the back, and the underside is whitish-grey with a sprinkling of silver hair. Its body length on average is 7–10 in (180–250 mm), with an average weight of a mere 3–13 oz (85–369 g). This loris has a four-way grip on each foot. The big toe opposes the other 4 toes for a pincer-like grip on branches and food. It has a dark face mask with central pale stripe, much like the slow lorises

 

 

 

4.

 Macaca radiata    (E. Geoffroy, 1812)

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Primates : Cercopithicidae
 SynonymsMacaca diluta                
 Authors name & Year of description 1812 Macaca radiata  E. Geoffroy, Ann. Nat.Hist. Mus. Paris, 19 : 98
 Type locality "India"
 Common Name (English)Bonnet Macaque, Bonnet Monkey
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)manga, kothi,    kapi, maungya,kemp      manga  (Kannada), mucha, kapi, korda(Kodava),      mānkad (Konkani),
 Distribution in KarnatakaBangaluru, Chamarajanagar, Kolar, Kodagu, Mysore, Shimoga
 Distribution in IndiaGoa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharastra, Tamil Nadu
 Distribution elsewhereNil
 Threat Category

IUCN :                  Least Concern

CITES :                   Appendix - II

W.P. A.                 Schedule - II

 Remarks

Macaca radiata  radiata (É. Geoffroy, 1812) 

Dark-bellied Bonnet Macaque distributed in south India, Gujarat & Maharastra. Macaca  radiata diluta Pocock, 1931 Light-bellied Bonnet Macaque distributed in Kerala & Tamil Nadu

 

                                                 

5.

Macaca silenus Linnaeus, 1758

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Primates : Cercopithicidae
 Synonyms

Macaca albibarbatus Kerr, 1792

Macaca ferox Shaw, 1792

Macaca veter Audebert, 1798

Macaca vetulus Erxleben, 1777

Simia silenus Linnaeus, 1758

 Authors name & Year of description Simia silenus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. 10th ed., 1: 26. 1758
 Type locality Westrrn Ghats, "India" (W C O Hills,1974)
 Common Name (English)Lion Tailed Macaque
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Singaleeka
 Distribution in KarnatakaChamarajanagar, Chikkamagaluru, Dakshina Kannada,  Mysore, Shimoga, Uttara Kannada
 Distribution in IndiaTamil Nadu, Kerala
 Distribution elsewhereNil
 Threat Category

IUCN :                  Endangered

CITES :                   Appendix - I

W.P. A.                 Schedule - I

 RemarksRestricted to Western Ghats of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The total wild population is estimated to be less than 4,000 individuals, made up of 47 isolated subpopulations in seven different locations; these subpopulations tend to be small and in forest fragments that are isolated from each other with an estimated to be less than 2,500 mature individuals. In the Sirsi-Honnavara rainforests of the northern Western Ghats in Karnataka, for instance, a subpopulation consisting of 32 groups in a contiguous tract of habitat exists where less than 6 groups survived 20 years prior in the early 1980s (Kumara and Singh 2004).

 

 

6.

Semnopithecus hypoleucos  Blyth, 1841

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Primates : Cercopithicidae
 Synonyms

Pithecus entellus priamellus Pocock, 1928

Semnopithecus aeneas (Pocock, 1928)

Semnopithecus entellus (Blyth, 1841) subspecies hypoleucos

Semnopithecus entellus dussumieri I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1842

Presbytis anchises Blyt,1844

Presbytis entellus dussumieri (I.Geoffroy,1842) 

 

 Authors name & Year of description 1841 Semnopithecus hypoleucos  Blyth, Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris. Ser. 1,7 : 49  [ OD : 1797 Simia entellus  Derfreesne Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom, Paris, ser. 1 : 7, 49 ]
 Type locality "Bengal, India"
 Common Name (English)Black footed Gray Langur
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Musya
 Distribution in KarnatakaChamarajanagara, Chikkamagaluru, Kodagu, Mysore, Dakshina Kannada (Western Ghats part)
 Distribution in IndiaGoa, Kerala
 Distribution elsewhereNil
 Threat Category

IUCN :                  Vulnerable

CITES :                   Appendix - I

W.P. A.                 Schedule - II

 RemarksThis taxon was formerly considered a subspecies of Semnopithecus entellus. Recent investigations by Brandon-Jones seemed to indicate the S. hypoleucos population as part of S. dussumieri (Molur et al. 2003; Brandon-Jones 2004). Some experts believe this species to be merely a natural hybrid between Nilgiri Langur (Trachypithecus johnii) and S. dussumieri (Molur et al. 2003). Semnopithecus dussumieri I. Geoffroy, 1843  distributed throughout India, however, Semnopithecus priam priam Blyth, 1844 distributed in Andhra Pradesh & Tamil Nadu while Semnopithecus priam thersites  (Blyth, 1847)  Southern Grey Langur distributed in Kerala and Tamil Nadu. In Karnataka it occurs in the Bhadra Sanctuary, Brahmagiri Sanctuary, Kudremukh National Park, Nagarahole National Park, Pushpagiri Sanctuary, Sharavathi Valley Sanctuary.

 

 

7.

 Trachypithecus johnii  J. Fischer, 1829

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Primates : Cercopithicidae
 Synonyms

Semnopithecus johnii  J. Fischer, 1829

Trachypithecus cucullatus Fischer, 1829

Trachypithecus jubatus Wagner, 1839

Trachypithecus leonina Shaw, 1800         

 Authors name & Year of description

1829 Cercopithecus johnii J. Fischer, Synopsis Mamm. P.25

 

 Type locality Tellicherry,  Kerala, India
 Common Name (English)
Nilgiri Langur,  John's Langur, Hooded Leaf Monkey, Black Leaf Monkey, Nilgiri Leaf Monkey
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaKodagu, Chamarajanagara, chikkamagaluru, Mysore,
 Distribution in IndiaKarnatalka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu
 Distribution elsewhereNil
 Threat Category

IUCN :                  Vulnerable

CITES :                   Appendix – II

W.P. A.                 Schedule - I

 RemarksRestricted to Karnataka, Kerala & Tamil Nadu part of Western Ghats. This species is found in evergreen, semi-evergreen, moist deciduous forests, montane evergreen forests and in riparian forests in lower altitudes in some places. It is arboreal, diurnal, and typically occurs in uni-male groups (Molur et al. 2003), usually with nine or ten animals in a group.

 

 

 

 

8.

Ratufa indica indica  Erxleben, 1777

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Sciuridae
 Synonyms

Ratufa bombaya Boddaert,1785

Ratufa elphinstonii Sykes,1831

Ratufa purpureus Zimmermann, 1777

Ratufa superans Ryley, 1913

Ratufa centralis Ryley,1913

Ratufa dealbata Blanford,1897

Ratufa maxima Schreber,1784

Ratufa malabarica Scopoli,1786

Sciurus indica Erxleben, 1777

Indian subspecies :   bengalensis, centralis, dealbata, indica, maxima, superans

 Authors name & Year of description 1777 Sciurus indica Erxleben, Syst. Regn. Anim., 1 :420
 Type locality "Inde Orientali" Bombay, Maharastra, India
 Common Name (English)Malabar Giant Squirrel, Indian Giant Squirrel
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Malabar  Dodda Alilu, Keshalilu
 Distribution in KarnatakaKodagu, Chamarajanagara, Uttara Kannada
 Distribution in IndiaAndhra Pradesh, Gujarat,  Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh,  Maharastra, Jharkand, Tamil Nadu
 Distribution elsewhereNil
 Threat Category

IUCN :                  Least Concern

CITES :                   Appendix – II

W.P. A.                 Schedule - II

 Remarks

Four sub species has been recognized which could be elevated to the level of species after a thorough revisionary studies. Ellerman (1961) listed five sub species R.i.indica, R.i.maxima, R.i.superans, R.i. bengalenis, R.i.centralis and R.i.maxima. Abdulali and Daniel reported eight colour forms from its range. According to ZSI Checklist Ratufa indica superans Ryley, 1913 and Ratufa indica bengalensis distributed in Karnataka, without specifying the exact location of their distribution.

Endemic to Western Ghats

 

 

9.

Ratufa macroura Pennant, 1769

                            

 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Sciuridae
 Synonyms

Sciurus zeylanicus Ray, 1693

Sciurus macrorus Pennant,1769

Sciurus ceyonicus Erxeleben,1777

Sciurus tennentii Blyth, 1949

Sciurus macrourus var. montana (Kelaart,1852)

Sciurus macrourus albipes Blyth, 1859

Sciurus macrura Blanford, 1891

Indian subspecies : dandolena

 Authors name & Year of description 1769  Sciurus macrourus Pennant, Ind. Zool., 1: Pl. I
 Type locality Highlands of Central and Uva provinces of Sri Lanka
 Common Name (English)

Grizzled Giant Squirrel

 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaKodagu, Chamarajanagara
 Distribution in IndiaKarnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu
 Distribution elsewhereSri Lanka
 Threat Category

IUCN :                  Near Threatened

CITES :                   Appendix – II

W.P. A.                 Schedule - I

 Remarks

According to ZSI Checklist Ratufa macroura dendolena Thomas & Wroughton, 1915 distributed in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. According to Srinivasulu et.al., the subspecies is R macroura macroura, Pennant,1769.

It is a diurnal and arboreal species. It occurs in tropical dry deciduous and montane forests, where it is confined to the riverine habitats (Molur et al. 2005). It has a generation time of ~7-8 years.

 

 

10.

Petinomys fuscocapillus     (Jerdon, 1847)

 

 ClassificaionMammalia : Rodentia : Sciuridae
 Synonyms

Petinomys fuscocapillus (Kelaart, 1850)

Sciuropetrus layardi Kelaart, 1850

Sciuropterus fuscocapillus Jerdon, 1847

 Indian subspecies : fuscocapillus

 Authors name & Year of description 1847, Sciuropterus fuscocapillus Jerdon,  J. Asiatic Soc., Bengal. 16 : 867
 Type locality Travancore, Kerala, India
 Common Name (English)
Small Travancore Flying  Squirrel
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaKodagu, Chamarajanagara, Chikkamagaluru
 Distribution in IndiaKerala, Tamil Nadu
 Distribution elsewhereSri Lanka
 Threat Category

IUCN :                  Near Threatened

CITES :                   Appendix – I

W.P. A.                 Schedule - I

 Remarks

Restricted to Karnataka, Kerala & Tamil Nadu               part of Western Ghats.

Endemic to Western Ghats, Brahmagiri Wildlife Sanctuary and Makutta in Coorg in Karnataka.

 

 

11. Funambulus layardi (Blyth, 1849)
 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Sciuridae
 Synonyms

Funambulus layardi Robinson,1917

Sciurus layardi Blyth,1849

Tamoides layardi Phillips,1935 sub species Layardi

Tamoides layardi Phillips,1935 sub species signatus

Indian subspecies : dravidianus

 Authors name & Year of description 1849 Sciurus layardi Blyth J. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, 18 :602
 Type locality Ambigamola hills, Central Provinces, Sri Lanka
 Common Name (English)

Layard's Striped Squirrel

 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None 
 Distribution in KarnatakaCoorg,
 Distribution in IndiaKarmatala, Kerala, Tamil Nadu
 Distribution elsewhereSri Lanka
 Threat Category

IUCN :                  Vulnerable

CITES :                   Appendix – II

W.P. A.                 Schedule – I

 Remarks

A record of this species from India is considered to be erroneous. Its distribution in India is based on a single juvenile, which was probably an individual of Funambulus sublineatus. Erroneously identified based on juvenile. ZSI Checklist records Funambulus layardi dravidianus as its distribution in Karnataka without giving further details.

 

 It is diurnal and arboreal species. It occurs in montane evergreen and rainforests. It has been found to occupy in low country wet zone to mid montane wet zone and lowland rainforest

 

 

12. Funambulus palmarum Linnaeus, 1766
 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Sciuridae
 Synonyms

Sciurus brodei Blyth, 1849

Sciurus indicus Lesson, 1835

Sciurus kelaarti Layard, 1851

Sciurus palmarum Linnaeus, 1766

Sciurus pencillatus Leach, 1814

 

 Authors name & Year of description 1766 Sciurus palmarum Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. 12th ed., 1 : 86
 Type locality East coast of Tamil Nadu
 Common Name (English)

Indian Palm Squirrel, Three striped Palm Squirrel

 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None 
 Distribution in KarnatakaChikkamagalurau, Dakshina Kannada,  Hassana, Kodagu,
 Distribution in IndiaKarmatala, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharastra, Rajasthan,  Tamil Nadu
 Distribution elsewhereSri Lanka
 Threat Category

IUCN :                  Least Concern

WLP   :                 Schedule - IV

 RemarksThis is a very adaptable species. It is a diurnal and semi-arboreal. This species occurs in tropical and subtropical dry deciduous forest, mangrove forest, grasslands, scrublands, plantations, rural gardens and urban areas

 

 

13.

Funambulus pennantii Wroughton, 1905

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Sciuridae
 Synonyms

 Funambulus argentescens

Funambulus lutescens

 Authors name & Year of description 1905 Funambulus pennanti  Wroughton, J. Bombay natural History Society, 16 : 411
 Type locality Mandvi, Surat, Gujarat, India
 Common Name (English)

Northern Palm Squirrel,  Five striped Squirrel

 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None Indian
 Distribution in KarnatakaDharwada
 Distribution in India

Andhra Pradesh, Chattisgarh,Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharastra, Punjab, Rajasthan,

Introduced : Andaman Islands

 Distribution elsewhereAfghanisthan, Iran, Nepal, Pakisthan
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

CITES :                   Appendix – II

W.P. A.                 Schedule - IV

 RemarksThis conspecious species had not previously been recorded east of Brahmaputra  river, suggests that this might be an introduction .

 

 

14.

Funambulus sublineatus (Waterhouse,1838)

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Sciuridae
 Synonyms

Funambulus kathleenae Thomas & Wroughton, 1915

Sciurus delesserti Gervais, 1841

Sciurus palmarum Pelzen & Kohl, 1886 variety obscura

Sciurus sublineatus Waterhouse, 1838

Sciurus trilineatus Kelaart, 1852

Tamoides sublineatus Phillips, 1935

Indian subspecies : sublineatus

 Authors name & Year of description 1838 Sciurus sublineatus Waterhouse, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1838:19. 
 Type locality Nilgiri hills, Madras Presidency, India
 Common Name (English)Dusky Striped Squirrel
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaWestern Ghats part of Karnataka
 Distribution in IndiaKarnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu
 Distribution elsewhereSri Lanka
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Vulnerable

CITES :                   Appendix – II

W.P. A.                 Schedule - IV

 Remarks

In Karnataka the sub species Funambulus sublineatus sublineatus is distributed near scrub level forests and preys on usually green viper.

This species is endemic to southern India

 

 

15.

Funambulus tristriatus (Waterhouse,1838)

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Sciuridae
 Synonyms

Funambulus thomasi Wroughton & Davidson, 1919

Funambulus tristriatus Wroughton, 1916

Funambulus tristriatus Robinson, 1917 subspecies annandalei

Funambulus wroughtoni Ryley, 1913

Sciurus dussmieri Milne-Edwards, 1867

Sciurus tristriatus Waterhouse, 1837

 Authors name & Year of description 1838 Sciurus s tristriatus Waterhouse, Mag. Nt. Hist [Charlesworth], 1 :499
 Type locality "More towards the southern part of Hindostan"  Wroughton restricts to Travancore, S. Western Ghats, 120 N lat.
 Common Name (English)Jungle Palm Squirrel
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaBelagavi, Chamarajanagara, Chikkamagaluru, Dakshina Kannada, Kodagu,  Uttara Kannada
 Distribution in IndiaGoa, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharastra, Tamil Nadu
 Distribution elsewhereSri Lanka
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

CITES :                   Appendix – II

W.P. A.                 Schedule - IV

 Remarks

ZSI Checklist recognizes two sub species viz., Funambulus tristriatus tristriatus Waterhouse,1838 and F. t.numarius Wroughton,1916 both the subspecies distributed in Western Ghats between 700 -   2700 m asl.

It is diurnal and semi-arboreal species. It occurs in tropical evergreen forest, moist deciduous forests, plantations and pasturelands. It is found to occupy tea, cardamom and coffee estates (Molur et al. 2005). The species breeds year round with an average litter size of 2.6 offspring. Generation time is likely to be three years.

Endemic to Western Ghats

 

 

16. Platacanthomys lasiurus Blyth,1859
 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Platycanthomyidae
 SynonymsNil
 Authors name & Year of description 1859 Platacanthomys lasiurus Blyth, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 28 :289
 Type locality Alipi, Malabar, Kerala, India
 Common Name (English)Malabar Spiny Tree Mouse
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaBelagavi, Kodagu, Shimoga, Uttara Kannada
 Distribution in IndiaKarnatala, Kerala, Tamil Nadu (South-WesternPeninsular India, North up to 140  latitude in Karnataka, Kerala
 Distribution elsewhereSri Lanka
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Vulnerable

CITES :                   Appendix –

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks

ZSI Checklist recognizes two sub species viz., Funambulus tristriatus tristriatus Waterhouse,1838 and F. t.numarius Wroughton,1916 both the subspecies distributed in Western Ghats between 700 -   2700 m asl.

The species is endemic to Western Ghats of India ranging from Shivamogge, Karnataka in the north (Agrawal 2000) and It occurs in moist-deciduous, semi-evergreen, evergreen and shola forests  and in riparian forests.

 

17.

Cremnomys cutchicus Wroughton, 1912

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Muridae
 Synonyms

Cremnomys australis Thomas, 1916

Cremnomys australis Thomas, 1916 subspecies siva

Cremnomys cutchicus Harrison, 1974 subspecies leechi

Cremnomys cutchicus (Thomas, 1916) subspecies medius

Cremnomys medius Thomas, 1916

Cremnomys medius Thomas, 1916 subspecies caenosa

Cremnomys medius Thomas, 1916 subspecies caenosus

Cremnomys medius Thomas, 1916 subspecies rajput

Rattus cutchicus (Wroughton, 1912)

Rattus cutchicus (Thomas, 1916) subspecies australis

Rattus cutchicus (Wroughton, 1912) subspecies cutchicus

Rattus cutchicus (Thomas, 1916) subspecies rajput

Rattus cutchicus (Thomas, 1916) subspecies siva

 

 Authors name & Year of description 1912 Cremnomys cutchicus Wroughton, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 21:340
 Type locality Dhonsa, cutchh, Gujarat, India
 Common Name (English)Cutch Rock Rat, Katchchh Rat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaNot specified
 Distribution in IndiaAndhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Jharkand, Maharastra, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu
 Distribution elsewhereNil
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule – V

Endemic to India

 Remarks

Ellermen (1961) recognized five subspecies viz., australis, cutchicus, medius, rajput and siva. I.Prakash (1995) on examination of specimens from Mt.Abu, Rajasthan synonymised rajput with medius.

Agrawal (2000) considered all the subspecies listed by Ellerman (1961) as not being different from one another based on studies carried out on the specimens present with Zoological Survey of India and Bombay Natural History Society and synonymized them with Cremnomys cutchicus Wroughton, 1912.

It is a nocturnal and fossorial species, occurs in tropical and subtropical dry deciduous and deserts, where it is seen in thorn scrub sparse vegetation, plain grasslands, agriculture lands and rocky areas

 

 

18.

Tatera indica Hardwicke,1807

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Muridae
 Synonyms

Dipus indicus Hardwicke,1807

Gerbillus otarius Cuvier,1838

Gerbillus cuverivi Waterhouse,1838

Gerbillus hardwicke Gray,1843

Tatera indica hardwicke (Gray,1843)

Tatera ceylonica Wroughton,1906

Tatera sherrini Woughton,1917

Tatera dunni Wroughton,1907

 Authors name & Year of description 1807 Dipus indicus Hardwicke, Trans. Linn. Soc. London. 8 : 279
 Type locality Between Benaras and Haridwar U.P India
 Common Name (English)Indian Gerbil, Antelope Rat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaAgumbe (Chikkamagaluru), Bengaluru, Mysore
 Distribution in IndiaThroughout  India  except N-E India and Sikkim
 Distribution elsewhereAfghanistan, Arab Republic,  Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Turkey
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks

Two sub species are present Tatera indica cuveri Waterhouse,1838 and Tatera indica indica Hardwicke,1807. Of the two subspecies, the latter one distributed in Karnataka Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

This species is found in a range of dry or arid habitats. In South Asia, it occurs in dry deciduous forests, scrub forests, grasslands, rocky areas, hot deserts, arid and semi-arid regions and uncultivated areas. It has been found to occupy undisturbed barren open areas

 

                                                                                                                                                                  

19.

Bandicota bengalensis     (Gray & Hardwicke, 1833)

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Muridae
 Synonyms

Arvicola bengalensis Gray & Hardwicke,1833

Musk kok Gray,1837

Mus (Neotoma)providens Elliot,1839

Mus dubius Kelaart,1850

Mus deccaensis Tytler,1854

Mus tarayensis Horsfield,1855

Mus Plurimammis Horsfield,1855

Mus morungensis Horsfield,1855

Mus (Nesokia) blythianus Anderson,1878

Mus (Nesokia) barclayanus Anderson,1878

Nesokia gracilis Nehring,1902

Gunomys varius Thomas, 1907

Gunomys varillus Thomas,1907

Gunomys lordi Wroughton,1908

Gunomys sindicus Wroughton,1908

Gunomys kok insularis Phillips,1936

 

 Authors name & Year of description 1833 Arvicola  bengalensis Gray, Illusr. Indian Zool., pl. 21
 Type locality Bengal, India
 Common Name (English)Lesser Bandicoot Rat,  Indian Mole Rat, Rice Rat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Kok, Heggana
 Distribution in KarnatakaBengaluru, Chikkamagaluru, Dharwar, Kodagu,  Mandya, Mysore
 Distribution in IndiaThroughout India except extreme Thar Desert
 Distribution elsewhereBhutan, Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, Myanmar, Nepal Pakistan, Sri Lanka,  
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks

Two sub species have identified B. b. bengalensis  Gray & Hardwicke,1833 and B.b.wardi Wroughton,1908. The latter species are restricted to Himalayan belt.

This species is mainly found in agricultural landscapes, such as rice paddies, and can occur in urban areas. Its broad range of natural habitat include swampy open areas, subtropical and tropical dry deciduous forests and mangroves.

 

 

20.

Bandicota indica Bechestein,1800

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Muridae
 Synonyms

Mus indicus Bechestein,1800

?Mus bandicota Bechestein,1800

Mus malabarica Shaw,1801

Mus perchal Shaw,1801

Mus (Rattus) nemorivagus Hodgson,1836

Mus macropus Hodgson,1845

Mus (Nesokia) elliotanus Anderson,1878

 Authors name & Year of description 1800 Mus  indicus Bechestein, Allgemeine Ueber Vierfuss, 2 :497
 Type locality Pondicherry, India
 Common Name (English)Greater Bandicot Rat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaAgumbe (Chikkamagaluru), Bengaluru, Mysore
 Distribution in IndiaThroughout India
 Distribution elsewhere

 Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, lowlands of Nepal through Burma, S China (Yunnan, S Sichuan, Guizhou, Guangxi, Guangdong, Fujian, Sichuan, Jiangxi, and Hong Kong Isls); Taiwan, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia  and Vietnam.

 Introduced into Kedah and Perlis regions of Malay Peninsula

 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks

Three subspecies are recognised viz.,  B.indica indica; B. i. nemorivaga and B.i.malabarica. Subspecies malabarica is restricted to Western Ghats part of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

This species is commonly found in fields, villages and cities. It naturally is found in swampy areas, and is especially common in lowland rice fields. Animals construct burrows in stream banks, paddy dikes and the edges of fields. The typical litter size between five and sevemn young.

 

 

21.

Golunda elliotii Gray,1837

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Muridae
 Synonyms

Golunda bombax Thomas, 1923

Golunda coenosa Thomas, 1923

Golunda coffaeus Kelaart,1850

Golunda coraginis Thomas, 1923

Golunda gujereti Thomas, 1923

Golunda hirsutus Elliot, 1839

Golunda limitaris Thomas,1923

Golunda myothrix Hodgson,1845

Golunda newara (Kelaart,1850)

Golunda paupera Thomas, 1923

Golunda watsoniii (Blanford,1876)

 Authors name & Year of description 1837 Golunda elliotii  Gray, Mag. Nat. Hist. [Charlesworth's], 1 : 586
 Type locality Dharwar, Karnataka, India
 Common Name (English)Indian Bush Rat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaDharwad
 Distribution in IndiaThroughout India(Chattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand and West Bengal)
 Distribution elsewhere Iran to Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks

The genus name is derived from the Kannada nae of Gulandi while specific name is Sir Walter Elliot. The nominate form is from southern India. Other forms include imitaris (N-W limits), paupera (Punjab), watsoni (Sind), gujerati (Gujarat), bombax(Bombay), coraginis (coorg), coffaeus (Sri Lanka), newera (Sri Lanka), myothrix (Nepal) and coenosa(Bhutan Duars, Hasimara) in Sri Lanaka. Agarwal and Chakraborty (1982) recognized two subspecies viz., ellioti and gujarati on the basis of winter colour variation. However, Agarwal (2000) on examination of specimens opined that differences in the winter colouration is nothing but individual variation and as such synonymised gujarati with ellioti.

It is a partially diurnal, fossorial also terrestrial, semi-arboreal, not particularly gregarious, herbivorous species. It is found in varied habitat conditions from tropical dry deciduous, dry wood, shrub, tropical thorn forests and grassy clumps, may venture in to cultivated lands, bushes, orchards,scrublands, grasslands close to streams, tropical dry deciduous, except cold deserts. Also found near granite hills with sandy loam and silty soil

 

 

22.

Cremnomys (Madromys) blanfordii (Thomas, 1881)

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Muridae
 Synonyms

Cremnomys blanfordi (Thomas, 1881)

Mus blanfordi Thomas, 1881

Rattus blanfordi (Thomas, 1881)

 

 Authors name & Year of description 1881 Cremnomys (Rattus) blanfordii Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser., 5, 7 :24
 Type locality Kadapa. Madras Presidency, India
 Common Name (English)Blanford's Rat, White-tailed Wood Rat,
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaKodagu, Mysore, Uttara Kannada
 Distribution in IndiaAndhra Pradesh, Goa, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala,  Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhereBangladesh, Sri Lanka
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks

This species is endemic to South Asia.

 It is a nocturnal, terrestrial, sometimes fossorial species occuring in tropical and subtropical dry deciduous and scrub
forests, moist deciduous and evergreen forests, where it is seen in rocky areas, caves, crevices, tree hollows and subterrenean habitats (Molur et al. 2005).

 

 

23.

Millardia meltada Gray, 1837

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Muridae
 Synonyms

Golunda meltada Gray,1837

Millardia meltada Thomas,1917 subspecies dunni

Millardia meltada Ryley,1914 subspecies pallidor

Mus comberi Wroughton,1907

Mus lanuginosus Elliot,1839

Mus listoni Wroughton,1907

Rattus meltada (Gray,1837) subspecies meltada

Millardia meltada singuri Mandal and Ghosh,1981

 Authors name & Year of description 1847 Millardia  meltada Gray, Charlesworth's mag. Nat. Hist. 1 :586
 Type locality Dharwar,   Karnataka, India
 Common Name (English)Soft-furred Field Rat, Metad
 Vernacular Name (Kannada) 
 Distribution in KarnatakaKodagu
 Distribution in IndiaAndhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkand, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharastra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal.
 Distribution elsewhereNepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks

This is one of the most common rats trapped in agricultural fields closer to the plains in Kodagu.

Agarwal (2000) synonymized M.m.singuri and M.m.palldor with the present taxon.

It is a nocturnal and fossorial species. It occurs in tropical and sub tropical dry deciduous forests,tropical grasslands, irrigated croplands and grasslands with gravel. Agriculture lands, water courses, embankments, dry rocky hills. It has been found to occupy gravelly areas, bunds of fields and largely cultivated areas (Molur et al. 2005).

               

 

24.

Mus booduga (Gray, 1837)

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Muridae
 Synonyms

Leggada booduga Gray,1837

Mus Lepidus Elliot,1839

Mus teriicolor Blyth,1851

Mus albiventris Blyth,1852

Mus beavanii Peters,1866

Leggada dunni Wroughtoni,1912?

Getamyia weragami Deraniyagala,1965

 

 Authors name & Year of description 1837 Leggada booduga Gray, Charlesworth's Mag.Nat.Hist. 1 : 586
 Type locality S. Maharastra now Karnataka
 Common Name (English)Common Indian Field Mouse, Little Indian Field Mouse
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaDharawada, Gadag, Kodagu, Shimoga
 Distribution in IndiaThroughout India
 Distribution elsewhereBangladesh, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks

This species is common in ricefields and other irrigated croplands in India. It occurs in tropical and subtropical dry deciduous forests (Molur et al. 2005).

There is a need for taxonomic studies to conclusively determine the distribution of Mus booduga and the similar Mus terricolor.

 

 

25. Mus cookii Ryley,1914
 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Muridae
 Synonyms

Mus famulus cookie Ryley,1914

Leggada nagarum Thomas,1921

Mus cervicolor nagarum (Thomas,1921)

Leggada pulnica Thomas,1924

Mus cervicolor pulnica (Thomas,1924)

 

 Authors name & Year of description 1914 Mus cookii Rylei, J. Bombay. Nat. Hist. Soc. 22: 664
 Type locality Gokteik, Shan States, Myanmar
 Common Name (English)Ryley's Spiny Mouse
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaDharwr, Gadag, Kodagu, Shimoga
 Distribution in IndiaArunachal Pradesh, Assam, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharastra, , ,Nagaland, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhereBangladesh, Bhutan, China,  Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks

Two sub species has been recognized M.cookii cookie and M. cookie nagarum, the former distributed in Karnataka.

It is present in a wide variety of primary and secondary forest types. In South Asia it is found in subtropical dry deciduous forests, shola grasslands, temperate coniferous and broadleaved forests, and has been found to occupy arable land near Lantana bushes (Molur et al. 2005). In Southeast Asia it is only found in forested areas and occasionally in moderately disturbed areas such as upland gardens in forests

 

 

26.

Mus famulus Bonhote, 1898

                                                    

 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Muridae
 Synonyms 
 Authors name & Year of description 1898 Mus famulus Bonhote. J Bombay Nat.Hist.Soc. 12 :99
 Type locality Coonor, Nilgiri Hills, Tamil Nadu
 Common Name (English)Bonhote's Mouse
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaCoorg
 Distribution in IndiaKerala, Tamil Nadu
 Distribution elsewhere 
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Endangered

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks

This species belongs to subgenus Coelomys Thomas, 1915. Ellerman (1961) listed three subspecies, namely Mus famulus famulus Bonhote, 1898, Mus famulus cooki (sic) (Ryley, 1914) and Mus famulus popaeus (Thomas, 1919). Mus famulus cooki (sic) (Ryley, 1914) is now considered as a separate species Mus cookii Ryley, 1914, and Mus famulus popaeus (Thomas, 1919) - earlier reported as Leggada nitidula popaeaThomas, 1919, has been proposed to be a subspecies of Mus cervicolor by Corbet and Hill (1992). Thus, presently only Mus famulus Bonhote, 1898 is a valid name from the region.

This species is endemic to the Western Ghats of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu in India, restricted to four fragmented locations. It is a nocturnal and terrestrial species. It occurs in tropical and sub tropical evergreen montane forest and shola grasslands.

 

 

27.

Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Muridae
 Synonyms

Mus abbotti Waterhouse,1837

Mus domestius Rutty,1772

Nearly 60 synonyms

 Authors name & Year of description 1758 Mus musculus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. 10th edn., 1 :62
 Type locality Sweden, Uppsala
 Common Name (English)House Mouse
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Ili
 Distribution in KarnatakaAll districts of Karnataka
 Distribution in IndiaThroughout India
 Distribution elsewhereThe species is widespread over all continents, except Antarctica, and has become established in North and South America, sub-Saharan Africa, Australia, and many oceanic islands
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks

Includes domesticus as a subspecies (Wilson and Reeder 2005). Mus musculus castaneus Waterhouse, 1843 a sub species distributed in cities.

Because of its incredible adaptability to almost any environment, and its ability to live as commensal with humans, the mouse is regarded to be the third most successful mammalian species living on Earth today, after human and the rat.

House mice are typically commensal, and are found in a very wide range of man-made habitats including houses, farm out buildings, other types of buildings, and even coal mines and frozen meat stores. Sometimes it is feral in areas where it has been introduced, and in some parts of its native range it maintains wild populations in outdoor habitats such as arable land, pastures, coastal sand dunes, salt marshes, and scrubby road verges (Macholán 1999, Wilson and Reeder 2005). House mice tend not to be found in forests and deserts (Macholán 1999).

 

 

28.

Mus phillipsi Wroughton, 1912

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Muridae
 Synonyms

Leggada siva Thomas & Ryley,1912

Leggada surkha Wroughton & Ryley,1912

Mus cervicolor (Wroughton,1912) sub species phillipsi

 Authors name & Year of description 1912 Mus phillipsi Wroughton, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 21: p772.
 Type locality India, Central Province, Nimur Dist., Asirgarh, 1500 ft (458 m)
 Common Name (English)Phillip's Mouse, Wroughton's Small Spiny Mouse
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaKodagu
 Distribution in IndiaS and WC Peninsular India (Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Andra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu
 Distribution elsewhere 
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks

This species belongs to subgenus Pyromys Thomas, 1911. Ellerman (1961) treated it as a subspecies of Mus cervicolor Hodgson, 1845. Marshall (1977) restored it to specific level as earlier. Abe (1977) reports its occurrence in Nepal, but lists it as Mus cervicolor phillipsi (Wroughton, 1912). Wilson & Reeder included under the subgenus Mus (Pyromys) phillipsi.

It is a nocturnal and terrestrial species. It occurs in tropical and sub tropical thorn scrub forest, plain grassland with sparse vegetation, rocky, semi-arid, scrub,bush, dry forest patches. It has been found to occupy rocky areas with scrub near fields (Molur et al. 2005).

Endemic to India

 

                                                                                                                                            

 

29.

Mus platythrix Bennett, 1832

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Muridae
 Synonyms

Leggada bahadur Wroughton & Ryley, 1913

Leggada grahami Ryley, 1913

Leggada hannygtoni Ryley, 1913

 Authors name & Year of description 1832 Mus platythrix Bennett, Proc. zool. Soc. Lond., 1832: 121. 1832
 Type locality "Peninsular India Dakkun"  Deccan,
 Common Name (English)Brown Spiny Mouse, Flat-haired Mouse
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaMandya; Mysore; Dharwar; Kodagu:
 Distribution in IndiaAndhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharastra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh
 Distribution elsewhereNone
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks

This species belongs to subgenus Pyromys Thomas, 1911. Ellerman (1961) listed six subspecies, namely Mus platythrix platythrix Bennett, 1832, Mus platythrix sadhu(Wroughton,1911), Mus platythrix ramnadensis (Bentham, 1908), Mus platythrix bahadur(Wroughton and Ryley, 1913), Mus platythrix gurkha (Thomas, 1914), and Mus platythrix shortridgei (Thomas, 1914). However, Marshall (1977) has rearranged Mus platythrix complex under three species namely Mus platythrix Bennett, 1832, Mus saxicola Elliot, 1839 and Mus shortridgei (Thomas, 1914). The last species does not occur in South Asia. One population of Mus platytheix with chromosomal variation from Araku, Andhra Pradesh and Pune, Maharashtra (Agrawal 2000).

This species is endemic to India

It is a nocturnal and terrestrial, in some places ruderal species. It occurs in tropical and sub tropical dry deciduous, scrub forest. Found in all habitats except cold desert in the northeastern States. It has been found to occupy dry, open areas, gritty and gravelly soil, fields, synanthropic habitats, pasture lands, plantations, dry lands with pulses and oilseed cultivations (Molur et al. 2005).

 

 

 

30.

Mus saxicola  Elliot, 1839

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Muridae
 Synonyms

Mus cyndrella

Mus gurkha

Mus priestly

Mus ramnadensis

Mus sadhu

 Authors name & Year of description 1839 Mus saxicola Elliot, Madras J. Litt. Sci., 10 : 215
 Type locality Madras Presidency
 Common Name (English)Elliot's Spiny Mouse
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in Karnataka  Gadag, Kodagu, Shimoga
 Distribution in IndiaThroughout India, eastern limit being West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhere           Indonesia  Nepal; Pakistan
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

 W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks 

 

 

 

31.

Mus terricolor Blyth, 1851

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Muridae
 Synonyms

Mus beavani Peters,1866

Leggada dunni Wroughton,1916

 Authors name & Year of description 1851 Mus terricolor Blyth. J.Asiatic Soc. Bengal, 20 :172
 Type locality South Mahratta now in Karnataka
 Common Name (English)Earth Coloured Mouse
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaDharwar, Gadag, Kodagu, Shimoga
 Distribution in IndiaThroughout India
 Distribution elsewhere           Bangladesh,  Indonesia, Nepal,  Pakistan
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule – V

 Remarks

The range of this largely South Asian species is difficult to define, as it is often confused with Mus booduga.

Agarwal (2000) synonymized Mus dunni and Mus terricolor with Mus booduga. However, based on the morphometric, chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA studies revealed the species mus booduga and mus terricolor are two different species.

 

                             

32.

Rattus norvegicus   Berkenhout, 1769

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Muridae
 Synonyms

Rattus caraco Pallas, 1779

Rattus caspius Oken, 1816

Rattus decimallus Pallas, 1779

 

 Authors name & Year of description 1769  Mus norvegicus Berkenhout, Outlines of the Natural History of Great Britaina and Ireland, 1 : 5
 Type locality Great Britain
 Common Name (English)The Norway Rat, Brown Rat, Street Rat, Sewer Rat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaThroughout Karnataka
 Distribution in IndiaThroughout India
 Distribution elsewhereThis species was originally native of south east Siberia, north-east China and parts of Japan and now introduced throughout the world.
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 RemarksThis species is present in lowland and coastal regions wherever humans are. It is more common in colder climates (e.g. at higher northern and southern latitudes); in warmer and tropical regions it is restricted to habitats highly modified by humans (sewers, buildings, ports, etc.). It does not compete with R. rattus, as the latter is scansorial/arboreal whereas R. norvegicus is strictly terrestrial. This species is present in lowland and coastal regions wherever humans are. It is more common in colder climates (e.g. at higher northern and southern latitudes); in warmer and tropical regions it is restricted to habitats highly modified by humans (sewers, buildings, ports, etc.). It does not compete with R. rattus, as the latter is scansorial/arboreal whereas R. norvegicus is strictly terrestrial

 

 

33.

Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758)

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Muridae
 Synonyms

Mus alexandrinus Geoffroy, 1803, 

Mus novaezelandiae Buller, 1870, 

Mus rattus Linnaeus, 1758, 

Musculus frugivorus Rafinesque, 1814

Indian subspecies : alexandrianus, arboreus, brunnesculus, gangurianus, narbadae, rattus, rufescens, satarae

 Authors name & Year of description 1758 Mus rattus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. 10th edn., 1 ; 89
 Type locality Uppsala, Sweden
 Common Name (English)
Common House Rat, House Rat, Ship Rat, Roof Rat, Black Rat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Ili
 Distribution in KarnatakaThroughout Karnataka
 Distribution in IndiaThroughout India
 Distribution elsewhereIntroduced throughout world
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 RemarksA native of the Indian sub-continent, the ship rat (Rattus rattus) has now spread throughout the world. It is widespread in forest and woodlands as well as being able to live in and around buildings. It will feed on and damage almost any edible thing. The ship rat is most frequently identified with catastrophic declines of birds on islands. It is very agile and often frequents tree tops searching for food and nesting there in bunches of leaves and twigs

 

 

34.

Rattus satarae Hinton, 1918

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Muridae
 Synonyms 
 Authors name & Year of description 1918 Rattus satarae, Hinton, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 26 : 87
 Type locality E. margin of Sahyadris (Western Ghats); Satara, Maharastra
 Common Name (English)Sahyadri Forest Rat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaKodagu (Brahmagiri & Pushpagiri WLS)
 Distribution in IndiaTamil Nadu, Maharastra
 Distribution elsewhereNil
 Threat Category

IUCN :                  Vulnerable

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks

This species is endemic to the northern Western Ghats found of India, where it is found in three severely fragmented regions of Satara in Maharashtra, the Nilgiris in Tamil Nadu (Musser and Carleton 2005) and Coorg in Karnataka. It occurs at elevations ranging from 700 to 2,150 m asl. In the ever green forests.

It has been recorded only in pristine montane moist deciduous and evergreen forests. It is a strictly canopy dwelling animal coming to the ground occasionally only to the base of the tree or vine. It lives in nests or burrow in the middle or high canopy, is frugivorous and insectivorous.

 

 

35.

Rattus tanezumi Temminck, 1844

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Muridae
 Synonyms

Rattus brevicaudus Chakraborty, 1975

Other synonyms are alangensis, amboensis, andamanensis, auroreus, bhotia, brunneus, colouratus, dentatus, diardii, exsul, flavipectus, fortunatus, germaini, insulanus, kandanus, keelengensis, kelleri, longicaudus, lontaris, macmillani, makensis, mansorius, molliculus, neglectus, nezumi, obiensis,  panjius, pannelus, pulliventer, robustulus, sumati, santalum, tablasi, thai, tistae, yeni, wroughtoni

 Authors name & Year of description 1844 Mus tanezumi Temminck,  In Siebold Temminck & Schlegel, Fauna japonica Arnz et.socii. Lugduni Batavorum 51, pl.15. fig. 5-7
 Type locality Near Nagasaki, Japan
 Common Name (English)Oriental House Rat, Tanezumi Rat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaNot specified
 Distribution in IndiaAndaman & Nicobar, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Sikkim, West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhereAfhanisthan, Bhutan, China, Korea, Malysia, Nepal, Taiwan
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W, P. A.                 Schedule – V

 Remarks

This highly adaptable species is commonly found in and around villages and agricultural areas. 

Rattus tanezumi is the oldest name for the 2n = 42 group of Asian house rats that is distinguished from the 2n = 38/40 Rattus rattus not only by chromosomal characters but also morphological and biochemical traits (Wilson, 2005)

Rattus tanezumi likely represents a complex of several similar species. Further studies are needed to clarify the taxonomic status of populations currently allocated to this species

In Serang, Indonesia.Hantaviral sequences were recovered from the lung tissue of an Asian house rat (Rattus tanezumi)

 

 

 

 

36.

Vandeleuria nilagirica  Jerdon, 1867

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Muridae
 Synonyms

V. Badius, V. domecolus, V. marica, V. modesta, V. nilgiriaca, V. povensis, V. rubida

Indian subspecies : dumeticola, oleracea

 Authors name & Year of description

Vandeleuria nilagirica Jerdon, Jerdon, T. C. 1867. The Mammals of India; a natural history of all the animals known to inhabit

 continental India. Rorkee, Calcutta, 319 pp. (Reprinted, London, 1874, 335 pp.)

 Type locality Madras Presidency, India
 Common Name (English)Nilgiri Vandeluria
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaKodagu (Brahmagiri & Puspagiri hills)
 Distribution in IndiaAndhara Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, zmadhya Paradesh, Maharastra, Tamil Nadu
 Distribution elsewhereBhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam
 Threat Category

IUCN :                  Endangered

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks

This species is endemic to the northern Western Ghats, especially the Nilgiris (Musser and Carleton 2005) and the Coorg Western Ghats of Brahmagiri and Pushpagiri areas (S. Molur pers. comm.). It ranges from 900 to 2,100 m asl and is restricted in its extent of occurrence to less than 5,000 sq km. and its area of occupancy to less than 500 sq km. based on available undisturbed montane habitats. Specimens of Vandeleuria in central northern Coorg match the descriptions of V. nilagirica, while those in the south and southeast in the low lying areas are V. oleracea. Specimens from Raigad district of Maharashtra and foothills of the Nilgiris in Anaikatty near Coimbatore are V. oleracea

It is seen in evergreen montane forests and relatively undisturbed plantations of coffee, banana and cardamom with native canopy . It builds spherical to oval shaped nests of grass and leaves in forks of trees or on coffee. It is usually found nesting in pairs in the months of October to February. Once the young mature, the family abandons the nests and seeks shelter in tree holes and shallow nests high up in trees.

Ellermann (1961) maintained six sub species of oleracea, later Agarwal (2000) on the basis of the examinations of further material recognized only two subspecies viz., dumeticola and oleracea

 

 

37.

Vandeleuria oleracea  (Bennett, 1832)

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Muridae
 Synonyms

Mus oleraceous Bennett,1832

Mus dumeticola Hodgson,1845

Mus povensis Hodgson,1945

Mus nilgiricus Jerdon,1967

Vandeleuria wroughtoni Ryley,1914

Vandeleuria oleracea spadicea Ryley,1914

Vandeleuria rubida Thomas,1914

Vandeleuria oleracea modesta Thomas,1914

Vandeleuria oleracea marica Thomas,1914

 Authors name & Year of description 1832, Mus oleraceous Bennett  Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 121
 Type locality "India, Madras, Deccan Region"
 Common Name (English)Asiatic Long-tailed Climbing Mouse, Indomalayan Vandeleuria
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaKodagu,
 Distribution in IndiaThroughout India
 Distribution elsewhere Bangladesh, Bhutan,  Nepal
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks

Two sub species have been recognized V. oleracea oleracea and V. oleracea dumeticola. The former subspecies is distributed in southern India.

The tree mouse Vandeleuria o. oleracea has an odd diploid chromosome complement (2n = 29 female/male) accompanied by a unique multiple sex-chromosome mechanism (X1X2Ymale/X1X1X2female). 

An arboreal and inconspicuous species, usually inhabiting forest and forest edge with dense tangles of vines and vegetation.

 

 

38.

Hystrix indica Kerr, 1792

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Hystricidae
 Synonyms

Hystrix cristata var indica Kerr,1792

Hystrix leucurus Sykes,1831

Hystrix zeylonensis Blyth,1851

Hystrix malabarica Sclater,1865

Hystrix hirustrirostris Blanfordi,1911

Hystric cuneiceps Wroughton,1912

Hystrix indica Kerr,1792

 Authors name & Year of description 1792 Hystrix indica Kerr, In Linnaeus, Anim. Kingdom, : p213.
 Type locality India
 Common Name (English)

Indian Creasted Porcupine

 

 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Mullu Handi, Yed
 Distribution in KarnatakaDharawada, Kodagu, Shimoga
 Distribution in IndiaThroughout India
 Distribution elsewhereAfghanistan, China,  Nepal,  Pakistan,  Sri Lanka, Turkey and Turkmenistan 
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks

Indian porcupines are large rodents with a head-body length of 70-90 cm and a body weight of 11-18 kg. They have a short tail measuring 8-10 cm. The hair of porcupines is highly modified to form layers of longer, thinner, and shorter and thicker spines. Each quill is brown or black in colour, with alternating bands of white. Spines vary in length, with the neck and shoulder quills being the longest, measuring 15 to 30 cm. The tail is covered with shorter spines that appear white in color. Among these, are longer, hollow, rattling quills

This species has a broad habitat tolerance, occupying rocky hillsides, tropical and temperate shrubland, grasslands, forests, arable land, plantations, and gardens.

 

 

 

39.

Lepus nigricollis F. Cuvier,1823

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Muridae
 Synonyms Lepus nigricollis aryabertensis ; Lepus nigricollis cutchensis ;Lepus nigricollis dayanus ; Lepus nigricollis joongshaiensis; Lepus nigricollis macrotus; Lepus nigricollis mahadeva; Lepus nigricollis Rajput; Lepus nigricollis ruficaudatus; Lepus nigricollis sadiya; Lepus nigricollis simcoxi; Lepus nigricollis singhala
 Authors name & Year of description 1823 Lepus nigricollis F. Cuvier, Dict. Sci. Nat., 26: p307.
 Type locality "Malabar" Madras Presidency, India
 Common Name (English)Indian Hare, Black-napped Hare
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Mola
 Distribution in KarnatakaChikkamagaluru, Hassan, Mysore, Shimoga,
 Distribution in IndiaDistributed throughout India except mangrove areas and Himalayan belt
 Distribution elsewherePakistan, southern Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh 
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

  W.P. A.                 Schedule - IV

 Remarks

There are many subspecies in India occupying different regions and habitat types. There are seven recognized subspecies: Lepus nigricollis aryabertensis, L. n. dayanus, L. n. nigricollis, L. n. ruficaudatus, L. n. sadiya, L. n. simcoxi, and L. n. singhala (Hoffmann and Smith 2005).

L.nigricollis nigricollis distributed in southern India.

Lepus nigricollis can be seen in wide variety of habitats such as short grasslands, barren agricultural fields, crop fields, and forest roads. The species can be seen in forests of many types other than the mangroves and tall grassland habitats. However, one can see the species adjacent to forest areas in agricultural fields. It breeds throughout the year, but the peak breeding season is during the monsoon season (Flux and Angermann 1990). Litter size is one to four, but can be higher (Gurung and Singh 1996). Forbs and grasses constitute the bulk of their diet (Flux and Angermann 1990). L. nigricollis is characterized as a shy species (Gurung and Singh 1996). It exhibits activity during crepuscular and nocturnal hours (Chakraborty et al. 2005). Total length is 33.0-53.0 cm (Corbet and Hill 1992).

 

 

40.

Suncus etruscus  Savi,1822

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Muridae
 Synonyms

Sorex etruscus Savi,1822

Sorex  perrotetti Duvernoy,1842

Sorex micronyx Blyth,1855

Sorex hodgsoni Blyth,1855

Sorex atratus Blyth,1855

Sorex nudipes Blyth,1855

Pachyura assamensis Anderson,1873

Crocidura (Pachyura) nilagirica Anderson,1877

Crocidura (Pachyura) pigmoides Anderson,1877

Crocidura (Pachyura) travancorensis Anderson,1877

Crocidura (Pachyura) nitidofulva Anderson,1877

 Authors name & Year of description 1822 Sorex etruscus Dayi,  Nuovo Giorn . de literati.Pisa 1:60
 Type locality Pisa Italy
 Common Name (English)
Etruscan Shrew, Pygmy White-toothed Shrew, Savi's Pygmy Shrew, White-toothed Pygmy Shrew
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaKodagu
 Distribution in IndiaThroughout India
 Distribution elsewhereBangladesh, Borneo, Myanmar, Pakistan, Thailand, Sri Lanka
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

 

 Remarks

Five sub species has been recognized viz. S.e.perrotteti, S.e. nudipes, .e.micronyx, S.e.pygmaeoides and S.e. nitidifulva, of the five the first one is distributed in Karnataka.

This species is most widespread from Southern Europe and North Africa, through parts of the Near East and Arabian Peninsula, Central Asia, South Asia and mainland Southeast Asia, to the island of Borneo in the east.

                             

 

41.

 

Suncus montanus Kelaart,1850

 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Soricidae
 Synonyms

Sorex montanus Kelaart, 1850

Suncus (Murinus) montanus (Kelaart,1850)

Sorex ferruginea Kelaart, 1850

?Sorex niger Horsfield,1851

Suncus niger malabaricus Lindsey,1929

 Authors name & Year of description 1850 Sorex montanus  Kelaart,J. Branch Ceylon Asiatic Soc., 2 :211
 Type locality Sri Lanka
 Common Name (English)Asian Highland Shrew
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaKodagu,
 Distribution in IndiaKarnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu
 Distribution elsewhereSri Lanka
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Vulnerable

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks

Endemic to Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu. Suncus montanus niger distributed in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

Ellerman and Morison, Scot (1951) treated montanus as subspecies of Suncus murinus (Linnaeus,1958). However, Corbet and Hill (1992) retained it as distinct being smaller and blackish.

This species has been mostly recorded from montane forests, grasslands and organic plantations. It is noted that it does not readily enter buildings (Molur et al. 2005). Population numbers are not clearly understood. It is more commonly trapped in the higher elevations of Coorg, above 900 m asl.

 

 

 

42.

 

Suncus murinus Linnaeus,1766

 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Soricidae
 Synonyms Suncus albicaudaSuncus albinusSuncus andersoniSuncus auriculataSuncus beddomeiSuncus blanfordiiSuncus blythii,Suncus caerulaeusSuncus caerulescensSuncus caeruleusSuncus celebensisSuncus ceylanicaSuncus crassicaudusSuncus duvernoyi,Suncus edwardsianaSuncus fulvocinereaSuncus fuscipesSuncus geoffroyiSuncus giganteusSuncus griffithiiSuncus heterodonSuncus indicusSuncus kandianusSuncus krooniiSuncus KuekenthaliSuncus leuceraSuncus luzoniensisSuncus malabaricusSuncus mauritiana,Suncus mediaSuncus melanodonSuncus microtisSuncus mulleriSuncus muschataSuncus myosurusSuncus nemorivagusSuncus nitidofulvaSuncus occultidensSuncus palawanensisSuncus pealanaSuncus piloridesSuncus riukiuanaSuncus rubicundaSuncus sacer,Suncus saturatiorSuncus semmelikiSuncus semmelinckiSuncus serpentariusSuncus sindensisSuncus soccatusSuncus sonneratii,Suncus swinhoeiSuncus temminckiiSuncus tytleriSuncus unicolorSuncus viridescensSuncus waldemarii
 Authors name & Year of description 1766 Sorex  murinus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. 12th Edn., 1 : 76
 Type locality Java, Indonesia
 Common Name (English)Asian Musk Shrew
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Sondili
 Distribution in KarnatakaThroughout Karnataka
 Distribution in IndiaThroughout India
 Distribution elsewhereAfrica,  Asia, Europe, North America
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks

The Indian musk shrew (Suncus murinus) may have been deliberately introduced to some areas in an attempt to keep away rats and snakes (Prater, 1947; Murray, 1884; in Taber et al., 1967). S. murinus has been successfully domesticated for use as a laboratory animal in the USA and Japan.

Asian house shrews live in near human residential area to obtain the favorable den sites, and they do not absolutely need food resources from human activities for their settlement.

This species is found in a very wide variety of habitats, including natural forests, scrubland and grasslands and nearly all secondary amd degraded habitats, such as plantations, pasture, cultivated fields, suburbans and urban areas. It is a human commensal

 

 

43. Suncus  stoliczkanus Anderson,1877
 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Soricidae
 Synonyms

Crocidura (Pachyura) bidiana Anderson,1877

Crocidura (Pachyura) stoliczkanus Anderson,1877

Crocidura (Pachyura) subflava Anderson,1877

Crocidura leucogenys Dobson,1888

Suncus stoliczkanus leucogenys Dobson,1888

 Authors name & Year of description 1877, Crocidura (Pachyura)  stoliczkanus Anderson J.Asiatic Soc., 46 :270
 Type locality Bombay, India
 Common Name (English)Anderson's Shrew
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaUttara Kannada (Dandeli)
 Distribution in IndiaPeninsular India to Punjab and Rajasthan
 Distribution elsewhereBangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks

Endemic to South Asia

This species is a nocturnal, crepuscular, terrestrial animal, that occupies grassy embankments, can be found near water courses, riverine areas, and in open areas interspersed with scrub in tropical forests. It is also reported from gardens and paddy fields (Molur et al. 2005).

 

 

44. Anathana ellioti Waterhouse,1850
 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Scandentia
 Synonyms 
 Authors name & Year of description 1850 Tupaia ellioti Waterhouse, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., :107 (1850)
 Type locality Hills of Cuddapah and Nellore, Andhra Pradesh
 Common Name (English)Tree Shrew
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in Karnataka

Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary (BRTWLS), or BR Hills (770-77016'E & 11047'-1209'N, 540km2) in Chamarajanagar district.

Bandipur, Cauvery Wildlife Sanctuary and MM Hills Reserve Forests

 Distribution in IndiaBihar, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu,West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhereEndemic to India
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 RemarksIt is distributed "both in the dry and moist deciduous forests of peninsular India, south of the Ganges" (Prater 1971), to Bihar in the east, and the Satpuras in the west, up to an altitude of 1400m ASL (Menon 2003).  Tree Shrews are small mammals native to tropical forests of South and South-East Asia and constitute two families (Tupaiidae and Ptilocercidae) under the Order Scandentia (IUCN 1995). Their earlier classification under Insectivora is no longer viable and the creation of a separate order is supported by recent molecular evidence (Schmitz et al. 2000).  They are closely related to primates and form one of the four superordinal clades along with rodents, primates and flying lemurs (Murphy et al. 2001).  Scandentia along with Lagomorpha form the cohort Glires, a sister group of primates (Schmitz et al. 2000).  The genus Anathana is monotypic with A. ellioti being the only species in this genus.

 

 

45.

Crocidura horsfieldii Tomes, 1856

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Soricidae
 Synonyms C. Indochinensis, C. kurodai, C. myodies, C. retusa, C. tadae, C. watasei, C. wuchensis
 Authors name & Year of description 1856.  Sorex horsfieldii Tomes, Ann.Mag.Nat.Hist. ser. 2 : 17. pl. 23
 Type locality Sri Lanka
 Common Name (English)Horsfield's shrew
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaMysore
 Distribution in IndiaLadakh ( J & K)
 Distribution elsewhere CambodiaChinaIndiaJapanLaos,NepalSri LankaTaiwanThailand, and Vietnam 
 Threat Category

IUCN :                  Data Deficient

 

 Remarks

Need to examine the taxonomic relationship in view of its distributional records at Ladakh and Mysore.

This species is endemic to South Asia, where it has been recorded from Sri Lanka (widely distributed), India (Mysore and Ladakh) and Nepal.

Subspecies or synonyms discussed by Jenkins (1976) and Jameson and Jones (1977). Usually spelled horsfieldi but Corbet and Hill (1991) correctly used horsfieldii.

Formerly also included indochinensis and wuchihensis  also included  kurodai and tadae from Taiwan, but they show a karyotype (2n = 40, FN = 54; Fang et al., 1997) different from [horsfieldii]  indochinensis (2n = 38, FN = 48; Rao and Aswathanarayana, 1978). Here they are both included in rapax.

The distribution of horsfieldii sensu strictu is still a matter of disagreement. Lunde et al. (2003b) restricted its distribution to Sri Lanka and adjacent peninsular India

This species is endemic to South Asia

                                        

 

46.

Cynopterus brachyotis Muller,1838

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Pteropodidae
 Synonyms

Cynopterus brachysoma Dobson, 1871

Cynopterus marginatus Dobson, 1873  

Cynopterus marginatus Gray, 1871 variety ceylonensis

Pachysoma brachyotis Muller, 1838

Other synonyms are : Cynopterus altitudinis; Cynopterus andamanensis, Cynopterus archipelagus; Cynopterus brachysoma; Cynopterus ceylonensis; Cynopterus concolor; Cynopterus hoffeti; Cynopterus insularum; Cynopterus javanicus; Cynopterus luzoniensis; Cynopterus minor; Cynopterus minutus

 

 Authors name & Year of description 1838 Pachysoma brachyotis Muller, Tijdschr. Nat. Gesch. Physiol., 5: 146
 Type locality Borneo
 Common Name (English)Lesser Dog-faced Fruit Bat, Common Short nosed Fruit Bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaKodagu, Mysore, Shimoga (Gerusoppa), Uttara Kannada [Bates, 1997 records from Nagarahole, Jogfalls, Sirsi, Virajpet.]
 Distribution in IndiaAndaman & Nicobar Is., South India, Bihar,  Goa, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya Nagaland, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhereIndonesia (Sulawesi, Sumatera); Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Myanmar; Singapore; Sri Lanka; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Vietnam
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks

The sub species Cynopterus brachyotis brachysoma

Dobson, 1871 distributed in southern India

There is a difference of opinion as regard the allocation of different names under this species ( Corbet & Hill, 1992; Wilson and Reeder, 1993).

 

 

47.

Cynopterus sphinx (Vahl, 1797)

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Pteropodidae
 Synonyms

Cynopterus angulatus Miller, 1898

Cynopterus brachyotis Miller, 1898 subspecies angulatus

Cynopterus brachyotis Zelebor, 1869 variety scherzeri

Cynopterus marginatus Gray, 1870 variety ellitoi

Cynopterus sphnx Andersen, 1910 subspecies gangeticus

Pachysoma brevicaudatum Temminck, 1837

Pteropus marginatus É. Geoffroy, 1810

Pteropus pusillus É. Geoffroy, 1803

Vespertilio fibulatus Vahl, 1797

Vespertilio sphinx Vahl, 1797

 Authors name & Year of description 1797. Vespertilio sphinx Vahl, Skr. Nat. Selsk. Copenhagen, 4 (1) : 123.
 Type locality Indonesia
 Common Name (English) Greater Short-nosed Fruit Bat,
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaBengaluru, Chamarajanagara, Chikkamagaluru, Dakshina Kannada, Kodagu, Kolara, Mysore, Shimoga, Uttara Kannada [ Bates,1997 records from Bengaluru, Belagavi, Chettahalli, Dharwar, Hampi, Honnavar, Kidu, Mangaluru, Mysore and Srirangapattana]
 Distribution in IndiaAndhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Nicobar Islands, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhere Nepal (Central, Eastern, Far Western and Western Nepal), Pakistan (Sind) and Sri Lanka (Central, Eastern, North Central, Sabaragamuwa, Southern, Uva and Western provinces) 
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 RemarksSerious pest on grapes in Bangaluru district, also casuses damage to Guava, Arecanut plantations as well as Sapota. Cause considerable damage to Banana and Cashew plantations in coastal Karnataka.

               

 

48.

Eonycteris spelaea  Dobson, 1871

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Pteropodidae
 Synonyms

Eonycteris bernsteini Tate, 1942

Eonycteris spelaea Lawrence, 1939 subspecies glandifera

Eonycteris spelaea Jentink, 1889 subspecies rosenbergii

Eonycteris spelaea Maharadatunkamsi & Kitchener, 1997 subspecies winnyae

Macroglossus spelaeus Dobson, 1871

 Authors name & Year of description 1871, Macroglossus spelaea Dobson, Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Pp. 210-215.
 Type locality Kekirawa, Jafna, Sri Lanka
 Common Name (English)Common Dawn Bat, Common Nectar Bat, Lesser Dawn Bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in Karnataka

Chikamagaluru, Kodagu, Kolara, Shimoga,

Bates,1997 records from Moroor and Bisleneer

 Distribution in IndiaAndaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Karnataka, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu and Uttarakhand.
 Distribution elsewhereSoutheast Asia, it ranges from Myanmar in the west, through Thailand, Lao PDR, and parts of Viet Nam and Cambodia to Peninsular Malaysia. In insular Southeast Asia, it ranges from Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok, Sumba, Sulawesi, Muna, Sanana, Halmahera, Batjan and Tidore), much of the island of Borneo (Brunei, Indonesia and Malaysia), 
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks

Eonycteris spelaea glandifera   Lawrence 1939 is the subspecies found distributed in Karnataka.     

Colonial cave dweller, distributed in moist deciduous, hilly-forested tracks and even in evergreen forests

 

 

49.

Latidens salimalii Thonglongya, 1972

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Pteropodidae
 SynonymsNil
 Authors name & Year of description 1972 Latidens salimalii Thonglongya,  J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 69:153. 
 Type locality Tamil Nadu
 Common Name (English)Salim Ali's Fruit Bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaThis species is endemic to India and is presently known from localities in Periyar Tiger Reserve in Kerala State and in Kalakkad-Mundunthurai Tiger Reserve, Kardana Coffee Estate, Megamalai, High Wavy Mountains in Tamil Nadu State. Its occurrence in Uppinangadi in Karnataka
 Distribution in IndiaTamil Nadu, Kerala
 Distribution elsewhereNil
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Endangered

W.P. A.                 Schedule -I

 Remarks

Endemic to Western Ghats.

These bats are frugivorous, colonial, cave dwelling and tree holes

Habitat: Evergreen broadleaf forest, broad-leaved montane forest, Interspersed with coffee / cardamom plantations, cave-dwelling.

 

 

50.

Pteropus giganteus  (Brünnich, 1782)

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera :  Pteropodidae
 Synonyms

Pteropus ariel Allen, 1908

Pteropus assamensis McClelland, 1839

Pteropus edwardsi I. Geoffroy, 1828

Pteropus kelaarti Gray, 1871

Pteropus leucocephalus Hodgson, 1835

Pteropus medius Temminck, 1825

Pteropus ruvicollis Ogilby, 1840 [misspelt rubricollis or rubicollis]

Vespertilio gigantea Brunnich, 1782

 

 Authors name & Year of description 1782 Vespertilio gigantea Brunnich, Dyrenes Historiae, I, p
 Type locality Central Nepal
 Common Name (English)Indian Flying Fox
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaBangaluru, Chitradurga, Dakshina Kannada, Hassan,Kolar,Mysore, Shimoga, Tumkur, Uttara Kannada
 Distribution in IndiaAndhra Pradesh, Andaman Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar,Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Orissa, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhereSouth Asia, but also occurs in adjacent China. In South Asia it is widely distributed from Bangladesh (Barisal, Dhaka, Rajashahi and Sylhet divisions), Bhutan
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 RemarksThis taxon belongs to the vampyrus species group. Earlier included as Pteropus intermedius Andersen, 1908 and also listed under Pteropus vampyrus (Linnaeus, 1758)

 

 

51.

Rousettus leschenaultii Desmarest,1820

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Pteropodidae
 Synonyms

Eleutherura fusca Gray, 1870

Pteropus leschenaultii Desmarest, 1820

Rousettus affinis Gray, 1843

Rousettus fuliginosa Gray, 1871

Rousettus fusca Gray, 1871

Rousettus infuscata Peters, 1873

Rousettus leschenaulti (Desmarest, 1820) [orth. error]

Rousettus marginatus Gray, 1843 [not É. Geoffroy, 1810]

Rousettus pirivarus Hodgson, 1841

Rousettus pyrivorus Hodgson, 1835

Rousettus seminudus Kelaart, 1850

Rousettus shortridgei Thomas & Wroughton, 1909

Xantharpyia seminuda Gray, 1870

 Authors name & Year of description 1820 Pteropus leschenaultii Desmarest, Mammologie ou description des espece de mammiferes. In: Encyclopedie methodique  Part I, Agasse, Paris: 110.
 Type locality Pondicherry, India
 Common Name (English)Leschenault's Rousette, Leschenault's Rousette, Shortridge's Rousette
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaBelagavi, Gerusoppa, Hampi, Maroor, Mysore (Nagarahole), Kodagu(Virajpet)
 Distribution in IndiaChattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhereit is presently known from Bangladesh (Chittagong, Dakha, Khulna and Sylhet divisions), Bhutan (Panjurmane), China, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakisthan, Thailand, Vietnam
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 RemarksA Colonia species living in areas of hot and humid and is found in a variety of habitats ranging from tropical moist forest to urban environments. Roosts in colonies ranging from a few to several thousands of individuals in caves, old and ruined buildings, forts and disused tunnels. It feeds on fruits and flowers. It has two breeding cycles in a year and bears a single young (Bates and Harrison 1997)

 

 

52.

Rhinolophus beddomei Anderson,1905

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Rhinolophidae
 Synonyms

Rhinolophus luctus Andersen, 1905 subspecies beddomei

Rhinolophus luctus Andersen, 1918 subspecies sobrinus

 

 Authors name & Year of description 1905 Rhinolophus beddomei Anderson, Annals and Magazines of Natural History, 16 : 243 -257.
 Type locality Wyanad, Kerala
 Common Name (English)Beddome's Horseshoe bat, Lesser Woolly Horseshoe Bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaUttara Kannada (Sirsi), Hale Palya village, Haleri
 Distribution in IndiaAndhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Maharashtra
 Distribution elsewhereMalaysia, Sri Lanka, Thailand
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks

This species is primarily a found in dense dry and tropical moist forests. It roosts either as solitary animals or in pairs in caves, dilapidated buildings, large trees with hollows, wells, ledges in cave systems, old and unused tunnels.

According to ZSI Checklist, subspecies, Rhinolophus beddomei beddomei distributed in Karnataka.

 

 

 

53.

Rhinolphus Lepidus Blyth,1844

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Rhinolophidae
 Synonyms Rhinolophus monticola Andersen, 1905
 Authors name & Year of description 1844 Rhinolophus Lepidus Blyth, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 13 : 486
 Type locality Bengal, India
 Common Name (English)Blyth's Horseshoe Bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaHonavara, Kamalashik, Gerusoppa, Kyasanur, Shimoga,
 Distribution in IndiaAndhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Delhi, Karnataka, Kerala, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhereAfghanistan (Faryab, Kabul, Nangarhar, Parwan and Zabol provinces), Bangladesh (Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Sylhet and Rajsahi divisions)
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

 

 Remarks

This species is endemic to South Asia

This species is primarily a found in dense dry and tropical moist forests. It roosts either as solitary animals or in pairs in caves, dilapidated buildings, large trees with hollows, wells, ledges in cave systems, old and unused tunnels 

                                                                                                                                                              

 

54.

                                Rhinolophus pusillus Temminck,1834

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera :  Rhinolophidae
 Synonyms

Rhinolophus blythi Andersen, 1918

Rhinolophus cornutus Temminck, 1835

Rhinolophus cornutus Andersen, 1918 subspecies blythi

Rhinolophus gracilis Andersen, 1905

Rhinolophus imaizumii Hill & Yoshiyuki, 1980

Rhinolophus minor Horsfield, 1823 [preoccupied by Vespertilio ferrumequinum minorKerr, 1792]

Rhinolophus monoceros K. Andersen, 1905

Rhinolophus perditus K. Andersen, 1918

Rhinolophus pumilus K. Andersen, 1905

 

 Authors name & Year of description 1834 Rhinolophus pusillus Temminck, Over een geslachk der vluegelhandige zoodieren… Tiejdschrift Natuurl. Gesh. Physiol., 1: 29, pl. 1. Fig. 5.
 Type locality Java, Indonesia
 Common Name (English)Least Horse shoe bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaBangalore, Mysore (Lingsugur, Deccan), Uttara Kannada
 Distribution in IndiaAndhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Karnataka, Kerala, Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Uttarakhand and West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhereSpecies has a very wide range from South Asia eastwards to Japan, occurring also in southern and southwestern China, including Taiwan, southwards through mainland Southeast Asia to Indonesia and Borneo.
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks

Recorded from both primary and secondary tropical moist forest, roosting in caves (up to 1,500 animals in China) and houses (usually a smaller colony size). Animals have been recorded foraging low over bamboo clumps in limestone areas 

Subspeces R.p.gracillis distributed in southern India

Ellerman & Morrsion- Scot (1951) considered blythi as a subspecies of R. cornutus Temminck, Hill and Yoshiyuki (1980) treated R. pusillus as a distinct species from R. cornutus and blythi was placed under pusillus. As gracilus was treated as synonym of pusillus by Corbet and Hill (1992) and Koopman (In Wilson & Reeder, 1993). Malabar is included here within the range of pusillus.

 

 

55.

Rhinolophus rouxii Temminck,1835

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera  : Rhinolophidae
 Synonyms

Rhinolophus cinerascens Kelaart, 1852

Rhinolophus fulvidus Blyth, 1851 [error for rubidus Kelaart, 1850]

Rhinolophus petersii Dobson, 1872

Rhinolophus rammanika Kelaart, 1852

Rhinolophus rouxi Temminck, 1835 [orth. error]

Rhinolophus rubidus Kelaart, 1850

 

 Authors name & Year of description 1835 Rhinolophus rouxii Temminck, Monogr. Mamm., 2: 306.
 Type locality Pondicherry, India
 Common Name (English)Rufous Horseshoe Bat, Peninsular Horseshoe bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in Karnataka

Belgaum, Coorg, Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary, Dharwar,  Mysore Shimoga, Uttara Kannada

Obseverd by Bates : Bangalore, Barchi, Dandeli, Devikop,Gersoppa, Hulekal, Jog Falls, Mysore,Potoli, Seringapatnam, Sirsi, Talewadi ,Yellapur

 Distribution in IndiaAndhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Pondicherry, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttaranchal and West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhereMyanmar, Nepal (Central and Eastern Nepal) and Sri Lanka (Central, Eastern, North Central, Sabargamuwa, Uva and Western provinces), China
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

 

 RemarksSub species R.r.rouxi distributed in Karnataka. A colonial  species living in caves, hollow trees, wells with relatively high rainfalland temples

 

 

56.

Rhinolophus luctus Temminck,1835

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Rhinolophidae
 Synonyms Rhinolophus perniger Hodgson, 1843
 Authors name & Year of description 1835 Rhinolphus Luctus Temminck, Monographies de mammamogie, tome 2. Leiben and Paris: 392pp, pls. xxvi - xxix
 Type locality Java, Indonesia
 Common Name (English)Blyth's Horseshoe Bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaKikkeri, Kalasa, Sagar, Shimoga
 Distribution in IndiaAssam, Karnataka, Kerala, Meghalaya, Madhya Pradesh, Nagaland, Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal, West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhereBangladesh, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

 

 RemarksAn insectivorous bat ooccurs solitarily with low density in forests, rocky outcrops and evergreen forests.

 

 

57.

Hipposideros ater Templeton,1848

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Hipposideridae
 Synonyms

Hipposideros atratus Kelaart, 1850

Hipposideros bicolor Templeton, 1848 subspecies ater

Hipposideros bicolor Miller, 1902 subspecies nicobarulae

Hipposideros nicobarulae Miller, 1902

Hipposideros wrighti (Taylor, 1934)

Hipposideros amboiensis Peters, 1871          

Hipposideros atratus Kelaart,1850

Hipposideros nicobarulae Miller,1902

 Authors name & Year of description 1848 Hipposideros ater Templeton, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 17: 252. 
 Type locality Sri Lanka West. Colombo
 Common Name (English)Dusky Leafnosed Bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaBengaluru, Dharawada, Hanumalli, Kolar, Lingasur, Theerthalli
 Distribution in IndiaAndhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Nicobar Islands, Orissa and Tamil Nadu
 Distribution elsewhereAustralia; Indonesia; Malaysia; Myanmar; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Sri Lanka; Thailand
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks

In South Asia, this species roosts in small colonies in lofts of old thatched houses, old disused buildings, disused areas of buildings, mines, tunnels, culverts, wells, hollows of large trees in forested areas, large crevices in walls, caves on sea shores. It is a late flyer with a low, fast and fluttering flight and feeds on small sized coleopterans and mosquitoes.

Ellerman and Morrison-Scott (1951) treated ater as a subspecies of H. bicolor (Temminck) with some doubt. Hill (1963) gave it a specific rank.

 

 

58.

Hipposideros fulvus Gray,1838

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Hipposideridae
 Synonyms

Hipposideros bicolor Gray, 1838 subspecies fulvus

Hipposideros bicolor Andersen, 1918 subspecies pallidus

Hipposideros fulvus Andersen, 1918 subspecies pallidus

Hipposideros murinus Gray, 1838

Phyllorhina atra Fitzinger, 1870

Phyllorhina aurita Tomes, 1859

Rhinolophus fulgens Elliot, 1839

 

 Authors name & Year of description 1838 Hipposideros fulvus Gray,  Mag. Zool. Bot., 2: p. 492
 Type locality Dharwar, Karnataka
 Common Name (English)Fulvus Leaf nosed Bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in Karnataka

Dharwada, Gadag, Hanumalli, Kolar, Shimoga (Theerthahalli), Uttara Kannada (Honnavara), Hospet (Hampi).

 

 Distribution in IndiaAndhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh)
 Distribution elsewhereAfghanistan; Bangladesh; China;  Malaysia, Pakistan; Sri Lanka
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

 

 RemarksRoosts in colonies of a few to large number of individuals in old dilapidated buildings, temples, cellars, caves and old wells.

 

 

59.

Hipposideros galeritus Cantor,1846

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Hipposideridae
 Synonyms

Phyllorhina brachyota Dobson, 1874

Phyllorhina galerita Dobson, 1876

Hipposideros insolensLyon,1911

Hipposideros longicauda Peters,1861

 Authors name & Year of description 1846, Hipposideros galeritus Cantor, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 15: 183.
 Type locality Malaysia Penang Island
 Common Name (English)Cantor's Leaf nosed bat, Cantor's Roundleaf Bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaBangalore, Dhakshina Kannada, Kolara, Dharwada, Kodagu, Uttara Kannada [ Badami, Honnavar collection by Bates,1997)
 Distribution in IndiaAndhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra
 Distribution elsewhereBangladesh; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; India; Indonesia (Kalimantan); Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak); Sri Lanka; Thailand; Viet Nam
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks

This species is found in dry to wet lowland forests, but have also been recorded from rubber estates. species roosts in small colonies or family units in old mines, cracks, culverts and crevices in old buildings, caves, among large boulders, overhanging ledges, tunnels, dungeons, forts, temples and churches.

Subspecies H.galeritus brachyotis  and H. galeritus galerites distributed in Karnataka

 

 

60.

Hipposideros hypophyllus Kock & Bhatt,1994

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Hipposideridae
 SynonymsNil
 Authors name & Year of description 1994. Hipposideros hypophyllus Kock and Bhat, 1994.  Senk. Biol., 73: 26.
 Type locality India, Karnataka, Bangalore Region, 15 km E Kolar Town, Hanumanhalli Village (13°09'N, 78°07'E).
 Common Name (English)Kolar Leaf-nosed Bat, Leafletted Leaf-nosed BatHi
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaKolar (Hanumanahalli and Theralli, in Kolar District, Karnataka State) Recorded sofar only from these places.
 Distribution in IndiaNil
 Distribution elsewhereEndemic to India
 Threat Category

IUCN :                  Endangered

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 RemarksThis species is endemic to India and is presently known only from the two localities of Hanumanahalli and Theralli, in Kolar District, Karnataka State (Kock and Bhat 1994).

 

 

61.

Hipposideros lankadiva Kelaart,1850

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Hipposideridae
 Synonyms

Hipposideros indus Andersen, 1918

Hipposideros indus Andersen, 1918 subspecies mixtus

Hipposideros indus Andersen, 1918 subspecies unitus

Hipposideros lankadiva Andersen, 1918 subspecies mixtus

Hipposideros lankadiva Andersen, 1918 subspecies unitus

Hipposideros schistaceus K. Andersen, 1918

 

 Authors name & Year of description 1850 Hipposideros lankadiva Kelaart, J. Sri Lanka Branch Asiat. Soc., 2 (2) : 216
 Type locality Candy, Sri Lanka
 Common Name (English)Indian Leaf-nosed Bat, Indian Roundleaf Bat, Kelaart's Leaf nosed bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in Karnataka

Belgaum, Bijapur, Gokak, Kodagu,  Mysore, Shimoga, Uttara Kannada

Bates,1997 collects from Gerusoppa, Kamalashille, Kolar, Mooroor, Talevadi, Vijayanagara, Yellapur

 Distribution in IndiaAndhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Orissa, Rajasthan Tripura and West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhereBangladesh (Khulna division) and Sri Lanka
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks

This species is endemic to South Asia where it is widely distributed.

This is a colonial species that roosts in small (50 individuals) to very large (several thousand individuals) colonies in caves, old disused tunnels, old temples and cellars under old buildings. It has been recorded sharing its roosting sites with Megaderma lyra, and other species of bats 

 

 

62.

Hipposideros pomona Anderson,1918

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera: Hipposideridae
 Synonyms

Hipposideros sinensis

Hipposideros gentils  Anderson,1918

 Authors name & Year of description 1918, Hipposideros pomona Andersen, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9), 2:380, 381 
 Type locality Haleri, Coorg, Mysore, Karnataka,
 Common Name (English)Pomona Leaf-nosed bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaKodagu, Haleri
 Distribution in IndiaAndhra Pradesh, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Nicobar Islands, Tamil Nadu, Sikkim and West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhereBangladesh; Cambodia; China; India; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Myanmar; Nepal; Thailand; Viet Nam
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks

Hipposideros pomona is an insectivorous bat has widespread distribution, little is known about the habitat or ecology of this species except that it roosts in small colonies of a few individuals in caves and crevices in subterranean habitats. According to ZSI Checklist, H.pomona pomona a subspecies found distributed in Karnataka

Ellermann and Morrison-Scott (1951) treated Pomona as a distinct species, but Hill (1963) considered as a subspecies of H.bicolor (Temminck). However, Hill et.al (1986) revived  the specific status of Pomona.

 

 

63. Hipposideros schistaceous Anderson, 1918
 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera: Hipposideridae
 SynonymsNil
 Authors name & Year of description 1918 Hipposideros schistaceous Anderson,  Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (Ser. 9), 2 : 382
 Type locality Bellary, Karnataka
 Common Name (English)None
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaBellary
 Distribution in IndiaEndemic toPeninsular India
 Distribution elsewhereSri Lanka
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

64.

Hipposideros speoris Schneider,1800

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Hipposideridae
 Synonyms

Hipposideros apiculatus Gray, 1838

Hipposideros aureus Kelaart, 1853

Hipposideros blythi Kelaart, 1853

Hipposideros penicillatus Gary, 1838

Hipposideros speoris Andersen, 1918 subspecies pulchellus

Hipposideros templetonii Kelaart, 1850

Rhinolophus dukhunensis Sykes, 1831

Vespertilio speoris Schneider, 1800

Rhinolophus marsupialis Desmarest,1820

 Authors name & Year of description 1800 Vespertilio  spereos Schneider, In Schreber Die Saugathiere Pl. 59b.
 Type locality Tranquebar, Madras Presidency
 Common Name (English)Schneider's Leaf-nosed bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Nil
 Distribution in Karnataka

Belgaum, Dakshina Kannada, Shimoga, Uttara Kannada

Bates,1997 records from Badami, Bengaluru, Belgaum, gadag, Gerusoppa, Gokarna, Hampi, Hannasar, Hanumalli, Honnavar, Kolar, Konaje, Lingsur, Mooroor, Mysore, Nisinoor, Pattadakal,Srirangapatnam, Sivanasamudra, Sogala, Theerthalli, Vijayanagar

 Distribution in IndiaAndhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Orissa, Tamil Nadu and Uttarakhand
 Distribution elsewhereSri Lanka
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks

Species is endemic to South Asia.

Japanese Encephalites Virus antibodies has been found in this species.

Insectivorous, colonial, nocturnal, lives in dry forested areas among caves, temples and abandoned buildings.

 

 

 

65.

Megaderma lyra É. Geoffroy, 1810

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Megadermatidae
 Synonyms

Encheira lyra Andersen & Wroughton, 1907 subspecies caurina

Megaderma lyra Andersen & Wroughton, 1907 subspecies caurina

Megaderma schistacea Hodgson, 1847

Megaderma spectrum Wagner, 1844

Vespertilio (Megaderma) carnatica Elliot, 1839

 

 Authors name & Year of description 1810 Megaderma lyra E. Geoffroy, Ann. Mus. Natn. Hist. Nat. Paris, 15:190.
 Type locality Madras, Tamil Nadu
 Common Name (English)Greater False Vampire, Greater False Vampire Bat, Indian False Vampire Bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in Karnataka

Belgavi, Chikkamagalur, Shimoga,

Bates, 1997 records Belgaum, Devikop, Hangal, Honawar, Honkan, Jog ,Kadkal, Kardibetta Forest,  Kasakola,  Kolar, Pattadkal, Puttur, Sagar, Seringapatnam,  Shimoga,  Sirsi , Terakanambi, Vijayanagar

 Distribution in IndiaAndhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhereAfghanistan; Bangladesh; Cambodia; China; India; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Myanmar; Nepal; Pakistan; Sri Lanka; Thailand; Viet Nam
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

 

 Remarks

This species is found in variety of habitats ranging from dry arid lands to hot humid forests to coastal areas. It roosts in small to large colonies ranging from a single individual to several hundred individuals in caves, old buildings, thatched huts, old disused wells, temples, forts, tunnels, mines, cow sheds. It flies rather silently and close to the ground and feeds on a variety of insects that vary seasonally, also small vertebrates and also other bat species.

In Karnataka subspecies Megaderma lyra lyra found distributed.

 

 

66.

Megaderma spasma Linnaeus,1758

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Megadermatidae
 Synonyms

Megaderma horsfieldii Blyth, 1863

Vespertilio  spasma Linnaeus, 1758

Megaderma spasma ceylonense Andersen, 1918

Megaderma abditum, Megaderma crimatae, Megaderma celebensis

Megaderma ceylonense; Megaderma kinabalu; Megaderma lasiae; Mgaderma majus; Megaderma medium Megaderma minus; Megaderma naisense; Megaderma natunae; Megaderma pangandarana; Megaderma siumatis; Megaderma trifolium

 Authors name & Year of description 1758 Vespertelio  spasma Linnaeus, Syst. Natur, 10th edn. 1 :95
 Type locality Indonesia, W. Java, Buitenzorg ( = Bogor), Kota Batu, 300 m. 
 Common Name (English)Lesser False Vampire Bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaBengaluru, Belagavi, Hassana, Ramanagar, Shimoga,
 Distribution in IndiaAndaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhereBangladesh; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; India; Indonesia; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Myanmar; Philippines; Singapore; Sri Lanka; Thailand; Viet Nam
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 RemarksColonial, carnivorous, lives in humid and forest biomes occupies caves, disused wells, temples, verandahs, native houses and hollow trees.

 

 

67.

Rhinopoma hardwickii Gray,1831

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera: Rhinopomatidae
 SynonymsNil
 Authors name & Year of description 1831 Rhinopoma hardwickii Gray, 1831. Zool. Misc. 1: 37. 
 Type locality "India"
 Common Name (English)Lesser mouse-tailed bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaBadami, Chitradurga, Gadag, Pattadkal, Vijaynagar
 Distribution in India

Andhra Pradesh,  Bihar,  Gujarat, Jammu & Kashmir,

Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh,Maharashtra, Rajasthan,  Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal

 Distribution elsewhereAfghanistan; Algeria; Bangladesh; Burkina Faso; Cameroon; Chad; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Ethiopia; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Kenya; Kuwait; Libya; Mali; Mauritania; Morocco; Nepal; Niger; Nigeria; Oman; Pakistan; Saudi Arabia; Somalia; Sudan; Syrian Arab Republic; Thailand; Tunisia; Western Sahara; Yemen (Socotra)
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

 

 Remarks

Inhabits arid and semi-desert vegetation zones where suitable roosts and food are available. Recorded in semi-desert grassland with areas of Acacia scrub in oases with gardens and orchards surrounded by sandy desert and hamada, in gorges of wadis with some Tamarix and Oleanders (Nerium oleander). Roosts in dry caves, ruins, underground tunnels (including catacombs), mosques and old buildings. In summer sometimes roosts in fissures, small crevices and among boulders. The species is sendentary and it stores fat in autumn for the winter months.

The subspecies R.hardwickii hardwickii distributed in the state

 

 

68.

Rhinopoma micropyllym Brunnich, 1782

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Rhinopomatidae
 Synonyms Rhinopoma hadithaensis Khajuria, 1988
 Authors name & Year of description 1782 Rhinopoma microphyllum microphyllum   Brünnich, 1782.  Dyrenes Historie, 1: 50.
 Type locality Egypt
 Common Name (English)Mouse tailed Bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaDharawada,  Gokaka, Bellary, Uttara Kannada
 Distribution in India

Bihar,  Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha,

Rajasthan,  Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, Bihar,  Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha,

Rajasthan,  Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal

 Distribution elsewhereAlgeria; Bangladesh; Benin; Burkina Faso; Central African Republic; Chad; Côte d'Ivoire; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Ghana; Guinea; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Lebanon; Liberia; Mali; Mauritania; Morocco; Myanmar; Niger; Nigeria; Oman; Pakistan; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Sudan; Syrian Arab Republic; Togo; Western Sahara; Yemen
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

 

 RemarksThis is a true desert species which is adapted to this habitat by having valved nostrils (M. Sharifi pers. comm. 2005). Roosts in crevices, small caves, mines, underground tunnels, wells, old monuments and buildings. Tolerates low relative humidity and light. This is a true desert species which is adapted to this habitat by having valved nostrils (M. Sharifi pers. comm. 2005). Roosts in crevices, small caves, mines, underground tunnels, wells, old monuments and buildings. Tolerates low relative humidity and light.

 

 

69.

Saccolaimus saccolaimus (Temminck, 1838)

[=Taphozous saccolaimus Temminck, 1838]

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Emballonuridae
 Synonyms

Saccoliamus pluto Miller, 1910

Taphozous crassus Blyth, 1844

Taphozous pulcher Blyth, 1844

Taphozous saccolaimus Temminck, 1838

Taphozous saccolaimus Blyth, 1844 subspecies crassus

 

 Authors name & Year of description 1838 Taphozous saccolaimus saccolaimus Temminck,  Tijdschr. Nat. Gesch. Physiol., 5: p14.
 Type locality Indonesia, Java
 Common Name (English)Naked-rumped Pouched Bat, Bare-rumped Sheathtail-bat, Pouch-bearing Bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaKodagu,  Mysore, Shimoga, Uttara Kannada [Gersoppa, Jellopur, Kadakola, Mangi, Sirsi]
 Distribution in IndiaAndaman and Nicobar Islands, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhereAustralia; Bangladesh; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; India; Indonesia; Malaysia; Myanmar; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Solomon Islands; Sri Lanka; Thailand; Viet Nam
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks

Sub species Saccolaimus saccolimus crassus distributed in Karnataka state.

Insectivorus species found in the decayed trunk of Jaggery palm.  Roosts on coconut and arecanut plantations

 

 

70

Taphozous longimanus Hardwicke, 1825

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Embellonuridae
 Synonyms

Taphozous brevicaudus Blyth, 1841

Taphozous cantorii Blyth, 1842

Taphozous fulvidus Blyth, 1841

 

 Authors name & Year of description 1825  Taphozous longimanus,Hardwicke, Trans. Linn.  Soc. London, 14 : 525
 Type locality Calcutta, West Bengal
 Common Name (English)Long-winged  Tomb Bat.
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in Karnataka Chamarajnagara, Mysore
 Distribution in IndiaAndhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Nagaland, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhereBangladesh; Cambodia; India; Indonesia; Malaysia; Myanmar; Nepal; Sri Lanka; Thailand
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 RemarksThroughout its range this species is found in varied habitats from arid areas to humid zones. It roosts in caves, old tunnels, caves created due to mud excavation, old forts, dungeons, large wells, hollows and crowns of trees, eaves of houses. It roosts in colonies from single animals to hundreds of bats. It is an early and fast flyer and feeds on cockroaches and beetles. There are two breeding seasons-one in mid January and the other in mid May (Bates and Harrison 1997).

 

 

71.

Taphozous melanopogon Temminck,1841

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera :
 Synonyms

Taphozous bicolor Temminck, 1841

Taphozous phillipenensis Waterhouse, 1845

Taphozous solifer Hollister, 1913

 

 Authors name & Year of description

1841 Taphozous melanopogon Temminck, Monographies de mammamogie, tome 2. Leiben and Paris: 392pp, pls xxvi-ixx.

 

 Type locality W. Java, Indonesia
 Common Name (English)Black-bearded Tomb Bat.
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaJog, Kyasanur (Shimoga )
 Distribution in IndiaAndaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu)
 Distribution elsewhereBrunei Darussalam; Cambodia; China; India; Indonesia (Jawa, Lesser Sunda Is., Sulawesi, Sumatera); Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak); Myanmar; Philippines; Singapore; Sri Lanka; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Viet Nam
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 RemarksBlack-bearded tomb bats, also found inhabiting rainforest, woodlands, tombs, deserted buildings, mosques, rock formations, cliffs etc., and prefer densely sheltered areas.

 

 

72.

Taphozous nudiventris Cretzschmar,1830

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Emballonuridae
 Synonyms Taphozous assamensis, T. babylonicus, T. katchenis, T. magnus, T. serratus, T. ziyidi
 Authors name & Year of description 1830 Taphozous nudiventris Cretzschmar, Linn. Soc. Lond., 14:525 
 Type locality Calcutta, India
 Common Name (English)Naked rumped tomb bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaBengaluru, Chikkamagaluru, Dharwar
 Distribution in IndiaAndhra Pradesh, Bihar, Delhi, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhereAfghanistan; Algeria; Burkina Faso; Chad; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Ghana; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Kenya; Mauritania; Morocco; Myanmar; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Somalia; Sudan; Syrian Arab Republic; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Turkey; United Arab Emirates; Yemen
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

 

 RemarksThis species is found in arid and semi-arid regions, tropical forests and wet evergreen forests

 

 

73.

Taphozous theobaldi Dobson, 1872

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera :
 SynonymsNil
 Authors name & Year of description 1872 Taphozous heobaldi Dobson, Proc. Asiatic Soc. Bengal : 152
 Type locality Myanmar
 Common Name (English)Teobald's Tomb-bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaBelagavi (Bhimghad) Hampi, Badami, Krishnapura
 Distribution in IndiaKarnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra
 Distribution elsewhereCambodia; India; Myanmar; Thailand; Viet Nam
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks

species tends to be associated with forest habitats, with caves and deep crevices of large caves used as roosting sites 

T.theobaldi secatus a subspecies is known to be distributed in the state.

 

 

74.

Chaerephon plicatus Buchannan, 1800

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Muridae
 Synonyms

Chaerephon luzonus (Hill, 1961)

Chaerephon plicata (Buchanan, 1800) [orth. error]

Chaerephon plicatus (Buchanan, 1800)

Dysopes murinus Gray, 1830

Nyctinomus bengalensis Desmarest, 1820

Tadarida plicata Phillips, 1932 subspecies insularis

Vespertilio plicatus Buchannan, 1800

 

 Authors name & Year of description 1800. Chaerephon plicatus Buchannan, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 5 :261           
 Type locality Bengal, India
 Common Name (English)Wrinkle lipped free tailed bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaKolar,
 Distribution in IndiaAndhra Pradesh, Goa, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh Maharastra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu
 Distribution elsewhereCambodia, China, Hongkong, Laos, Malaysia, Phillipines, Sri Lanka, Vietnam.
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 RemarksDetails not available. According to ZSI Checklist the sub species Chaerephon plicatus  luzonus Holister,1913 found distributed in the state of Karnataka. Chromosome studies were made from the bat collected at Kolar 23 +XY=24 pairs.

 

 

75.

Otomops wroughtoni Thomas, 1913

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Molossidae
 Synonyms Nyctinomus wroughtoni Thomas, 1913
 Authors name & Year of description 1913 Otomops wroughtoni Thomas, Annals and Magazine of Natural History 11: 90.
 Type locality Barapeda cave, Thalevadi, Khanapur, Belgavi, Karnataka
 Common Name (English)Wroghton's Free-tailed Bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaBaraped cave, Talewadi, Khanapur, Belagavi (Single Location)
 Distribution in IndiaLikely to occur in n-e India
 Distribution elsewhereNil
 Threat CategoryW.P. A.                 Schedule - I
 RemarksEndemic to Western Ghats, located at rain forest cave near Belagavi. Roost consists of Approx.100 -120 animals (Ramakrishna et.al.,) Upto the year 2000, the species was place under Critically Endangered, however, recently, the status has been made as Not Assessed.

 

 

76.

Hesperoptenus tickelli   (Blyth, 1851)

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Vespertelionidae
 Synonyms 
 Authors name & Year of description 1851. Nycticebus tickelli Blyth, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 20:157 
 Type locality Chaibasa, Bihar, India
 Common Name (English)Tickel's Bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaBengaluru,  Bates,1997 records from Astoli, Dharawada, Hulekad-Sirsi, Patoli, Samsagi, Yellapur
 Distribution in IndiaAndaman, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Goa, Jharkand, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan,  West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal.
 Distribution elsewhereBangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   N A

 

 RemarksHigh flying Solitary bat, common in low lands and paddy fields, dry and wet zones.

 

 

77.

Pipestrellus ceylonicus Kelaart,1852

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera :  Vespertelionidae
 Synonyms

Scotophilus ceylonicus Kelaart, 1852

Other synonyms are Pipistrellus borneanus, P. chrysothrix,P.  indicus,P.  raptor, P. shanorum, P. subcanus, P. tonfangenis

 

 Authors name & Year of description 1852. Scotophilus ceylonicus Kelaart, Prod. Faun, Zeylanica, p. 22
 Type locality Trincomalai, Sri Lanka
 Common Name (English)Kelaart's Pipestrelle
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaBengaluru, Chikkamagaluru, Dakshina Kannada, Mysore, (Bates,1997 : Astoli, Bangalore, Bellary, Dharwar, Gadag,Haleri ,Honawar, Jellopur, Kadakola, Kyasanur, Mangalore, Mercara, Seringapatnam, Sirsi, Sivasamudram, Srimangala, Vijayanagar, Wotekolli
 Distribution in India

India: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal

 

 Distribution elsewhereBangladesh, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Vietnam
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   NA

 

 RemarksInsectivorous, colonial lives in tropical thorn highlands especially in tree holes, cracks in walls, wells, temples, roller blinds

 

 

78.

Pipestrellus coromandra Gray,1838

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera  Vespertelionidae
 Synonyms

Myotis parvipes Blyth, 1853

Pipistrellus coromandra Gaisler, 1870 subspecies afghanus

Scotophilus coromandelianus Blyth, 1863

Sctophilus coromandra Gray, 1838

Vespertilio coromandelicus Blyth, 1851

Vesperugo blythii Wagner, 1855

Vesperugo micropus Peters, 1872

Vesperugo nicobaricus Fitzinger, 1861

 Authors name & Year of description 1838 Scotophillus coromandra Gray, Mag. Zool. Bot., 2: p 498.
 Type locality Coromandel Coast, Pondicherry
 Common Name (English)Coromandel Pipistrelle, Indian Pipistrelle, Little Indian Bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaBengaluru, Bellary Kodagu, Dharwada, Hampi, Hawsbhavi, Mysore,  Samsagi, Sivanasamudra, Srimangala, Vijayanagara
 Distribution in IndiaAndaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Goa, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Orissa, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhereAfghanistan; Bangladesh; Bhutan; Cambodia; China; India; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Myanmar; Nepal; Pakistan; Sri Lanka; Viet Nam
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   NA

 

 RemarksThis species is found in varied habitat types from forested regions, agricultural landscapes to urban areas. It roosts in trees, crevices and cracks in walls and ceilings of houses, tiles of huts, old buildings, temples, under bark and in holes of large trees, signboards, tree hollows in small groups of few individuals. It is an early flyer with a slow fluttering flight and hunts on flies, ants and other small insects

 

 

79.

Pipestrellus dormeri Dobson,1875

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Vespertilionidae
 Synonyms

Scotozous dormeri Dobson, 1875

 

 Authors name & Year of description 1875 Scotozous dormeri Dobson, Annals and Magazine of Natural History 16: 260-262.
 Type locality Bellary hills, Karnataka
 Common Name (English)Dormer's bat, Dormer's Pipestrelle
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaBellary hills, Dharwar, Gadag, Hawsbhavi, Mysore University Campus, Vijayanagar
 Distribution in India

Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Tripura,

Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal

 Distribution elsewhere

Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Pakistan

 

 Threat Category

IUCN :                  Least concern

 

 RemarksInsectivorous, nocturnal lives in small colonies near or within human habitation.  Occupies old buildings or crevices of trees, under roof tiles.

 

 

80.

Pipestrellus javanicus Gray,1838

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Vespertelionidae
 Synonyms

Pipistrellus babu Thomas, 1915

Pipistrellus camortae Miller, 1902

Pipistrellus peguensis Sinha, 1969

Scotophilus javanicus Gray, 1838

 

 Authors name & Year of description 1838 Scotophilus javanicus Gray, Mag. Zool. Bot., 2: p 498.
 Type locality Java, Indonesia
 Common Name (English)Javan Pipestrelle
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaBellary, Belagavi, Hospet,
 Distribution in IndiaAssam, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Nicobar Islands, Sikkim, Uttarakhand and West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhereAfghanistan; Bangladesh; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; China; India; Indonesia; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Myanmar; Nepal; Pakistan; Philippines; Singapore; Thailand; Viet Nam
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

 

 Remarks Found in varied habitat types from primary and secondary forested regions, agricultural landscapes (including rubber plantations) to urban areas. It roosts in trees, crevices and cracks in walls and ceilings of houses, tiles of huts, old buildings, temples, under bark and in holes of large trees, signboards, tree hollows in small groups of few individuals

 

 

81.

Pipestrellus tenuis Temminck,1840

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Vespertelionidae
 Synonyms

Vespertilio tenuis Temminck, 1840

Pipistrellus mimus Wroughton, 1899

Pipistrellus mimus glaucillus Wroughton, 1912

Pipistrellus principulus Thomas, 1915

 Authors name & Year of description 1840 Vespertelio tenuis Temminck, Monographies de mammamogie, tome 2. Leiben and Paris: 392pp, pls xxvi-ixx
 Type locality Indonesia, Sumatra
 Common Name (English)Indian Pygmy Bat, Least Pipistrelle
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in Karnataka

Astoli, Bangalore, Barchi,  Bellary, Dharwar, Gadag, Honawar, Kardibetta, Forest Kutta, Mysore, Potoli,

 

 Distribution in India

Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, West

Bengal

 Distribution elsewhereAfghanistan, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka to Vietnam, Thailand
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

 

 Remarks

Solitary, colonial occupies crevices in buidlings, rocks and wooden structures.

Subspecies :

 

 

 

82.

Taphozous longimanus Hardwicke,1825

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Emballonuridae
 Synonyms

Taphozous brevicaudus Blyth, 1841

Taphozous cantorii Blyth, 1842

Taphozous fulvidus Blyth, 1841

 Authors name & Year of description 1825, Taphozous longimanus Hardwicke Temmnck, Monogr. Mamm., 2: p287
 Type locality Indonesia
 Common Name (English)Long winged tomb bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaDharwad, Kolar, Mangalagangotri, Sagar, Sirsi,  Vijayanagara
 Distribution in IndiaIndia: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal.
 Distribution elsewhere  Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

 

 Remarks Insectivorus species, colonial, wide range of climatic tolerance inhabits old ruins, caves and trunk  holes.

 

 

83.

Taphozous Melanopogon Temminck, 1841

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Emballonuridae
 Synonyms

Taphozous bicolor Temminck, 1841

Taphozous solifer Hollister, 1913

 Authors name & Year of description 183, Taphozous melanopogon Temmnck, Monogr. Mamm., 2: p287
 Type locality Indonesia
 Common Name (English)Naked rumped tomb bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaBadami , Jog, Kyasanur, Pattadkal,  Vijayanagara
 Distribution in IndiaAndaman & Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh,Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu.
 Distribution elsewhere  Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, Myanmar, Phillipines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

 

 Remarks Insectivorus species, colonial in habit and found in caves, tunnels, old mines and temples.

 

 

84.

Taphozous nudiventris Cretzschmer, 1831

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Emballonuridae
 Synonyms

Synonym: Taphozous crassus Blyth 1844

Taphozous pulcher Blyth, 1844

 Authors name & Year of description 183, Taphozous nudiventris Cretzschmer, In Rüppell, Atlas Reise Nördl. Afr., Zool. Säugeth., p70.
 Type locality Giza, Egypt
 Common Name (English)Naked rumped tomb bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaAihole, Badami Pattadkal, Sirsi, Sivasamudram, Vijayanagara
 Distribution in IndiaBihar, Gujarat, Karnataka,  Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Delhi, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhereAfghanistan; Algeria; Burkina Faso; Chad; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Ghana; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Kenya; Mauritania; Morocco; Myanmar; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

 

 Remarks

 Insectivorus species found in the crevices of rocks, houses, tunnels and forts.

It feeds on beetles, crickets, grasshoppers, cockroaches, moths and flying (winged) termites. It is gregarious, roosting in cliff fissures, rock crevices, caves, tombs, temples, barns, houses, and underground tunnels. Although it is often associated with humans, it is tolerant of only a certain amount of disturbance.

 

 

85.

Taphozous theobaldi Dobson,1872

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Emballonuridae
 Synonyms Taphozous theobaldi secatus Thomas, 1915
 Authors name & Year of description 1872, Taphozous theobaldi Dobson, Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 151-154
 Type locality Tenasserim, Myanmar
 Common Name (English)Theobalds Bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaKrishnapur & Yana
 Distribution in IndiaKarnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra
 Distribution elsewhereIndonesia, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

 

 RemarksThe species tends to be associated with forest habitats, with caves and deep crevices of large caves used as roosting sites (Bates and Harrison 1997; Smith and Xie 2008)

 

86.

Tadarida aegyptiaca E. Geoffroy,1818

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Molossidae
 Synonyms

Nyctinomus aegyptiacus E. Geoffroy, 1818

Dysopes geoffroyi Temminck, 1826

Nyctinomus tragata Dobson, 1874

Tadarida gossei Wroughton, 1919

Tadarida sindica Wroughton, 1919

Tadarida thomasi Wroughton, 1919

 Authors name & Year of description 1800, Nyctinomus aegyptiaca E. Geoffroy, Description de l'EgypteDescription des mammiferes. 2. Paris
 Type locality Giza, Egypt
 Common Name (English)Egyptian  free-tailed bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaDharawada, Kolara,
 Distribution in IndiaAndhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh,Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhere Pakistan : Punjab & Sind;  Sri Lanka
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

 

 RemarksThis species is found in varied habitat types from arid areas to humid hills and valleys. It roosts under banner boards, crevices in caves, cliff faces, large boulders and rocks, narrow spaces between pillars, walls, crevices in old buildings, temples, and forts, either in small groups of 2 or 3 individuals to hundreds and thousands of individuals. It is a late and fast flyer, hunts in the air and also gleans the ground for ground dwelling insects. It feeds on beetles, moths, orthoptera, wasps, winged termites, flies, caterpillars, spiders, water beetles, and other large insects.

 

 

87.

Tadarida plicata Buchannan,1800

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Molossidae
 Synonyms

Chaerephon luzonus (Hill, 1961)

Chaerephon plicata (Buchanan, 1800) [orth. error]

Chaerephon plicatus (Buchanan, 1800)

Dysopes murinus Gray, 1830

Nyctinomus bengalensis Desmarest, 1820

Tadarida plicata Phillips, 1932 subspecies insularis

Vespertilio plicatus Buchannan, 1800

 

 Authors name & Year of description 1800, Vespertelio plicata Buchannan, Transactions of the Linnaean Society of London.5: 261-263.
 Type locality Indonesia
 Common Name (English)Wrinkle lipped free-tailed bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaTheerthalli
 Distribution in IndiaIndia: Goa, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu
 Distribution elsewhere  Myanmar, Sri Lanka
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

 

 Remarks Insectivorus species, colonial, occurs in speces behind the old wooden boxes, as well as in crevices of temples, caves, and deserted buildings.

 

 

88.

Scotozous dormeri Dobson,1875

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Vespertilionidae 
 Synonyms

Pipistrellus dormeri (Dobson, 1875)

Pipistrellus dormeri (Thomas, 1915) subspecies caurinus

Pipistrellus dormeri (Dobson, 1875) subspecies dormeri

Scotozous dormeri Thomas, 1915 subspecies caurinus

 

 Authors name & Year of description 1875, Scotozous dormer Dobson, Proc. Zool. Soc. London : 373
 Type locality Bellary hills, Karnataka
 Common Name (English)Dormer's Bat, Dormer's Pipistrelle
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaBellary (Type),
 Distribution in IndiaAndhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhereBangladesh, Pakistan
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks Species is found in drier climes and near human habitations in both rural and urban landscapes. It roosts in cracks, crevices, holes in old temples, old disused buildings and tombs and in holes in large trees in colonies of 2-24 individuals.

 

 

89.

Tylonycteris pachypus Temmnck,1840

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Vespertilionidae
 Synonyms

Scotophilus fulvidus Blyth, 1850

Tylonycteris aurex Thomas, 1915

Tylonycteris pachypus (Blyth, 1850) subspecies fulvida

Tylonycteris rubidus Thomas, 1915

Vespertilio pachypus Temminck, 1840

 

 Authors name & Year of description 1840   Vespertilio pachypus Temminck,  Monogr. Mamm., 2: p217.
 Type locality Indonesia
 Common Name (English)Lesser Bamboo Bat, Club-footed Bat, Flat-headed Bat, Lesser Flat-headed Bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaBelagavi, Haveri, Dharawada, Kodagu,Shimoga,  Uttara Kannada (Haleri Honkan Hulekal Kardibetta forest Sagar Samasgi Sirsi Srimangala BY Bates , 1997)
 Distribution in IndiaAndaman Islands, Karnataka, Kerala, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Sikkim, Tripura and West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhereBangladesh; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; China; Hong Kong; India; Indonesia; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Myanmar; Philippines; Thailand; Viet Nam
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 RemarksSpecies is found in prime tropical deciduous forests with extensive bamboo growth, and has been recorded from lowland agricultural areas and disturbed habitats (Heaneyet al. 1998; Esselstyn et al. 2004). It prefers to roost in internodal spaces of hollow bamboo and narrow crevices in other trees

 

 

90. Scotophilus kuhlii Leach,1821
 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Vespertilionidae
 Synonyms

Scotophilus fulvus Gray, 1843

Scotophilus kuhlii (Thomas, 1897) subspecies wroughtoni

Scotophilus temmincki (Thomas, 1897) subspecies wroughtoni

Scotophilus wroughtoni Thomas, 1897

 Authors name & Year of description 1821 Scotophilus kuhli Leach, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., 13: p71
 Type locality India
 Common Name (English)Asiatic Lesser Yellow House-bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaAstoli Bangalore Belgaum Dharwar Haleri Helwak Hulekal Kolar Mettupalayam Mysore  Samasgi Seringapatnam Sirsi
 Distribution in IndiaAndaman & Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra,  Meghalaya, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal.
 Distribution elsewhereAfganistan, Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Northern Myanmar, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Western Malaysia
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

 

 RemarksThis adaptable species is found in primary and secondary habitats, and in both rural and urban areas. It roosts in temples, caves, hollow trees, palm fronds, roofs, crevices, cracks and holes in the walls and on the roofs of old houses, dry leaves of trees in colonies of several hundred individuals. It is an early flyer and prefers to feed on hymenopterans and dipterans.

 

 

91.

Scotophilus heathii  Horsfield,1831

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Vespertilionidae
 Synonyms

Nycticejus heathii Horsfield, 1831

Nycticejus luteus Blyth, 1851

Scotophilus flaveolous Horsfield, 1851

Scotophilus heathi (Horsfield, 1831)

Scotophilus heathi (Geoffroy, 1834) subspecies belangeri

Vespertilio belangeri Geoffroy, 1834

 

 Authors name & Year of description 1831 Nycticejus  heathii Horsfield, Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London: 113-114.
 Type locality India
 Common Name (English)Asiatic Lesser Yellow House-bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaBangalore, Belgaum, Dharwar, Hubli, Kadakola, Kolar (?), Malgi, Samasgi,Sirsi.
 Distribution in IndiaAndhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Orissa, Nagaland, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh,  West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhereAfganistan, Bangladesh, China, India, Nepal, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Vietnam
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

 

 RemarksThis species is found in a variety of habitat types, including urban areas. It roosts in crevices and cracks in old buildings, among the leaves and crowns of palms, in hollows of trees and among leaves of banana either singly or in colonies of up to 50 individuals. It emerges late from the roosting site and is a low flyer and flies at a steady speed.

 

 

92.

Myotis formosus Hodgson,1835

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Vespertelionidae
 Synonyms

Kerivoula pallida Blyth, 1863

Myotis formosus (Touessart, 1897) subspecies andersoni

Myotis formosus (Dobson, 1871) subspecies auratus

Vespertilio andersoni Trouessart, 1897 [nomen novum for Vespertilio] dobsoni Andersen, 1881]

Vespertilio auratus Dobson, 1871

Vespertilio dobsoni Andersen, 1881

Vespertilio formosa Hodgson, 1835

 

 Authors name & Year of description 1835 Vespertilio formosus Hodgson,  J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 4: p700.
 Type locality Nepal
 Common Name (English) Hodgson's Bat, Bartel's Myotis, Hodgson's Myotis
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaChikkamagaluru, Hassan, Bengaluru, Dakshina Kannada
 Distribution in IndiaAssam, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Maharasthra, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Punjab, Sikkim, Uttarakhand and West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhereAfghanistan; Bangladesh; China; India; Indonesia (Bali, Jawa, Sulawesi, Sumatera); Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Nepal; Philippines; Taiwan, Province of China
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 RemarksInhabits lowland and montane primary forest as well as secondary habitats. It roosts in caves, tree foliage, amongst bushes and in house

 

 

93.

Myotis horsfieldii. Temminck, 1840

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Vespertelionidae
 Synonyms

Leuconoe peshwa Thomas, 1915

Myotis adversus Andersen, 1907 subspecies dryas

Myotis adversus (Thomas, 1915) subspecies peshwa

Myotis dryas Andersen, 1907

Myotis jeannei (Hill, 1983)

Vespertilio horsfieldi Temminck, 1840

 

 Authors name & Year of description 1840 Vespertilio horsfieldii Temminck, Monogr. Mamm., 2: p226.
 Type locality Leh, Ladakh – Jammu & Kashmir
 Common Name (English)Horsfield's Myotis
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaBelagavi, Bengaluru, Shimoga, Uttara Kannada
 Distribution in IndiaAndaman and Nicobar Islands [Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Car Nicobar], Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu
 Distribution elsewhereBrunei Darussalam; Cambodia; China; Hong Kong; India (Andaman Is.); Indonesia (Bali, Jawa, Kalimantan, Sulawesi); Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Myanmar; Philippines; Thailand; Viet Nam
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 RemarksIn South Asia, this species is found in prime forests and tea estates near to water source. It roosts in tunnels, caves, bridges, palm fronds, crevices in old buildings, cracks and hollows between wooden beams either singly or in groups.

 

 

94.

Myotis montivagus Dobson,1874

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Vespertelionidae
 Synonyms

Myotis mystacinus (Dobson, 1874) subspecies montivagus

Myotis peytoni Wroughton & Ryley, 1913

Vespertilio montivagus Dobson, 1874

 Authors name & Year of description 1874 Vespertilio montivagus Dobson, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 43: p237.
 Type locality China
 Common Name (English)Burmese Whiskered Myotis, Burmese Whiskered Bat, Large Brown Myotis
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in Karnataka(Gerusoppa) Shimoga & Uttara Kannada
 Distribution in IndiaAndhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Mizoram and Tamil Nadu)
 Distribution elsewhereChina;  Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Myanmar; Viet Nam
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

 

 Remarks

Roosts in caves, rocky crevices and subterranean habitats in forested areas. Two sub species viz., M.m. paytoni and M.m.federatus are found distributed in Karnataka according ZSI Checklist.

Insectivorous, lives in small colonies, non aquatic subterranean refuge.

 

 

95.

Miniopterus pusillus Dobson, 1876

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Vespertelionidae
 Synonyms Miniopterus australis Dobson, 1876 subspecies pusillus
 Authors name & Year of description 1876 Miniopterus pusillus Dobson,  Monogr. Asiatic Chiroptera, p. 162.
 Type locality Nicobar Islands, India
 Common Name (English)Small Long-fingered Bat, Small Bent-winged Bat, Nicobar Long-fingered Bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaBengaluru, Hubballi
 Distribution in IndiaKarnataka, Tamil Nadu and Nicobar Islands
 Distribution elsewhereChina; Hong Kong; India; Indonesia (Maluku); Lao People's Democratic Republic; Myanmar; Nepal; Thailand; Viet Nam
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks

Little is known about the habitat or ecology of this species except that this species roosts in limestone caves, under culverts, in crevices in trees in colonies

Insectivorous, cave dweller, lives in colonies.

 

 

 

 

96.

Miniopterus schreibersii (Kuhl, 1817)

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Vespertelionidae
 SynonymsNil
 Authors name & Year of description 1817 Miniopterus schreibersii  Kuhl,  Die Deutschen Fledermäuse, Hanau, : p14.
 Type locality Romania, Mountains of Banat, Banat, near Coronini, Kolumbacs Cave (= Kulmbazer Cave = Columbäzar Cave).
 Common Name (English)

Schreibers's Long-fingered Bat

 

 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaShimoga (kyasanur) a few villages around Mysore
 Distribution in IndiaKarnataka, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhereAfghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Armenia (Armenia); Azerbaijan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Cameroon; Croatia; Cyprus; France (Corsica); Georgia; Gibraltar; Greece (East Aegean Is., Kriti); Guinea; Holy See (Vatican City State); Hungary; Israel; Italy (Sardegna, Sicilia); Jordan; Lebanon; Liberia; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malta; Monaco; Montenegro; Morocco; Nigeria; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation; San Marino; Serbia (Serbia); Sierra Leone; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain (Baleares); Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tunisia; Turkey
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Near Threatened

 

 Remarks

 Forages in a variety of open and semi-open natural and artificial habitats, including suburban areas. It feeds mainly on moths, and occasionally on flies. It is a colonial species that roosts mostly in caves and mines.

Two subspecies are known according to ZSI Checklist viz., Miniopterus schreibersii blepotis  Temminck 1817 and Miniopterus schreibersii fuliginosus Hodgson, 1835, the latter one distributed in southern India.

 

 

 

97.

Harpiocephalus harpia Temminck,1840

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chiroptera : Vespertelionidae
 Synonyms

Harpiocephalus harpia Thomas, 1923 subspecies madrassius

Harpiocephalus rufus Gray, 1842

Noctulinia lasyura Hodgson, 1847

Vespertilio harpia Temminck, 1840

 Authors name & Year of description 1840 Vespertilio harpia Temminck, Monogr. Mamm., 2: p219.
 Type locality Java, Indonesia
 Common Name (English)
Lesser Hairy-winged Bat, Hairy-winged Bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaBellary
 Distribution in IndiaAssam, Karnataka, Kerala, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhereChina; India; Indonesia; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Philippines; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; Viet Nam
 Threat Category

IUCN :                  Least Concern

 

 Remarks Forages in a variety of open and semi-open natural and artificial habitats, including suburban areas. It feeds mainly on moths, and occasionally on flies. It is a colonial species that roosts mostly in caves and mines (although it can also be found in manmade tunnels, ruins and other buildings), often in large mixed colonies with other cave-dwelling bat species.

 

 

98.

Kerivoula picta (Pallas, 1767)

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Chirptera : Vespertelionidae
 Synonyms

Vespertilio kirivoula Cuvier, 1832

Vespertilio pictus Pallas, 1767

 

 Authors name & Year of description 1774 Vespertilionis pictus Pallas, Spicilegia Zool., vol. 1, pt. 3, p. 7, 1774.
 Type locality Molluccas, Indnesia
 Common Name (English)Painted Bat, Painted Woolly Bat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaBelagavi, Bengaluru, Chikkamagalur, Dharawada, Mysore (Shivanasamudra) Shimoga
 Distribution in IndiaAndhra Pradesh, Assam, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhereBangladesh, Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Malaysia, China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Molocca Islands.   Vietnam
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks

Recorded in dry deciduous forests and found among dried leaves of banana, dry grass, flowers, weaver bird nests   in sugar cane fields. It flies close to bushes with a fluttering flight.

Subspecies Kerovoula picta picta is distributed in southern India.

 

 

99.

Manis crassicaudata E. Geoffroy,1803

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Pholidota : Manidae
 SynonymsNil
 Authors name & Year of description 1803  Manis crassicaudata E. Geoffroy, Cat. Mamm. Mus. H.N. Paris, 213
 Type locality India ( Place not specified
 Common Name (English)

Indian Pangolin,  Thick tailed Pangolin

 

 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Chippu Handhi
 Distribution in KarnatakaAll districts of Karnataka
 Distribution in IndiaAndhra Pradesh,  Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhereBangladesh; India; Pakistan; Sri Lanka
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Near Threatened

CITES :                 Appendix – II

W.P. A.                 Schedule - I

 Remarks

There is little known about the natural history of this species, but it is understood to occur in various types of tropical forests as well as open land, grasslands and degraded habitat, including in close proximity to villages (Zoological Survey of India 2002). The species is thought to adapt well to modified habitats, provided its ant and termite prey remains abundant and provided it is not subject to hunting pressure. 

Manis crassicaudata is generally solitary, nocturnal and burrow-dwelling except during mating season, when adult males and females share the same burrow, which are often under large rocks and the entrance concealed by dirt (Prater 1971, Roberts 1977, Tikader 1983). Females usually give birth to one young, although twins are apparently not unknown, after a gestation period of 165 days. Longevity in the wild is unknown, although in captivity it has been recorded up to 13 years 2 months (Jones, 1977).

Although mainly ground-dwelling, this species is arboreal in some habitats, and is a good climber, using its prehensile tail and claws to climb trees (Heath 1995, Prater 1980).

 

 

100.

Felis Chaus Schreber,1777

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Carnivora : Felidae
 SynonymsNil
 Authors name & Year of description 1777 Felis chaus Schreber, Die Säugethiere, 2(13): ppl. 110.B[1777];  also 3(24):414[1777]
 Type locality Terek river, North of Caucasus, Dagestan, CIS Country
 Common Name (English)Jungle Cat, Reed Cat, Swamp Cat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Kadu-Bekku
 Distribution in KarnatakaBelagavi, Chamarajanagara, Chikkamagaluru, Mysore, Uttara Kannada
 Distribution in India

South India, Gujarat, Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan,  Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh and

West Bengal

 Distribution elsewhereRussian Federation; Turkey
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

CITES :                 Appendix – II

W.P. A.                 Schedule - II

 Remarks

The jungle cat, despite its name, is not strongly associated with closed forest, but rather with water and dense vegetative cover, especially reed swamps, marsh, and littoral and riparian environments. It is able to satisfy these requirements in a variety of habitats, from desert to scrub woodland and dry deciduous forest, as well as cleared areas in moist forest (Nowell and Jackson 1996). 

Of the four sub species are recognized, of these Felis chaus kelaarti Pockock, 1939 found distributed in southern India.

 

 

101.

Felis silvestris Schreber,1777

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Carnivora : Felidae
 Synonyms

Felis euxina Pocock, 1943
Felis ferox Martorelli, 1896
Felis ferus Erxleben, 1777
Felis foxi Pocock, 1944
Felis hybrida J. B. Fischer, 1829
Felis molisana Altobello, 1921
Felis morea Trouessart, 1904
Felis obscura Desmarest, 1820
Felis tartessia Miller, 1907

 

 Authors name & Year of description 1777 Felis silvestris, Schreber, Die Saugethiere, 3(23) : 397
 Type locality "Germany"
 Common Name (English)Wild Cat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Kadu Bekku
 Distribution in KarnatakaChamaraja Nagara, Dakshina Kannada (Moodbidri),  Dandeli,  Mysore (Nagara Hole)
 Distribution in IndiaKarnataka,Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharastra, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhere AfricaEurope, and southwest and central Asia into IndiaChina, and Mongolia.
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

CITES :                 Appendix – II

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks

Despite thousands of years of domestication, there is very little difference between the housecat and its wild ancestor, as its breeding has been more subject to natural selection imposed by its environment, rather than artificial selection by humans. The wildcat subspecies that gave rise to the housecat is most likely the African wildcat, based on genetics, morphology and behaviour.

Wildcats are found in a wide variety of habitats, from deserts and scrub grassland to dry and mixed forest, absent only from rainforest and coniferous forest.  Rodents and rabbits are the staple of the wildcat's diet across its range, with birds of secondary importance, although a variety of small prey is taken, and wildcats also scavenge

 

 

102.

Prionailurus rubiginosus I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1831

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Carnivora : Felidae
 Synonyms

Prionailurus phillipsi Pocock,1939

Prionailurus koladivus Deraniyegala,1956

Felis rubiginosus I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 183

 Authors name & Year of description 1831 Felis rubiginosus I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, In Bélanger (ed.), Voy. Indes Orient., Mamm., 3 (Zoologie) : p140.
 Type locality "bois de lataniers qui couvrent une hauteur voisine de Pondichéry" [India, Pondicherry].
 Common Name (English)

Rusty-spotted Cat

 

 Vernacular Name (Kannada) 
 Distribution in KarnatakaBandipur WLS, Cauvery WLS, Nugu, Tumukuru, Pushpagiri WLS
 Distribution in IndiaKarnataka, Kerala, Maharastra,Gujarat, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand
 Distribution elsewhereSri Lanka
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Vulnerable

CITES :                 Appendix – I

W.P. A.                 Schedule - I

 Remarks

Found only in India and on the island of Sri Lanka, the rusty-spotted cat has a relatively restricted distribution. Rusty-spotted cats occupy moist and dry deciduous forest types as well as scrub and grassland, but are likely absent from evergreen forest in India.

There are two subspecies are known:

1.    Prionailurus rubiginosus rubiginosus, India

2.    Prionailurus rubiginosus phillipsi, Sri Lanka

Rusty-spotted cats occupy moist and dry deciduous forest types as well as scrub and grassland, but are likely absent from evergreen forest in India.

 

 

103.

Prionailurus viverrinus (Bennett, 1833)

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Carnivora : Felidae
 Synonyms

Prionailurus benetti Gray,1867

Prionailurus himalayanus Jardine,1834

Prionailurus rhizophorius Sody, 1936

Prionailurus vivericeps Hodgson,1836

 Authors name & Year of description 1833, Felis viverrinus Bennett,  Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1833:68. 
 Type locality "From the continent of India"
 Common Name (English)Fishing Cat
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Meenu Bekku
 Distribution in KarnatakaDakshina Kannada, Uttara Kannada, Near Kabini river, Rangana Thittu,
 Distribution in IndiaAssam, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Orissa, Tamil Nadu; Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhereBangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, India, Indonesia (Java, Sumatra), Laos, 
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Endangered

CITES :                 Appendix – II

W.P. A.                 Schedule - I

 RemarksFishing Cats are strongly associated with wetland. They are typically found in swamps and marshy areas, oxbow lakes, reed beds, tidal creeks and mangrove areas and are scarcer around smaller, fast-moving watercourses. Along watercourses they have been recorded at elevations up to 1,525 m, but most records are from lowland areas. Although fishing cats are widely distributed through a variety of habitat types (including both evergreen and tropical dry forest: Rabinowitz and Walker 1991), their occurrence tends to be highly localized (Nowell and Jackson 1996).

Fishing cats are good swimmers, and unlike most other small cats may prey primarily on fish rather than small mammals.

 

 

104.

Panthera pardus Linnaeus,1758

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Carnivora : Felidae
 Synonyms

Felis pardus Linnaeus,1758

Felis fusca Meyer,1794

Felis longicaudata Valenciennes, 1856

Felis perniger Gray,1863

Panthera pardus saxicolor Pocock,1927

Panthera pardus sindica Pocock,1930

Panthera pardus millardi Pocock,1927

 Authors name & Year of description 1758 Felis pardus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. Edn. 1 : 46
 Type locality "Egypt", Thomas,1911
 Common Name (English)Leopard
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Chirthe, Siwangi, Kiruba
 Distribution in Karnataka Tiger Habitats and scrub jungles
 Distribution in IndiaThrougout except extreme region of J&K, Rajasthan, Gujarat
 Distribution elsewhereAfghanisthan, Bangladesh, Bhutan India, Pakistan, Nepal
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Near Threatened

CITES :                   Appendix – I

W.P. A.                 Schedule – I

 Remarks

According to genetic analysis, nine subspecies are recognized, with all continental African Leopards attributable to the nominate form (Miththapala et al. 1996, Uphyrkina et al. 2001). These include: 

Panthera pardus pardus (Linnaeus, 1758): Africa 
Panthera pardus nimr (Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1833): Arabia 
Panthera pardus saxicolor Pocock, 1927: Central Asia 
Panthera pardus melas (Cuvier, 1809): Java 
Panthera pardus kotiya Deraniyagala, 1956: Sri Lanka 
Panthera pardus fusca (Meyer, 1794): Indian sub-continent 
Panthera pardus delacourii Pocock, 1930: southeast Asia into southern China 
Panthera pardus japonensis (Gray, 1862): northern China 
Panthera pardus orientalis (Schlegel, 1857): Russian Far East, Korean peninsula and north-eastern China 

 

 

 

105.

Panthera tigris Linnaeus,1758

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Carnivora : Felidae
 Synonyms Felis tigris Linnaeus, 1758
 Authors name & Year of description Felis tigris (Linnaeus, 1758). Tiger. Felis tigris Linnaeus, 1758:41. 
 Type locality  "Bengal" (Thomas, 1911)
 Common Name (English)Tiger, Royal Bengal Tiger
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Huli
 Distribution in KarnatakaBandipur (1973-74, 1456.300 km2;  Bhadra (1998-99, 1064.290 km2); Biligiri Ranganatha Temple (2011-12, 574.820km2 ); Dandeli – Anshi (2007-08, 1097.514km2); Nagarahole (1999-2000;, 1205.760 km2 ) Tiger Reserves
 Distribution in IndiaAndhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Chattisgarh, Goa, Jharkhand,  Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Mahatastra, Mizoram, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhereAsian range states: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos , Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Russia, Thailand.
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Endangered

CITES :                   Appendix – I

W.P. A.                 Schedule - I

 Remarks

Nine subspecies are known throughout the world viz., P. tigris altaica; P.tigris amoyensis; P.tigris balica; P. tigris carbetti; P. tigris jacksoni; P.tigris sondaica; P.tigris sumatrae; P tigris tigris and P. tigris virgate.  Indian Tigers are known by Panthera tigris tigris Linnaeus, 1758

Extant Tiger subspecies in the world:

Amur Tiger P. t. altaica: Russian Far East and northeastern China 
Northern Indochinese Tiger P. t. corbetti: Indochina north of the Malayan peninsula 
Malayan Tiger P. t. jacksoni: Peninsular Malaysia 
Sumatran Tiger P. t. sumatrae: Sumatra 
Bengal Tiger P. t. tigris: Indian sub-continent 
South China Tiger P. t. amoyensis (although this subspecies has not been directly observed in the wild since the 1970s and is possibly extinct)

Three subspecies previously recognized on the basis of morphology are extinct:

Bali Tiger P. t. balica Schwarz, 1912: Bali 
Javan Tiger P. t. sondaica (Temminck, 1844): Java 
Caspian Tiger P. t. virgata (Illiger, 1815): dry river valleys of the Takla Makan, western slopes of the Tianshan mountains, Amudarya and Syrdarya river valleys, shores of the Caspian sea, Elburz mountains, eastern Turkey, Tigris and Euphrates river valleys

 

 

106.

Paradoxurus hermophroditus Pallas, 1777

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Carnivora, Felidae
 SynonymsNone
 Authors name & Year of description 1777 Paradoxurus hermaphroditus hermaphroditus In Schreber, Die Säugethiere, 3(25): p426 [1777].
 Type locality Un certain, Corbet and Hill,1992 listed "India"
 Common Name (English)Common Palm Civet, Mentawai Palm Civet, Asian Palm Civet, Toddy cat,
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Mara Bekku, Manta
 Distribution in KarnatakaChamarajanagara, Chikkamagaluru, Dakshina Kannada, Kodagu, Mysore, Shimoga, Uttara Kannada
 Distribution in IndiaThroughout the country except desert part
 Distribution elsewhere

         Bangladesh; Bhutan; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; China; India; Indonesia (Jawa, Kalimantan, Lesser Sunda Is.

         Introduced, Maluku - Introduced, Papua - Introduced, Sulawesi - Introduced, Sumatera); Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak); Myanmar; Nepal; Philippines; Singapore; Sri Lanka; Thailand; Viet Nam

 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

CITES :                 Appendix – I

W.P. A.                 Schedule - I

 Remarks

 Species has been found in a wide range of habitats including evergreen and deciduous forest (primary and secondary), plantations and near humans, in habitats up to 2,400 m 

Seven subspecies has been recognized of which P.hermophroditus hermophroditus Pallas,1977 distributed in the state.

This species has been found in a wide range of habitats including evergreen and deciduous forest (primary and secondary), plantations and near humans, in habitats up to 2,400 m

 

 

107.

Paradoxurus jerdoni Blanford,1885

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Carnivora : Felidae
 SynonymsNil
 Authors name & Year of description  1885 Paradoxurus jerdoni  Blanford,  Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1885: p613, 802.
 Type locality Kodaikanal or Palni Hills (Tamil Nadu)
 Common Name (English)Jerdon Palm Civet, Brown Palm Civet
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaChikkamagaluru, Dakshina Kannada, Hassana, Kodagu, Shimoga, Uttara Kannada,
 Distribution in IndiaKerala, Tamil Nadu & Karnataka (Western Ghats)
 Distribution elsewhereNative of India
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

CITES :                 Appendix – II

W.P. A.                 Schedule - II

 Remarks

This species is found in southern India, found in the Western Ghats. The distribution of this species has been poorly documented due to its nocturnal and arboreal habits. Ryley (1913) found then to be fairly abundant in Coorg, though not nearly as common as Paradoxerus hermaphroditus.

Two sub species are recognized viz., P. jerdoni jerdoni Blandford, 1885 and P. jerdoni caniscus Pocock,1885 of these two sub species, the latter one distributed in Karnataka.

It has been recorded in evergreen forest and occasionally in coffee plantations (Rajamani et al, 2002). It was most common in altitudes above 1,000 m, though they were seen as low as 700 m (Mudappa, 2002).

 

 

108.

Viverra civettina Blyth, 1862

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Carnivora : Viverridae
 SynonymsNil
 Authors name & Year of description 1862 Viverra civettina Blyth,  J. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, 31: 332.
 Type locality Viverra zibetha Linnaeus, 1758  Southern Malabar
 Common Name (English)Malabar Large-spotted Civet, Malabar Large-spotted Civet
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaChikkamagaluru,Chamarajanagara,  Kodagu, Shimoga, Udupi & Uttara Kannada
 Distribution in IndiaKarnataka, Kerala
 Distribution elsewhere Endemic to Western Ghats of India
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Critically Endangered

CITES :                  Appendix – II

W.P. A.                 Schedule - I

 Remarks

This species is endemic to the Western Ghats of India and has been recorded mostly in the coastal district of the Western Ghats, in southern India from Kanyakumari in the extreme south to as far as Wayanad, Coorg, and Honnavar in Karnataka in the north.  By the late 1960s, it was thought to be near extinction. From 1950 to 1990, there were only two possible records of this species, one in Kudremukh in Karnataka (Karanth, 1986) and the other in Tiruvella in Kerala (Kurup, 1989). 

Once inhabited lowland forests, lowland swamp and riparian forests in the coastal plain districts of Western Ghats - although now it appears to be confined to thickets in cashew plantations and to highly degraded lowland forests.

The Malabar Large-spotted Civet is considered by some authorities as Viverra megaspila civettina, a subspecies of the Large Spotted Civet Viverra megaspila.

 

 

109. Vivericula indica E. Geoffroy-St. Hilaire, 1803
 ClassificationMammalia : Carnivora : Viverridae
 SynonymsNil
 Authors name & Year of description 1803 Viverricula indica E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Cat. Mamm. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat., : p113.
 Type locality India
 Common Name (English)Small Indian Civet
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Ponagu, Ponagu bekku, Ponagu Kotthi
 Distribution in KarnatakaChikkamagalur, Dakshina Kannada, Udupi and Uttara Kannada
 Distribution in IndiaKerala
 Distribution elsewhereBangladesh; Bhutan; Cambodia; China; India; Indonesia (Jawa, Sumatera); Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia); Myanmar; Nepal; Sri Lanka; Thailand; Viet Nam
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concerned

CITES :                 Appendix – III

W.P. A.                 Schedule - II

 Remarks

Nocturnal and terrestrial species, recorded in semi-evergreen and deciduous forest, mixed deciduous forest, bamboo forest, scrubby areas, grasslands and riverine habitat.

Four sub species has been recognized in India of which Vivericula indica indica Desmarest (1804) is the one distributed in Karnataka.  V. i. indica (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1803) — is distributed in Southern India from the Western to the Eastern Ghats and as far north as Lake Chilka on the east coast

 

 

110.

Herpestes brachyurus Gray,1837

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Carnivora : Herpestridae
 SynonymsNone
 Authors name & Year of description 1837 Herpestes brachyurus Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1836 : 88
 Type locality Indian Islands restricted by Kloss (1917) to Borneo.  However, Thomas (1921) believed it to be from Malacca. Pocock believed the type to be a  Malayan race.
 Common Name (English)None
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in Karnataka 
 Distribution in IndiaKarnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu
 Distribution elsewhere  Indonesia, Malaysia, Phillipines,  Sri Lanka, Vietnam
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concerned

W.P. A.                 Schedule - II

 RemarksIUCN recognizes the species distribution is in Brunei Darussalam; Indonesia; Malaysia, not from India. However, several records indicate the species distribution in places as mentioned above.

 

 

111.

Herpestes edwardsii    E.Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1818

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Carnivora : Herpestridae
 Synonyms

Herpestes carnaticus Wroughton,1921

Herpestes elliotii Wroughton,1915

Herpestes fimbriatus Temmnick,1853

Herpestes frederici Desmarest,1823

Herpestes griseus I. Geoffrey St-Hilaire,1818

Herpestes pallides Wagener, 1841

Herpestes pondiceriana Gervais,1841

Herpestes ferrugenius Blanford,1874

Herpestes andersoni Murray,1884

Herpestes lanka Wroughton,1915

Herpestes mungo Blanford 1888

Herpestes montanus Bechthold, 1936

Herpestes nyula Hodgson,1836

 Authors name & Year of description 1818 Ichneumon  edwardsii  E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, De L' Egypte, 2:139 
 Type locality "Indus orientales" restricted to Madras Presidency by Ellerman and Morrisson-Scot (1951)
 Common Name (English)Grey Mongoose
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Keeree, Mungusi
 Distribution in KarnatakaBellary, Chikkamagaluru, Dakshina Kannada,  Hospet, Kodagu, Mysore, Shimoga, Uttara Kannada
 Distribution in India 
 Distribution elsewhere

Afghanistan, Bahrain, Bhutan, Indonesia, Iran,

Japan, Kuwait, MalaysiaMauritius, Nepal,

Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and Sri Lanka

 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concerned

CITES :                 Appendix – III

W.P. A.                 Schedule - II

 Remarks

Three sub species has been recognized in India viz., H edwardsi ferrugeneous, H. edwardsi nyula and H. edwardsi edwardsi, of the three the latter is the one distributed in Karnataka.

The habitat and ecology of the Indian Grey Mongoose is known from few studies, however, it has been recorded in disturbed areas, in dry secondary forests, and thorn forests (Shekhar 2003), but seems to be a commensal with humans as well. This species was often recorded near human settlements by Shekhar (2003) in a survey in central India during 2002-03, where it was seen near garbage bins, garbage dumps, scavenging on carrion, and on roads. The species seems to be most common in disturbed areas, in dry secondary forests and thorn forests. This species has been found up to 2,100 m (Corbet and Hill 1992) and feeds on insects and snakes (Santiapillai et al. 2000).

 

 

112.

Herpestes fuscus Waterhouse, 1838

 

 ClassificationMammalia :
 Synonyms

Herpestes flavidens Kelaart,1850

Herpestes ceylanicus Nevil,1887

Herpestes fulvescens Kelaart,1851

Herpestes phillipsi Thomas,1924

Herpestes maccarathiae Gray,1851

Herpestes rubidor Pocock, 1937

Herpestes siccatus Thomas,1924

 Authors name & Year of description 1838 Herpestes fuscus Waterhouse, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1838:55.
 Type locality "India"
 Common Name (English)Indian Brown Mongoose, Brown Mongoose
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaChamarajanagara, Mysore, Kodagu, Dakshina Kannada, Uttara Kannada  (In South India it is found from 700 to 1,300 m from Virajpet in south Coorg )
 Distribution in IndiaGoa, Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu
 Distribution elsewhereSri Lanka
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Vulnerable

CITES :                 Appendix – III

W.P. A.                 Schedule - II

 Remarks

Corbet and Hill (1992) recognized four subspecies (fuscus, phillipsi, siccatus and rubidor).

Indian brown mongoose. It has been recorded within dense forest and adjacent man-modified areas (Mudappa 2002). This is most likely a crepuscular to nocturnal. The subspecies distributed in southern India is Herpestes fuscus fuscus Waterhouse,1838.

 

 

113.

Herpestes smithii Gray,1837

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Rodentia : Muridae
 SynonymsNil
 Authors name & Year of description 1837 Herpestes smithii Gray,  Mag. Nat. Hist. [Charlesworth's], 1:578.
 Type locality Thomas (1923) suggested that it was from the "Bombay Region" but this was questioned by Pocock (1937).
 Common Name (English)Ruddy Mongoose, Indian Brown Mongoose, Brown Mongoose
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaUttara Kannada
 Distribution in IndiaKarnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu
 Distribution elsewhereGoa, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharastra,  Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Vulnerable

CITES :                 Appendix – III

W.P. A.                 Schedule - II

 Remarks

 In South India it is found from 700 to 1,300 m from Virajpet in south Coorg and Ooty in the Nilgiri hills, Tiger Shola in the Palni hills, High Wavy Mountains in Madurai, Kalakad-Mundanthurai in Agasthyamalai hills, Valparai plateau in the Anamalai hills, and Peeramedu in Kerala. The species occurs in coffee plantations and mid-elevation tropical forests and shola-grasslands in parts of Sri Lanka, and within rainforest fragments and adjacent to them in tea and coffee plantations.

Two sub species has been reognised of which H. smithii smithii Gray,1837 is the one distributed in Karnataka

 

 

 

114.

Herpestes vitticollis Benett,1835

 

 ClassificationMammalia :
 Synonyms

Herpestes rubiginosus  Wagner,1841

Herpestes inoratus Pococok, 1941

 Authors name & Year of description 1835 Herpestes vitticollis Benett, Proc.Zool. Soc. London, 1835 :67
 Type locality Quilon, Travancore, Kerala
 Common Name (English)Stripe necked mongoose
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Patte kattina mungali,Kempu keeree
 Distribution in KarnatakaKodagu, Dharawada
 Distribution in IndiaKerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu
 Distribution elsewhereSri Lanka
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

CITES :                 Appendix – III

W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks

Two sub species has been recognized H. vitticollis rubiginosus (Wagner, and H. vitticollis inornatus Pocock, 1941 and both the species are distributed in Karnataka.

The stripe-necked mongoose is more common in the hills than in the lowlands (Hill 1939), and has been found up to 2,200 m (Van Rompaey and Jayakumar 2003; Mudappa 2010 It is diurnal and feeds on small mammals, birds, birds' eggs, reptiles, fish, insects, grubs, and roots (Van Rompaey and Jayakumar 2003). The typical litter size is two to three and an animal in captivity was recorded as living for nearly 13 years (Van Rompaey and Jayakumar 2003).

 

115.

Hyaena hyaena Linnaeus,1758

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Carnivora : Hyanidae
 Synonyms

Hyaena antiquorum Temminck, 1820

Hyaena barbara de Blainville, 1844

Hyaena bergeri Matschie,1910

Hyaena dubia Schinz, 1821

Hyaena faciata Thunberg,1820

Hyaena indica de Blainville,1844

Hyaena orientalis Tiedemann,1904

Hyaena schillingsi Matschie,1910

Hyaena striata Zimmermann,1777

Hyaena sultana Pocock,1934

Hyaena virigata Ogilby,1840

Hyaena vulgaris Desmarest,1820

 Authors name & Year of description 1758 Hyaena hyaena (Linnaeus, 1758)  Canis hyaena Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. 10th ed., 1:40..
 Type locality Striped Hyaena. Type locality: "India" restricted by Thomas,1916 others recommend Benna Mountains, Laristan, Southern Persia 
 Common Name (English)Striped Hyaena
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Nai huli, Katthe Kiruba
 Distribution in KarnatakaBengaluru, Belagavi, Chamarajanagar, Chikkamagaluru,  Chitradurga, Dharawada,  Kodagu, Mandya, Mysore, Ramanagara, Tumkur, Uttara Kannada
 Distribution in India

South to the Nilgiri hills, west to Gujarat, north to lowland of Jammu & Kashmir and Kumaon, east to

West Bengal

 Distribution elsewhereAlgeria; Armenia (Armenia); Azerbaijan; Burkina Faso; Cameroon; Chad; Djibouti; Egypt; Ethiopia; Georgia; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Kenya; Lebanon; Libya; Mali; Mauritania; Morocco; Nepal; Niger; Nigeria; Oman; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Tajikistan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan; Western Sahara; Yemen
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

 W.P. A.                 Schedule - V

 Remarks

It is the smallest of the true hyenas and retains many primitive viverrid characteristics lost in larger species having a smaller and less specialised skull.  Though primarily a scavenger, large specimens have been known to kill their own prey, and attacks on humans have occurred on rare instances.

 The striped hyena is a monogamous animal, with both males and females assisting one another in raising their cubs.[9] A nocturnal animal, the striped hyena typically only emerges in complete darkness, and is quick to return to its lair before sunrise.  Though it has a habit of feigning  death when attacked, it has also been known to stand its ground against larger predators such as leopards in disputes over food

 

 

116.

Canis aureus Linnaeus,1758

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Carnivora : Canidae
 Synonyms

Canis anthus F. Cuvier,1820

Canis balcanicus Brusina, 1892

Canis caucasia Kolenati, 1858

Canis dalmatinus Wagner,1841

Canis indicus Hodgson,1833

Canis kola Wroughton,1914

Canis lanka Wroughton,1914

Canis minor Mojsisovio,1897

Canis typicus Kolenati,1858

Canis vulgaris Wagner,1841

Canis tripolitanus Wagner,1841

 Authors name & Year of description 1758 Canis aureus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. 10th Edn., 1 :40
 Type locality "Orient "
 Common Name (English)Golden Jackal, Asiatic Jackal, Common Jackal
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Nari
 Distribution in KarnatakaDry scrub jungles of Tumukuru, Chitradurga, Bellary, Bidar,
 Distribution in IndiaThroughout India
 Distribution elsewhere          Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Bahrain; Bhutan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Central African Republic; Croatia; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Greece; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Kenya; Kuwait; Lebanon; Libya; Mali; Mauritania; Morocco; Myanmar; Nepal; Niger; Nigeria; Oman; Pakistan; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Syrian Arab Republic; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; United Arab Emirates; Viet Nam; Western Sahara; Yemen
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

CITES :                 Appendix – II

W.P. A.                 Schedule - II

 Remarks

Due to their tolerance of dry habitats and their omnivorous diet, the Golden Jackal can live in a wide variety of habitats.

Four sub species are recognized according to ZSI Checklist viz., Canis aureus aureus; Canis aureus cruesemanni; Canis aureus indicus and Canis aureus naria, the last sub species distributed in Karnataka as well as southern India and Sri Lanka.

 

 

117.

Canis lupus Linnaeus,1758

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Carnivora : Canidae
 Synonyms Canis alticus (Noack,1911); cansu de Selys Longchamp, 1839; flavus, Kerr,1792; orientalis Wagner,1841; albus, Kerr,1792; arctos, Pocock,1945; chanco,1863; crassodon, Hall,1932; dingo (Myer,1793) ; harappensis Prashad,1936; familiaris (Linnaeus,178=Domestic dog); pallipes Sykes,1831; pambasilus, Elliot,1905; rufus Audubon & Bachman,1851 (nearly 100 synonyms, selected few are given here)
 Authors name & Year of description 1758 Canis lupus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. 10th Edn., 1 :39
 Type locality Europe (Thomas,1911 restricted to Sweden)
 Common Name (English)Grey Wolf
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Thola
 Distribution in KarnatakaBijapura, Bagalkote, Belgaum, Bellary, Chitradurga, Devanagere, Gadag, Gulbarga, Haveri, Kolar,  Koppal, Raichur, Tumkur. They are presumed extinct in Hassan, Bangalore, Mysore and Chamrajnagara Districts, where they were once common.
 Distribution in IndiaThroughout the country except extreme south
 Distribution elsewhere         Afghanistan;  Azerbaijan; Belarus; Bhutan; Bosnia; Bulgaria; Canada; China; Croatia; Czech Republic;  Finland; France;  Germany; Greece; Greenland; Hungary; India; Iran,  Iraq; Israel; Italy; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Korea,  Libya; Lithuania;  Mexico;  Mongolia;  Myanmar; Nepal; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation; Saudi Arabia;  Spain; Sweden; Syria; Turkey;  United Arab Emirates; United States (Georgia); Uzbekistan; Yemen
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

CITES :                   Appendix – I (Bhutan, India, Nepal and Pakistan, and rest of the world Appendix – II)

W.P. A.                 Schedule - I

 Remarks

Originally, the Grey Wolf was the world's most widely distributed mammal. It has become extinct in much of Western Europe, in Mexico and much of the USA, and their present distribution is more restricted; wolves occur primarily but not exclusively in wilderness and remote areas. Their original worldwide range has been reduced by about one-third by deliberate persecution due to depredation on livestock and fear of attacks on humans. 

Three sub species has been recognized in India viz. C. lupus dingo; C. lupus chanco and C. lupus pallipes, the last subspecies distributed in Karnataka.

 

 

118.

Cuon alpinus  (Pallas,1811)

           

 ClassificationMammalia : Carnivora : Canidae
 Synonyms

Cuon adjustus Pocock,1941

Cuon dukhunensis (Sykes,1831)

Cuon fumosus Pocock,1931

Cuon javanicus Desmarest,1820

Cuon laniger Pocock,1936

Cuon primaevus Hodgson,1833

Cuon hesparitus (Afanasjev and Zoloterev,1935)

 Authors name & Year of description 1811 Cuon alpinus  Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso.-Asiat, 1 :34
 Type locality USSR
 Common Name (English)
Dhole, Red Dog, Indian Wild Dog, Asiatic Wild Dog
 Vernacular Name (Kannada) 
 Distribution in KarnatakaChamarajnagara, Mysore, Kodagu,
 Distribution in IndiaDholes are still found throughout much of India south of the river Ganges, and especially in the Central Indian Highlands and the Western and Eastern Ghats of the southern states. They are also found  in the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, and West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhereBangladesh; Bhutan; Cambodia; China; India; Indonesia; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Mongolia; Myanmar; Nepal; Russian Federation; Tajikistan; Thailand; Viet Nam
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Endangered

CITES :                 Appendix – II

W.P. A.                 Schedule - II

 Remarks

The dhole is found in a wide variety of vegetation types, including: primary, secondary and degraded forms of tropical dry and moist deciduous forest; evergreen and semi-evergreen forests; dry thorn forests; grassland–scrub–forest mosaics.  They are not recorded from desert regions.

The Asiatic wild dog or dhole was once very widely distributed across Asia but now has a very fragmented range. In this first genetic study of this little-known species, we obtained information on genetic diversity, phylogeography, and social structure using both mitochondrial control region sequencing and microsatellite genotyping of noninvasive faecal samples from wild populations, as well as from museum and captive samples. Two major phylogeographical groupings were found across the mainland, one extending from South, Central, and North India (south of the Ganges) into Myanmar, and the other extending from India north of the Ganges into northeastern India, Myanmar, Thailand and the Malaysian Peninsula.

(Iyengar A, Babu VN, Hedges S, Venkataraman AB, Maclean N, Morin PA. Mol Ecol. 2005 Jul;14(8):2281-97.)

Subspecies Cuon alpinus alpinus (Pallas 1811) found distributed in the state of Karnataka.

 

 

119.

Vulpes benglensis (Shaw,1800)

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Carnivora :
 Synonyms Vulpes chrysurus Gray, 1837
Vulpes hodgsonii Gray, 1837
Vulpes indicus Hodgson, 1833
Vulpes kokree Sykes, 1831
Vulpes rufescens Gray, 1834
Vulpes xanthura Gray, 1837
 Authors name & Year of description 1800 Canis bengalensis Shaw, Gen. Zool. Syst. Nat. Hist., 1(2):  Mammalia, p330
 Type locality Bengal
 Common Name (English)Bengal Fox, Indian Fox
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Kempu Nari, Chandaka Nari
 Distribution in KarnatakaBagalkot, Bellary, Belgavi, Bengaluru, Bidar, Bijapur, Chamarajnagara, Chikkamagaluru, Chitradurga, Dharwada, Dakshina Kannada,Davanagere,  Gadag, Gulbarga, Hassana, Haveri, Kodagu, Koppal, Kolar, Mysore, Mandya, Raichur, Shimogga, Tumukuru, Udupi, Uttara Kannada.
 Distribution in IndiaThroughout Indian Peninsula except north eastern states
 Distribution elsewhereBangladesh;  Nepal; Pakistan
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

CITES :                 Appendix – III

W.P. A.                 Schedule - II

 Remarks

The Indian Fox is endemic to the Indian subcontinent. Although widespread, it occurs at low densities throughout its range, and populations can undergo major fluctuations due to prey availability.

The Indian Fox prefers semi-arid, flat to undulating terrain, scrub and grassland habitats where it is easy to hunt and dig dens. It avoids dense forests, steep terrain, tall grasslands and true deserts. The species is relatively abundant in the biogeographic zones 3, 4 and 6 of India, in which rainfall is low, and the vegetation is typically scrub, thorn or dry deciduous forests, or short grasslands (Rodgers et al. 2000). In the Indian peninsula, the species is restricted to the plains and open scrub forest.

 

 

120.

Melursus ursinus Shah, 1791

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Carnivora : Ursidae
 Synonyms

Melursus labiatus (de Blainville,1817)

Melursus longirostris (Tiedemann,1820)

Melursus lybeus Meyer,1793

Melursus niger (Goldfuss,1909)

Melursus inoratus Pucherann,1855

Bradypus ursinus Shaw,1791 

 Authors name & Year of description 1791, Bradypus ursinus Shaw,  Nat. Misc., 2: p (unpaginated) pl. 58.  
 Type locality "Abinteriore Bengala"; restricted by Pocock (1941a) as "Patna, north of the Ganges, Bengal" [India].
 Common Name (English)Sloth Bear
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Karadi
 Distribution in KarnatakaBelagavi, Chikkamagaluru, Chitradurga,  Dakshina Kannada, Kolar, Kodagu,  Mysore,  Tumkur, Uttara Kannada,
 Distribution in IndiaAndhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chattisgarh, Goa, Jharkand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharastra, Orissa, Rajastan, Tamil Nadu,
 Distribution elsewhereBhutan, Nepal, Sri Lanka
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Vulnerable

CITES :                 Appendix – I

W.P. A.                 Schedule - I

 Remarks

Sloth bears are unique amongst bears in that the majority of their diet is composed of insects, particularly termites and ants. Breaking open a termite mound with its strong front claws, the sloth bear will then insert its snout and blow away earth and dust before sucking the termites into their mouth. The lack of upper incisors creates a channel through which the bear sucks insects, and they are able to voluntarily close their nostrils, which prevents the inhalation of dust. Sloth bears also feed on honey, enduring the stings of bees to obtain honeycombs, as well as eggs, vegetation and fruits when in season. Sloth bears occupy a wide range of habitats on the Indian mainland including wet or dry tropical forests, savannas, scrublands, and grasslands.

Melursus ursinus ursinus is the subspecies distributed in India.

 

 

121.

Aonyx cinera (Illiger, 1815)

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Carnivora : Mustellidae
 Synonyms

Amblonyx cinereus (Illiger, 1815)

Aonyx cinereus (Illiger, 1815)

 

 Authors name & Year of description Aonyx cinera (Illiger). 1815. Lutra cinerea Illioer, Abh. Akad. Berlin, 1811, 1815, p. 99. 
 Type locality Near Batavia, Java
 Common Name (English)Asian Small-clawed Otter, Small-clawed Otter, Oriental Small-clawed Otter
 Vernacular Name (Kannada) 
 Distribution in KarnatakaKodagu, (Cauveri River System), Uttara Kannada rivers
 Distribution in IndiaArunachal Pradesh, Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhereBangladesh; Bhutan; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; China;  Indonesia; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Myanmar; Nepal; Philippines; Singapore; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; Viet Nam
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Vulnerable

CITES :                 Appendix – II

W.P. A.                 Schedule - I

 Remarks

Found distributed in  freshwater swamps, meandering rivers, mangroves and tidal pools, slow-flowing lowland streams to submontane streams dominated by rocks and boulders in forested areas. Irrigated rice fields with many crab species (Brachyura) are extensively used by small-clawed otter.

Two sub species are recognized in Karnataka viz., A.cinera concolor Rafinisque, 1832 and A. cinera nirnai Pocock, 1940 (both the sub species are distributed in Karnataka, predominantly the latter one).

 

 

122.

Lutra lutra (Linnaeus, 1758)

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Carnivora : Mustellidae
 Synonyms

Lutra nippon Imaizumi & Yoshiyuki, 1989

Viverra lutra Linnaeus, 1758

 

 Authors name & Year of description 1758 Lutra lutra (Linnaeus, 1758). Mustela lutra Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. 10th ed., 1:45 
 Type locality Upsala Sweden (Thomas,1916)
 Common Name (English)
Old World Otter, Common Otter
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Neer Nai, Neer Nayi
 Distribution in KarnatakaCauveri River system (Kodagu, Mandya, Ramanagar)
 Distribution in IndiaAndhra Pradesh, Kerala, Ladakh, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh,
 Distribution elsewhereAfghanistan;  Austria;  Bangladesh;  Belgium; Bhutan;  Bulgaria; Cambodia; China;  Denmark;  Finland; France;  Germany;  Greece; Hong Kong; Hungary; India; Indonesia; Iran,  Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan;  Korea,  Mongolia;  Morocco; Myanmar; Nepal; Netherlands; Norway; Pakistan; Poland; Portugal; Romania; tion; San Marino; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Taiwan; Thailand;  United Kingdom;  Viet Nam
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Near Threatened

CITES :                 Appendix – II

W.P. A.                 Schedule - I

 Remarks

Seven subspecies were reported by Pocock (1941) (1) L. l. lutra in Europe and northern Africa; (

2) L. l. nair in southern India and Sri Lanka;

(3) L. l. monticola in northern India (Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim and Assam) Nepal, Bhutan and Myanmar;

(4) L. l. kutab in northern India - Kashmir;

(5) L. l. aurobrunnea in Garhwal Himalayas in northern India and higher altitudes in Nepal;

(6) L. l. barang in southeast Asia (Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia); and

(7) L. l. chiensis in southern China and Taiwan. Imaizumi and Yoshiyuki (1989) considered Japanese otters a distinct species (L. nippon).

Otter live in a wide variety of aquatic habitats, including highland and lowland lakes, rivers, streams, marshes, swamp forests and coastal areas independent of their size, origin or latitude.  Fish and crabs are the most favoured food for otters.

 

 

123.

Lutrogale perspicillata I Geoffroy Saint – Hilaire, 1826

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Carnivora : Mustellidae
 Synonyms Lutra perspicillata I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1826
 Authors name & Year of description

Lutrogale Gray, 1865. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1865:127.

Type species: Lutra perspicillata I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1826. In Bory de Saint-Vincent, Dict. Class. Hist. Nat. Paris., 9: p519.

 Type locality "Sumatra" [Indonesia].
 Common Name (English)Smooth-coated Otter, Indian Smooth-coated Otter
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Nil
 Distribution in KarnatakaBheema, Krishna, Ghataprabha, Hemavathi, Malaprabha, Tunga, Bhadra, Kapila, Cauveri river systems. Also rivers draining west from the Ghats in Dakshina Kannada, Udupi and Uttara Kannada
 Distribution in IndiaAssam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat (parts of), Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Rajasthan (parts of), Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh
 Distribution elsewherePakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Southwest China, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam, Malaysia, Sumatra, Java and Borneo 
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Vulnerable

CITES :                  Appendix – II

W.P. A.                 Schedule  - II

 Remarks

Two subspecies were reported (Pocock 1941) (1) L. p. perspicillata - in northeast and southern India, Myanmar and Sumatra; and (2) L. p. sindica - in north and northwestern India and Pakistan.  Inhabits large rivers and lakes, peat swamp forests, mangroves and estuaries, and it even uses the rice fields for foraging.  Along the large rivers in India, the smooth-coated otters prefer rocky stretches since these stretches provide sites for den and resting. River stretches with bank side vegetation and marshes are used in proportion to their availability especially in summer as they provide ample cover while travelling or foraging.

The smooth-coated otter is essentially a plains otter. In the Indian subcontinent they are adapted to live even in the semiarid region of north-western India and Deccan plateau (Prater 1971).

Along the large rivers in India, the smooth-coated otters prefer rocky stretches since these stretches provide sites for den and resting. River stretches with bank side vegetation and marshes are used in proportion to their availability especially in summer as they provide ample cover while travelling or foraging. Open clayey and sandy banks are largely avoided as they lack escape covers (Hussain and Choudhury  1997).

 

 

124.

Martes flavigula Boddaert,1785

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Carnivora : Mustellidae
 Synonyms

Martes chrysogaster  (C.E.H.Smith,1842)

Martes hardwickei (Horsfield,1828)

Martes aterrima Pallas,1811

Martes borealis Radde,1862

Martes chrysopila Swinhoe,1866

Martes indochinensis Kloss,1916

Martes peninsularis Banhote,1901

Martes robinsoni Pocock,1936

Martes saba (Chasen and Kloss,1931)

 Authors name & Year of description 1785 Martes flavigula Boddaert, Elench. Anim., 1: p88.
 Type locality Not given; fixed by Pocock (1941a) as "Nepal".
 Common Name (English)Yellow-throated Marten, Javan Yellow-throated Marten
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaChamarajanagara, Kodagu, Mysore, Uttara Kannada (Western Ghats part)
 Distribution in IndiaKerala, Tamil Nadu, Maharastra, N-E India, Jammu & Kasmir
 Distribution elsewhereBangladesh; Bhutan; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; China; India; Indonesia (Jawa, Kalimantan, Sumatera); Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak); Myanmar; Nepal; Pakistan; Russian Federation; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; Viet Nam
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

CITES :                 Appendix – III

W.P. A.                 Schedule - II

 Remarks

Sub species Martes flavigula flavigula Boddaert, 1785 distributed in the state of Karnataka.

Largely or entirely nocturnal, the species is primarily diurnal, but also hunts at night increasing nocturnal activity during lunar nights (plus or minus 7 days from full moon) (Grassman et al. 20050. Common food items include squirrels, birds, snakes, and lizards, though insects, eggs, frogs, fruit, nectar, and berries are also taken, as well as honey and bees.

 

 

125.

Martes gwatkinsii  Horsfield, 1851

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Carnivora : Mustellidae
 SynonymsNil
 Authors name & Year of description 1851 Martes gwatkinsii  Horsfield, Cat. Mamm. Mus. E. India Co. p. 90
 Type locality "Madras, India"
 Common Name (English)Nilgiri Marten
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaChamarajanagara, Kodagu,
 Distribution in IndiaKarnataka, Kerala & Tamil Nadu part of Western Ghats
 Distribution elsewhereNIL since Endemic to Western Ghats,India
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Vulnerable

CITES :                  Appendix – III

W.P. A.                 Schedule - II

 Remarks

The nilgiri marten has been reported from moist tropical rainforests (Mudappa 1999), montane evergreen forests (Yoganand and Kumar 1999), and moist deciduous forests adjoining wet evergreen forests (J. Joshua pers. comm.), as well as somealtered habitats such as coffee and cardamom plantations (Schreiber et al. 1989) and acacia plantations (Yoganand and Kumar 1999).  This species is partly frugivorous and insectivorous (Balakrishnan 2005), but will prey opportunistically on almost any small bird or mammal (Pocock 1941), including Indian chevrotain and monitor lizards (Varanus bengalensis; Mudappa 1999), mouse deer (Moschiola memmina; Mudappa 2002), and it occasionally even feeds on nectar (Hutton, 1944.

 

 

 

126.

Mellivora capensis (Schreber, 1776)

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Carnivora : Mustellidae
 Synonyms

Mellivora mellivorous  Cuvier, 1798

Mellivora typicus A. Smith, 1833

Mellivora vernayi Robers,1932

Mellivora abyssinica Hollister,1910

Mellivora inaurita Hodgson,1836

Mellivora indica (Kerr,1792)

Mellivora pumilio Pocock,1946

Mellivora signata Pocock,1909

Mellivora Wilsonii Cheesman,1920

Viverra capensis, Schreber, 1766

 Authors name & Year of description 1766 Viverra capensis, Schreber, Die Säugethiere, 3(18): ppl. 125[1776]; see also text, 3(26):450[1777].
 Type locality "Vorgebirge der guten Hofnung" [South Africa, Western Cape Prov., Cape of Good Hope].
 Common Name (English)Honey Badger
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Tarakaradi
 Distribution in KarnatakaKodagu (Cauvery WLS), Bangalore, Kolar, Ramanagara (Satanur)
 Distribution in IndiaThroughout India except northeastern states and Jammu & Kashmir
 Distribution elsewhereAfghanistan; Central African Republic; Ethiopia; Ghana; India; Iran; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Kenya; Kuwait; Lebanon; Mali; Mauritania; Nepal; Nigeria;  Pakistan; Saudi Arabia; Somalia; South Africa; Sudan; Tanzania, United Arab Emirates;  Western Sahara; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

CITES :                   Appendix – III

W.P. A.                 Schedule - I

 Remarks

Honey Badgers can be found in the dry grasslands and moist deciduous forests of southern Asia. Honey Badgers are fierce predators and they feed on snakes, porcupines, hares, scorpions, termites, earth worms, tortoises, amphibians,  lizards, fruits, berries, honey and carrion.

The following sub species are recognized viz.,

Mellivora capensis abyssinica, Mellivora capensis brockmani, Mellivora capensis buchanani, Mellivora capensis capensis, Mellivora capensis concise,
Mellivora capensis cottoni, Mellivora capensis inaurita, Mellivora capensis indica, Mellivora capensis leuconota 
Mellivora capensis maxwelli, Mellivora capensis pumilio, Mellivora capensis sagulata, Mellivora capensis signata, 
Mellivora capensis vernayi, Mellivora capensis wilsoni .  Of the above Mellivora capensis inaurita and M.capensis indica are the two sub species distributed in India and the sub species indica distributed in Karnataka.

 

 

127.

Sus scrofa  Linnaeus,1758

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Artiodactyla : Suidae
 Synonyms

Sus andamanensis Blyth, 1858

Sus aruensis Rosenberg, 1878

Sus babi Miller, 1906

Sus ceramensis Rosenberg, 1878

Sus enganus Lyon, 1916

Sus floresianus Jentink, 1905

Sus goramensis De Beaux, 1924

Sus natunensis Miller, 1901

Sus nicobaricus Miller, 1902

Sus niger Finsch, 1886

Sus papuensis Lesson & Garnot, 1826

Sus ternatensis Rolleston, 1877

Sus tuancus Lyon, 1916

 Authors name & Year of description 1758 Sus scrofa Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1:49.
 Type locality Germany
 Common Name (English)Wild pig, Wild Boar
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Handi, Kaadu Handi
 Distribution in KarnatakaWildlife Sanctuaries & Tiger Reserves of Karnatka,
 Distribution in IndiaThroughout  India except sub Himalayan belt, Extreme west
 Distribution elsewhere

         Afghanistan;  Austria; Bangladesh;  Belgium; Bhutan;  Bulgaria;  China;  Finland; France ; Germany; Greece; Hong Kong; Hungary; India; Indonesia (Bali, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Is., Papua, Sumatera); Iran; Iraq; Israel; Italy

lia - Introduced); Japan;  Korea; Lebanon;  Yugoslav; Malaysia; Mongolia;  Myanmar; Nepal; Netherlands; Pakistan;Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation;  Spain; Sri Lanka; Switzerland;  China;  Thailand;  Turkey;  Viet Nam

 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

CITES :                   Appendix –

W.P. A.                 Schedule – I (A&N) elsewhere III

 Remarks

 'Indian races' of the sub-Himalayan region from Iran in the west (davidi) to north India and adjacent countries as far east as Myanmar and west Thailand (cristatus), in south India and Sri Lanka (affinis and subsp. nov.);

They damage crops, stock and property, and transmit many diseases such as Leptospirosis and Foot and Mouth disease. Rooting pigs dig up large areas of native vegetation and spread weeds, disrupting ecological processes such as succession and species composition. Sus scrofa are omnivorous and their diet. Management of Sus scrofa is complicated by the fact that complete eradication is often not acceptable to communities that value feral pigs for hunting and food.

 

 

 

128.

Moschiola Indica Erxlebenn, 1777

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Artiodactyla : Tragulidae
 Synonyms

Meminna indica Gray, 1852

Meminna indica Gray, 1843 [nomen nudum]

Moschus memminna Erxlebenn, 1777

 Authors name & Year of description

1777 Moschus memminna Erxlebenn, Syst. Regn. Anim,1 : 322

1852 Moschiola Gray Mamm. Brit. Mus. Part-3, Ungulata, Furcipeda, p.247

 Type locality Sri Lanka
 Common Name (English)Indian Chevrotain, Indian Mouse Deer, Indian Mousedeer, Indian Spotted Chevrotain
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Koor Handi, Kooray
 Distribution in KarnatakaChikkamagaluru, Dakshina Kannada, Kodagu, Mysore (Bandipur & Nagarahole), Uttara Kannada
 Distribution in IndiaAndhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chattisgarh, Gujarat, Kerala, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharastra, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu
 Distribution elsewhereNepal, Sri Lanka
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

CITES :                  Appendix –

W.P. A.                 Schedule - I

 Remarks

The Indian Chevrotain inhabits most of the India, from Tamil Nadu and Kerala in the far south, north to at least 24°N, i.e. Mandla, Hoshangabad, Palamau and near Udaipur (Rajasthan) at 24°04′N.

Found in tropical deciduous and moist evergreen and semi-evergreen forests of the Peninsular Indian hills, plains, and plateaux, extending into montane forests up to around 1,850 m elevation.  It is reported to favour rocky habitats (MacDonald and Norris 2001), grass-covered rocky hill-sides and forest (Prater 1971), and it often occurs along forest streams and rivers. It also occurs in some anthropogenically disturbed areas, such as plantations, rural gardens, and degraded forest.

 

 

129.

Axis axis Erxleben, 1777

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Artiodactyla : Cervidae
 Synonyms Cervus Ceylonensis (J.B.Fischer,1829); indicus (j.B.Fischer,1829); maculatus (Kerr,1792); major (Hodgson,1842); minor (Hodgson,1842); nudipalpebra (Ogilby,1831); zeylanicus (Lydekar,1905)
 Authors name & Year of description 1777 Cervus axis Erxleben, Syst. Regn. Anim., 1 :312
 Type locality Habitat et. Ripas Gangis (Bank of Ganges, Bihar, India)
 Common Name (English)Chital, Spotted  Deer
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Saranga, Jinke
 Distribution in KarnatakaThroughout Karnataka in forested areas predominantly in Western Ghats
 Distribution in IndiaPeninsular India, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, Jharkand, West Bengal, Sikkim, Sub Himalayan belt
 Distribution elsewhere

Bangladesh; Bhutan; India (Andaman Is. - Introduced); Nepal; Sri Lanka

Introduced : Argentina; Armenia (Armenia); Australia; Brazil; Croatia; Moldova; Pakistan; Papua New Guinea; Ukraine; United States (Hawaiian Is., Texas); Uruguay

 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

 W.P. A.                 Schedule - III

 RemarksChital thrive in a variety of habitats, but avoids extremes such as dense moist forests and open semi-desert or desert. Moist and dry deciduous forest areas, especially adjoining dry thorn scrub or grasslands appear to be optimal, and highest densities of Chital are reported from these habitats. Short grasslands of the terai, swampy meadows and glades adjoining forest areas, coastal dry evergreen forests, mixed forests or plantations with Teak Tectona grandis and Sal Shorea robusta are also used, and indeed over much of northern and southern India, its distribution closely matches that of Sal and Teak, respectively 

 

 

                130.

Muntiacus muntjack, Zimmermann,1780

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Artidactyla : Cervidae
 Synonyms

Cervus moschatus Blainville, 1816

Cervus muntjak Zimmermann, 1780

Cervus pleiharicus Kohlbrugge, 1896

Muntiacus bancanus Lyon, 1906

Muntiacus rubidus Lyon, 1911

 Authors name & Year of description 1780 Cervus muntjack, Zimmermann, Geogr. Gesch. Mesch.  Vierf. Thiere, 2 : 131
 Type locality Type species Cervus muntjak :  Java (Indonesia)
 Common Name (English)Indian Muntjack, Barking deer
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Kard, Koorie
 Distribution in Karnataka

Bandipur, BRT Hills, Nagarahole WLS, Kodagu, Chikkamagalur (Kudremukh WLS, Bhadra WLS),  Chamarajanagara, Uttara Kannada (Sirsi),

[Historical: The Indian muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak) Tarappa Gudi temple, Aihole, Karnataka, 7th–8th century, sandstone.]

 Distribution in IndiaThroughout the country except Desert Region and Jammu & Kashmir
 Distribution elsewhere

Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand

Regionally Extinct : Singapore

 

 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

CITES :                   Appendix –

W.P. A.                 Schedule - III

 Remarks

Muntjac are associated with forest, but occur widely even in heavily degraded forest and, in areas adjacent to forest, in plantations of coffee, rubber, sugarcane, cassava, coconut, and teak. Most of its range is dominated by evergreen vegetation, but it readily uses deciduous forests and mosaics of grassland, scrub, and forest. The diet is mostly fruits, buds, tender leaves, flowers, herbs and young grass 

According to ZSI Checklist three subspecies are distributed in India viz., M m.aureus H.Smith distributed in south India, Deccan and extends up to Kumaon; M.m. malabaricus in southern India and Sri Lanka and M.m.vaginalis in north and northeast India.

 

 

131.

Rusa unicolor Kerr, 1792

 

 ClassificationMammalia :Artiodcactyla : Cervidae
 Synonyms

Cervus unicolor Kerr, 1792

Cervus albicornis Bechesten,1799

Cervus bengalensis Schniz,1845

Cervus leschnauldii (C. Cuvier,1823)

Cervus major Kerr,1792

Cervus maxima de Blainville,1822

Cervus nepalensis Hodgson,1841

Cervus pennantii Gray,1843

Cervus tarai Hodgson, 1863 nom.nud. typica(Lydekker, 1891)

 Authors name & Year of description  Kerr, R. 1792. The animal kingdom, or zoological system, of the celebrated Sir Charles Linnaeus; Class I. Mammalia: containing a complete systematic description, arrangement, and nomenclature, of all the known species and varieties of the Mammalia, or animals which give suck to their young; being a translation of that part of the Systema Naturae, as lately published, with great improvements, by Professor Gmelin of Geottingen. J. Murray and R. Faulder, London, United Kingdom. In Linnaeus, Anim. Kingdom, : p300
 Type locality "Inhabits the dry hilly forests of Ceylon, Borneo, Celebes and Java"; restricted to Ceylon (Sri Lanka; Lydekker, 1915:73).
 Common Name (English)Sambar,
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Kadave 
 Distribution in KarnatakaKabini, Nagarhole, BR Hills, Bandipur, Bhadra, Agumbe, SIrsi, Cauveri WLS
 Distribution in IndiaTamil Nadu, northwards to Uttar Pradesh, east to North East India
 Distribution elsewhere

         Bangladesh; Bhutan; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; China (Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan); India; Indonesia (Sumatera); Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Myanmar; Nepal; Sri Lanka; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; Viet Nam

Introduced : Australia; New Zealand; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; South Africa (Western Cape); United States (California, Florida, Texas)

 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Vulnerable

W.P. A.                 Schedule - III

 Remarks

The Sambar extends from India and Sri Lanka east along the southern Himalayas (including Nepal and Bhutan) through much of south China (including Hainan Island) to Taiwan.

No large Indian ungulate has adapted itself to a wider variety of forest types and environmental conditions than has Sambar (Schaller 1967). Within India, Sambar occurs in the thorn and arid forests of Gujarat and Rajasthan, in the moist and dry deciduous forests throughout peninsular India, in the pine and oak forests at the Himalayan foothills, and in the evergreen and semi-evergreen forests of northeastern India and the Western Ghats. This habitat flexibility is permitted by its broad diet: Sambar has been documented to eat 130–180 species of plants in India alone

According to ZSI Checklist two subspecies has been recognized viz., Rusa unicolor equina    (Cuvier,1823) distributed in northeastern India and Rusa unicolor unicolor Kerr,1792 distributed in southern India.

Most nineteenth and twentieth century sources placed the Sambar in the genus Cervus, as C. unicolor, but Grubb (1990) resurrected the genus Rusa for this and allied species.

 

 

132.

Antilope cervicapra (Linnaeus,1758)

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae
 Synonyms

Capra bezoartica (Gray,1843)

Capra bilineata (Gray,1830)

Capra rupicapra Muller,1776

Capra rajputanae Zukowsky,1927

Capra centralis Zukowsky,1928

 Authors name & Year of description 1758 Capra cervicapra  Linnaeus, Styst. Natur. 10th Edn, 1 :69
 Type locality

Type species : Capra cervicapra Linnaeus,1758

Asia, India, Travancore, Islands of Trvancore

 Common Name (English)Blackbuck
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Krishna Mrigha,
 Distribution in Karnataka

Blackbuck Conservation Reserve, Tumkur;  

Kodagu, Ranebennur, Davanagere,

 Distribution in IndiaFrom Punjab south to Tamil Nadu and east to Bihar.
 Distribution elsewhere

Bangladesh; Nepal; Pakistan

Introduced : Argentina; United States Argentina; United States

 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Near Threatened

CITES :                   Appendix –  II

W.P. A.                 Schedule - I

 Remarks

During the Post- independence, the open grasslands of peninsular India which were once widespread across the Deccan Plateau have shrunk to isolated patches. In 1987, the forest department of Tumakuru Division (Madhugiri) began protecting the area when the blackbuck's presence was brought to their notice. In 1992. The Forest Department then fenced a portion of the area and raised a nursery. A concrete watchtower was also erected for observation.  Blackbucks, inhabits grassland and lightly-wooded country. They require water daily, which restricts distribution to areas where surface water is available for the greater part of the year. Blackbuck are primarily grazers and mainly sedentary, but in summer may move long distances in search of water and forage.

Two sub species are known from India viz., Antelope cervicapra cervicapra Linnaeus, 1758 restricted to Southern India to north eastern states and Antilope cervicapra rajputanae Zukowsky,1927 distributed in north-west part of India.

The species inhabits grassland and lightly-wooded country. They require water daily, which restricts distribution to areas where surface water is available for the greater part of the year. Blackbuck is primarily grazers. And mainly sedentary, but in summer may move long distances in search of water and forage.

 

 

133.

Gazella benettii Sykes, 1831

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae
 Synonyms

Gazella christii Blyth, 1842

Gazella salinarum Groove, 2003

Gazella shikarii Groves,1993

 Authors name & Year of description 1831 Antilope benettii Sykes, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1830-1831: p104.
 Type locality India, "found on the rocky hills of Dukhun [the Deccan]"
 Common Name (English)

Indian Gazelle, Chinkara

 

 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Chinkara
 Distribution in KarnatakaBandipur WLS,
 Distribution in IndiaAndhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Karnataka, MadhyaPradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat,Uttar Pradesh
 Distribution elsewhereIran, Islamic Republic of; Pakistan
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

CITES :                 Appendix –

W.P. A.                 Schedule - I

 Remarks

Occur in more than 80 protected areas in India, 5 in Pakistan and 9 in Iran.

Inhabits arid areas, including sand deserts, flat plains and hills, dry scrub and light forest. They are facultative drinkers, and so can live in very arid areas. They sometimes raid fields cultivated fields and sorghum in desert regions.

Sub species such as benettii, christi, fuscifrons, salinarum i are known to be present, the subspecies Gazella benettii benettii found to distribute in southern India.

 

 

 

134.

Bos gaurus C.H. Smith, 1827

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Artodactyla : Bovidae
 Synonyms

Bos asseel Horsfield, 1851

Bos cavifrons Hodgson, 1837

Bos gaur Sundevall, 1846

Bos gaurus Lydekker, 1907 subspecies hubbacki

Bos gour Hardwicke, 1827

Bos subhemachalus Hodgson, 1837

Bubalibos annamiticus Heude, 1901

Gauribos brachyrhinus Heude, 1901

Gauribos laosiensis Heude, 1901

Gauribos mekongensis Heude, 1901

Gauribos sylvanus Heude, 1901

Uribos platyceros Heude, 1901

The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (2003) ruled that the name for this wild species is not invalid by virtue of being antedated by the name based on the domestic form. Therefore, IUCN considers the wild species of Gaur under Bos gaurus, while referring to the domestic form (Mythun, Mithan or Gayal) as Bos frontalis Lambert, 1804 (see Gentry et al. 2004)

 

 Authors name & Year of description

Bos gaurus (= frontalis) sister species   

1804 Bos frontalis Lambert, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., 7 : 57

 Type locality Native of the North east, Chittagong of Bengal
 Common Name (English)Gaur, Indian Bison
 Vernacular Name (Kannada) 
 Distribution in KarnatakaBandipur, Bhadra, Kudremukh, Nagarhole WLS,
 Distribution in IndiaSouth India,  Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar,  Goa, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra Odisha and West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhereBangladesh; Bhutan; Cambodia; China; India; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia); Myanmar; Nepal; Thailand; Viet Nam
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Vulnerable

CITES :                    Appendix – I

W. P. A.                 Schedule - I

 Remarks

Three subspecies of Gaur have been recognized: Bos gaurus gaurus in India, Nepal, and Bhutan; B. g. readei in Myanmar (Burma), southern China, Lao PDR, Viet Nam, Cambodia, and Thailand north of the Isthmus of Kra (Lydekker 1903); and B. g. hubbacki in Thailand south of the Isthmus of Kra and in West Malaysia (Lydekker 1907).

Regionally extinct : Sri Lanka

Gaur both grazes and browses, reportedly eating mostly young green grasses but also leaves, fruit, twigs, and bark of various woody species, as well as coarse dry grasses, and bamboo. It seems able to maintain good condition on relatively low quality feed. At least 180–190 species of plants have been recorded in the diet (IUCN)

 

135

Bubalus bubalis Linnaeus,1758

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Artodactyla : Bovidae
  Synonyms

Bos arni Hamilton Smith, 1827

Bos bubalus variety fulvus Blanford, 1891

Bubalis bubalis subspecies migona Deraniyagala, 1953

Bubalus arna Hodgson, 1841

Bubalus arna variety macrocerus Hodgson, 1842

Bubalus bubalus subspecies septentrionalis Matschie, 1912

 

 Authors name & Year of description 1758 Bos bubalis  Linnaeus Syst. Nat. 10th edn. 1 : 72
 Type locality Native of the Asia
 Common Name (English)Water Buffalo, Indian Buffalo
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Kadu Kona
 Distribution in KarnatakaBandipur, Bhadra, Kudremukh, Nagarhole WLS,
 Distribution in IndiaSouth India,  Assam, Arunachal Pradesh,    Goa, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra Odisha and West Bengal
 Distribution elsewhereBangladesh;   Cambodia; China; Nepal; Thailand; Viet Nam
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Endangered

CITES :                    Appendix – II

W. P. A.                 Schedule - I

 Remarks

 The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (2003) ruled that the name for this wild species is not invalid by virtue of its being antedated by a name based on a domestic form. Therefore, IUCN considers the wild forms of Water Buffalo under Bubalus arnee, while the domestic forms are considered under B. bubalis (see Gentry et al. 2004).

Wild buffaloes are tied to the availability of water: historically their preferred habitats were low-lying alluvial grasslands and their surrounds, with riparian forests and woodlands also used (Lydekker 1926; Prater 1971; Choudhury 1994).

 

 

 

 

 

136.

Boselaphus tragocamellus Pallas,1776

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae
 Synonyms

Boselaphus albipes Erxleben,1777

Boselaphus hippelaphus Ogiby,1837

Boselaphus picta Pallas,1777

Boselaphus risia (C.H.Smith,1827)

Boselaphus tragelaphus Sandeval,1846

 Authors name & Year of description 1766 Antelope tragocamelus  Pallas,  Misc. Zool., p. 5. 
 Type locality No exact locality  "Peninsular India"
 Common Name (English)Neelgai
 Vernacular Name (Kannada) 
 Distribution in KarnatakaKudige (Kodagu); National Parks and Sanctuaries
 Distribution in IndiaBihar, Chattisgarh, Gujarat Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab,  Rajasthan, Tripura and Uttar Pradesh
 Distribution elsewhere

India; Nepal; Pakistan

Extinct : Bangladesh

Introduced : United States of America

 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

W.P. A.                 Schedule - III

 RemarksOccur in arid areas, scrub, dry deciduous forests and agricultural areas, but avoid dense forest and deserts. They are both browsers and grazers.

 

 

137.

Tetracerus quadricornis de Blainville, 1816

 

 ClassificationMammalia :Artiodactyla : Bovidae
 Synonyms

Cerophorus quadricornis de Blainville, 1816

Tetracerus chicara Kaup,1833

Tetracerus labipes (E. Cuvier,1832)

Tetracerus striatocornis Brookes, 1828

Tetracerus tetracornis Hodgson,1836

Tetracerus typicus Sclater and Thomas, 1895

Tetracerus subquadricornutus (Elliot,1839)

 Authors name & Year of description 1816, Cerophorus quadricornis de Blainville, Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris, 1816 : 75
 Type locality "Plains of Peninsular India"
 Common Name (English)

Four-horned Antelope

 

 Vernacular Name (Kannada)

 ''Kondu kuri'', ''Bettadu'' (southern part of Karnataka);

 

 Distribution in KarnatakaBandipur, BRT Hills, Nagarahole WLS; Jogimatti RF(Chitradurga), Rangayyanadurga(Davanagere);
 Distribution in IndiaSub Himalaya to Peninsular India
 Distribution elsewhereNepal
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Vulnerable

CITES :                 Appendix –

W.P. A.                 Schedule - I

 Remarks

The most distinctive feature of the animal is the presence of four horns; a feature unique among extant mammals. Only the males grow horns, usually with two between the ears and a second pair further forward on the forehead. The first pair of horns appear at just a few months of age, and the second pair generally grow after 10 to 14 months. The horns are never shed, although they may be damaged during fights. Not all adult males have horns; in some individuals, especially those belonging to the subspecies T. q. subquadricornis, the forward pair of horns is absent or represented only by small, hairless bumps.

T. q. quadricornis; T. q. iodes and T. q. subquadricornis are known to be present, of the three the first subspecies found distributed in Karnataka.

 

 

 

138.

Nilgiritragus hylocrius Ogilby,1838

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae
 Synonyms Hemitragus hylocrius Ogilby, 1838
 Authors name & Year of description 1838 Kemas hylocrius  Ogilby, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1837 :81 [1838]
 Type locality Nilgherry hills (Nigiri hills) India
 Common Name (English)Nilgiri Tahr
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Varai, Aadoo
 Distribution in KarnatakaKodagu (Brahmagiri hills ?)
 Distribution in IndiaKerala, Tamil Nadu
 Distribution elsewhereNIL Endemic to Western Ghats
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Endangered

CITES :                 Appendix –

W.P. A.                 Schedule - I

 Remarks

At the beginning of this century the range of tahr probably extended northward at least to the Brahmagiri hills of southern Karnataka (Shackleton, 1997).

The Nilgiri tahr is found at high elevations on cliffs, grass-covered hills, and open terrain (Nilgiri Tahr Trust, retrieved 03 January 2007). Females gestate for about 180 days, and usually give birth to one kid per pregnancy (Rice, 1984). Animals are sexually mature in the wild at around three years of age (Wilson, 1980; Rice, 1990), though they are only expected to live three or 3.5 years on average, their potential life span is at least 9 years (Rice, 1988; Rice, 1990). The species is diurnal, but are most active grazing in the early morning and late afternoon (Prater, 1971; Nowak, 1991).

Endemic to Western Ghats,  found at high elevations on cliffs, grass-covered hills, and open terrain 

 

 

139.

Balaenoptera borealis Lesson, 1828

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Cetacea : Balaenopteridae
 Synonyms

Balaenoptera rostrata Rudolphii,1822

Balaenoptera schlegellii (Flower, 1865)

 Authors name & Year of description 1828 Balaenoptera borealis Lesson, Hist. Nat. Gen. Part. Mamm. Oiseaux, 1 : 342
 Type locality Near Gomitz, Lubeck Bay, Germany
 Common Name (English)Sei Whale
 Vernacular Name (Kannada) 
 Distribution in KarnatakaDakshnina Kannada, Udupi, Uttara Kannada Sea coast
 Distribution in IndiaWest coast of India, Kerala and Karnataka
 Distribution elsewhere

World wide temperate to warm temperate waters

 

 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Endangered

CITES :                 Appendix – I

W.P. A.                 Schedule - II

 Remarks

A cosmopolitan species, with a mainly offshore distribution, occurring in the North Atlantic, North Pacific and Southern Hemisphere, but probably not in the Northern Indian Ocean 

Balaenoptera borealis schlegelli (Flower,1865) the subspecies found to be distributed in the state.

 

 

 

140.

Balaenoptera edini Anderson,1871

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Cetacea : Balaenopteridae
 Synonyms Balaenoptera brydei Olsen, 1913
 Authors name & Year of description 1871 Balaenoptera edini Anderson, Anat. Zool. Res. Yunnan.P. 551 pl. 44
 Type locality The B. edeni holotype (Anderson 1879) was found in the Gulf of Martaban, Andaman Sea, presently the skeleton available at Indian Museum Kolkata
 Common Name (English)Bryde's Whale
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaDakshina Kannada, Udupi, Uttara Kannada Sea coast
 Distribution in IndiaSea coasts of India including Andaman & Nicobar Isls.
 Distribution elsewhereWorld wide : warm and temperate sea water
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Data Deficient

CITES :                  Appendix – I

W.P. A.                 Schedule - II

 RemarksBryde's whales are found in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans and off the coast of Ethiopia in warm temperate and sub-tropical waters. Populations exist mainly in warmer waters (~20°C). They are not migratory, but they do move between inshore to offshore waters to follow food.  Bryde's whales, Balaenoptera edeni, feed almost exclusively on pelagic fish (pilchard, mackerel, herring, and anchovies), pelagic crustaceans (shrimp, crabs, and lobsters), and cephalopods (octopus, squid, and cuttlefish).

 

 

141.

Balaenoptera musculus (Linnaeus,1758)

 

 ClassificationMammalia :Cetacea : Balaenopteridae
 Synonyms

Balaenoptera musculus ssp. Brevicauda Ichihara,1966

Balaenoptera musculus ssp. intermedia Burmeister, 1871

 Authors name & Year of description 1758 Balaena musculus Linnaeus, Syst. Natur, 10th Edn, 1:76
 Type locality Scotland, U K
 Common Name (English)Blue whale
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)Thimingala
 Distribution in KarnatakaDakshina Kannada, Udupi, Uttara Kannada Sea coast
 Distribution in IndiaSea coasts of India including Andaman & Nicobar Isls.
 Distribution elsewhereWorldwide
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Endangered

CITES :                 Appendix – I

W.P. A.                 Schedule - II

 Remarks

The blue whale is a cosmopolitan species, found in all oceans except the Arctic, but absent from some regional seas such as the Mediterranean, Okhotsk and Bering seas.

Three sub species are found distributed in India viz., Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda Ichihara,1966; Balaenoptera musculus indica Blyth,1859 and Balaenoptera musculus intermedia Burmeister,1872, all three sub species are found occasionaly in the sea water of the state.

 

 

 

142.

Balaenoptera physalus (Linnaeus,1758)

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Cetacea : Balaenopteridae
 Synonyms

Balaenoptera antiquorum (Fischer,1829)

Balaenoptera boops Linnaeus,1758

Balaenoptera gibber Lacepede,1804

Balaenoptera velifera Cope, 1869

Balaenoptera quoyi (Fischer,1829)

Balaenoptera patachonicha Burmeister,1865

 

 Authors name & Year of description Balaena physalus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. 10th Edn. 1 : 75
 Type locality Norway, Europe
 Common Name (English)Fin Whale
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaDakshina Kannada, Udupi, Uttara Kannada Sea coast
 Distribution in IndiaSea coasts of India including Andaman & Nicobar Isls.
 Distribution elsewhereWorldwide
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Endangered

CITES :                 Appendix – I

W.P. A.                 Schedule - II

 Remarks Balaenoptera physalus quoyi a sub species found distributed in the sea coast of Karnataka

 

 

 

143.

Pseudorca crassidens (Owen,1846)

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Cetacea : Delphinidae
 Synonyms

Delphinus destructor Cope,1866

Delphinus meridionalis Flower,1865

 Authors name & Year of description 1846 Phocaea crassidens Owen, Hist. Brit. Foss.Mamm., Birds, p.516 fig.213
 Type locality

U K England

Type species : Stenolentigenosus Gray,1866(= Delphinus chinensis Osbeck,1765

 Common Name (English)False Killer Whale
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)none
 Distribution in KarnatakaDakshina Kannada, Udupi, Uttara Kannada Sea coast
 Distribution in IndiaSea coasts of India including Andaman & Nicobar Isls.
 Distribution elsewhereWorldwide
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Data Deficient

W.P. A.                  Schedule – II

CITES                     Appendix - I            

                              Included under CMS

 Remarks

False killer whales are found in tropical to warm temperate zones, generally in relatively deep, offshore waters of all three major oceans. They do not generally range into latitudes higher than 50° in either hemisphere.

 

Although false killer whales eat primarily fish and cephalopods, they also have been known to attack small cetaceans and, on one occasion, even a humpback whale (Jefferson et al. 1993). Depending on location, stomach contents included salmon,  squid, sciaenid and carangid fish, bonito, mahi mahi or dolphin-fis), yellowfin tuna, yellowtail, perch, mackerel, herring and smelt (Odell and Miller McClune, 1999

 

 

144.

Sousa chinensis (Osbeck,1765)

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Cetacea : Delphinidae
 Synonyms

Sousa bornensis Lyddekar, 1901

Sousa huangi Wamg Peilie, 1999

Sousa lentiginosa  (Gray,1866)

Sousa plumbea G. Cuvier, 1829

Sousa zambezicus Miranda Rebiero, 1936

 Authors name & Year of description 1765 Sousa chinensis Osbeck, Reise nach. Ostind. China. Rostock , 1 : 7
 Type locality China
 Common Name (English)Indo – Pacific Humpback Dolphin
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaDakshina Kannada, Udupi, Uttara Kannada Sea coast
 Distribution in IndiaSea coasts of India including Andaman & Nicobar Isls.
 Distribution elsewhereWorldwide
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Near Threatned

CITES :                 Appendix – I

W.P. A.                 Schedule - II

 Remarks

All Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins are considered to be part of a single widespread and highly variable species, Sousa chinensis. Some biologists consider Humpback Dolphins in the Indo-Pacific to consist of two species: S. plumbea in the western Indian Ocean, from South Africa to at least the east coast of India, and S. chinensis, from the east coast of India to China and Australia. Recent mitochondrial (mt) DNA analyses indicate that Humpback Dolphins from Australia (chinensis form) are highly distinct from other Indo-Pacific populations

Chinensis-type dolphins are not known to be hunted directly in significant numbers anywhere in their range. However, they are often caught in fishing nets, such as gillnets and trawls

 

 

145.

Stenella coeruleoalba (Meyen,1833)

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Cetacea : Delphinidae
 Synonyms

Stenella asthenops Cope,1865

Stenella crotaphiscus Cope,1865

Stenella Euphrosyne (Gray,1846)

Stenella styx Gray,1846

Stenella tethyos Gerveos,1853

 Authors name & Year of description 1833 Stenella coeruleoalba Meyen, Nova Acta Acad. Caes. Nat. Curios., 16 (2) : 609, pl. 43
 Type locality Rio do Plata of Argentina, S. America
 Common Name (English)Striped Dolphin
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaDakshina Kannada, Udupi, Uttara Kannada Sea coast
 Distribution in IndiaSea coasts of India including Andaman & Nicobar Isls.
 Distribution elsewhereWorldwide
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Least Concern

CITES :                 Appendix – II

W.P. A.                 Schedule - II

 Remarks

This is a widely-distributed species, found in tropical and warm-temperate waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans, as well as many adjacent seas.

The diet of the striped dolphin consists primarily of a wide variety of small, midwater and pelagic or benthopelagic fish, especially lanternfish, cod, and squids (Wurtz and Marrale 1993; Hassani et al. 1997; Archer 2002). Striped dolphins apparently feed in pelagic to benthopelagic zones, to depths as deep as 200-700 m, in continental slope or oceanic regions.

 

 

146.

Stenella longirostris (Gray,1828)

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Cetacea : Delphinidae
 Synonyms Clymene alope Gray, 1866 (synonym)
Clymene microps Gray, 1866 (synonym)
Clymene stenorhynchus Gray, 1866 (synonym)
Clymenia alope Gray, 1868 (synonym)
Clymenia longirostris Flower, 1884 (synonym)
Clymenia microps Gray, 1871 (synonym)
Clymenia roseiventris Flower, 1884 (synonym)
Clymenia stenorhynchus Gray, 1868 (synonym)
Delphinus alope Gray, 1846 (synonym)
Delphinus longirostris Gray, 1828 (basionym)
Delphinus microps Gray, 1846 (synonym)
Delphinus roseiventris Wagner, 1846 (synonym)
Delphinus stenorhynchus Gray, 1866 (synonym)
Fretidelphis roseiventris Iredale & Troughton, 1934 (synonym)
Prodelphinus alope Flower, 1885 (synonym)
Prodelphinus longirostris Flower, 1885 (synonym)
Prodelphinus microps Flower, 1885 (synonym)
Prodelphinus roseiventris Gervais in Van Beneden & Gervais, 1880 (synonym)
Stenella alope Fraser, 1950 (synonym)
Stenella microps Miller & Kellogg, 1955 (synonym)
Steno roseiventris Gray, 1866 (synonym)
 Authors name & Year of description 1828 Stenella longirostris Gray, Spicil. Zool. 1 : 1
 Type locality None given (Unknown)
 Common Name (English)

Spinner Dolphin, Long-beaked Dolphin, Long-snouted Dolphin

 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaDakshina Kannada, Udupi, Uttara Kannada Sea coast Records of stranded dolphins are seen at Karwar on 31.08.2012
 Distribution in IndiaSea coasts of India including Andaman & Nicobar Isls.
 Distribution elsewhereWorldwide
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Data Deficient

CITES :                   Appendix – II

W.P. A.                 Schedule - II

 Remarks

The individuals of most spinner dolphin stocks in the world have a threepart colour pattern (dark grey cape, light grey sides, and white belly) and only minor differences in appearance of males and females. These animals (illustrated above) are called Gray's spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris longirostris).

One of the most recognizable features of the spinner dolphin is a behavior that they were named after. When they jump out of the water, they spin in the air (like a barrel roll) and land with a very large, loud splash. 

S.l. longirostris - oceanic tropical waters worldwide
S.I. orientalis - offshore eastern tropical Pacific
S.I. centroamericana - coastal eastern tropical Pacific
S.I. roseiventris - southeast Asia and northern Australia

 

 

 

147.

Neophocaena phocaenoides G. Cuvier,1829

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Cetacea : Phocaenidae
 Synonyms

Neophocaena melas Temminck,1841

Neophocaena aeasorientalis Pilleri and Ghir,1972

Neophocaena sunameri Pilleri and Ghir, 1975

 Authors name & Year of description  1829. Neophocaena phocaenoides G. Cuvier, Regne. Anim. Nouv. Ed. 1 :291 
 Type locality Cape of Good Hope, SA
 Common Name (English)Finless porpoise, Indo-Pacific Finless Porpoise
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaDakshina Kannada, Udupi, Uttara Kannada Sea coast
 Distribution in IndiaSea coasts of India including Andaman & Nicobar Isls.
 Distribution elsewhereWorldwide
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Vulnerable

CITES :                 Appendix –  I

W.P. A.                 Schedule - I

 Remarks

The recognition of two externally distinct morphological forms of finless porpoises as separate biological species (Neophocaena phocaenoides and N. asiaeorientalis) was accepted recently when it was demonstrated that the two forms are reproductively isolated (and likely have been separated since the last glacial maximum) even though they occur sympatrically in a fairly large area of eastern Asia .

Indo-Pacific Finless Porpoises are found mainly in coastal waters, including shallow bays, mangrove swamps, and estuaries also appear to have a strong preference for waters with a sandy or soft bottom (Jefferson and Hung 2004). Small fishes, cephalopods, and crustaceans (mainly demersal species) form the diet of Finless Porpoises (see Jefferson and Hung 2004)

N. phocaenoides phocaenoides is the subspecies distributed In India.

 

 

148.

Kogia breviceps Blainville,1838

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Cetacea : Physeteridae
 Synonyms

Koiga flowerii Gill, 1871

Koiga goodie True, 1884

Koiga grayii (Wall,1881)

 Authors name & Year of description 1838 Kogia breviceps Blainville, Ann. Franc. Etr. Anat. Phys. 2 : 337
 Type locality

Type species : Physeter breviceps Blainville,1838

South Africa

 Common Name (English)Pygmy Sperm Whale
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaDakshina Kannada, Udupi, Uttara Kannada Sea coast
 Distribution in IndiaSea coasts of India including Andaman & Nicobar Isls.
 Distribution elsewhereWorldwide
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Data Deficient

CITES :                 Appendix – II

W.P. A.                 Schedule - II

 Remarks

Pygmy Sperm Whales are known from deep waters (outer continental shelf and beyond) in tropical to warm temperate zones of all oceans (McAlpine 2002). This species appears to prefer somewhat more temperate waters than does the Dwarf Sperm Whale. The range of Kogia breviceps is poorly known, though a lack of records of live animals may be more due to inconspicuous behaviour rather than rarity. Most information stems from strandings (especially females with calves), which may give an inaccurate picture of the actual distribution at sea (Culik 2004).

Studies of feeding habits, based on stomach contents of stranded animals, suggest that this species feeds in deep water, primarily on cephalopods and, less often, on deep-sea fishes and shrimps

 

                                                                                       

149.

Kogia sima (Owen,1866)

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Cetacea : Physeteridae
 SynonymsNil
 Authors name & Year of description 1866 Physeter (Euphyseter) simus  Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 6(1) : 30 Pls. 1-14
 Type locality Waltair, East Coast, Andhra Pradesh India.(Madras Presidency)
 Common Name (English)Dwarf Sperm Whale
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaDakshina Kannada, Udupi, Uttara Kannada Sea coast
 Distribution in IndiaSea coasts of India including Andaman & Nicobar Isls.
 Distribution elsewhereWorldwide
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Data Defiecient

CITES :                 Appendix – II

W.P. A.                 Schedule - II

 Remarks

This species appears to be distributed widely in offshore waters of tropical and warm temperate zones, apparently preferring warmer waters, and perhaps more offshore waters (Caldwell and Caldwell 1989).

Dwarf Sperm Whales appear to feed primarily on deep-water cephalopods, but also take other prey types (dos Santos and Haimovici 2001).

 

 

150.

Physeter macrocephalus Linnaeus,1758

 

 ClassificationMammalia : Cetacea : Physeteridae
 SynonymsNil
 Authors name & Year of description 1758 Physeter macrocephalus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. 10th Edn. 1 :76
 Type locality Netherlands
 Common Name (English)Sperm Whale
 Vernacular Name (Kannada)None
 Distribution in KarnatakaDakshina Kannada, Udupi, Uttara Kannada Sea coast
 Distribution in IndiaSea coasts of India including Andaman & Nicobar Isls.
 Distribution elsewhereWorldwide
 Threat Category

IUCN :                   Vulnerable

CITES :                 Appendix – I

W.P. A.                 Schedule - II

 Remarks

The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), or cachalot, is the largest of the toothed whales and the largest toothed predator. It is the only living member of genus Physeter, and one of three extant species in the sperm whale family, along with the pygmy sperm whale and dwarf sperm whale of the genus Kogia.

Mature males average at 16 metres (52 ft) in length but some may reach 20.5 metres (67 ft), with the head representing up to one-third of the animal's length. The sperm whale feeds primarily on squid.

From the early eighteenth century through the late 20th the species was a prime target of whalers. The head of the whale contains a liquid wax called spermaceti, from which the whale derives its name. Spermaceti was used in lubricants, oil lamps, and candles. Ambergris, a waste product from its digestive system, is still used as a fixative in perfumes

 

 mammal3

 

ಇಲ್ಲಿನ ವಿಷಯಗಳ ಸ್ವತ್ತು ಮತ್ತು ನಿರ್ವಹಣೆ : ಕರ್ನಾಟಕ ಜೀವವೈವಿಧ್ಯ ಮಂಡಳಿ, ಕರ್ನಾಟಕ ಸರ್ಕಾರ

ಹಕ್ಕುತ್ಯಾಗ : ಈ ಪುಟವು ಸರ್ಕಾರಿ ಸಚಿವಾಲಯ/ ಇಲಾಖೆ/ ಸಂಸ್ಥೆಗಳಿಗೂ ಲಿಂಕುಗಳನ್ನು ಕಲ್ಪಿಸುತ್ತದೆ ಎಂಬುದನ್ನು ದಯವಿಟ್ಟು ಗಮನಿಸಿ. ಈ ವೆಬ್ ಸೈಟುಗಳ ವಿಷಯಗಳು ಆಯಾ ಸಂಸ್ಥೆಗಳ ಸ್ವತ್ತೇ ಆಗಿದ್ದು, ಯಾವುದೇ ಹೆಚ್ಚಿನ ಮಾಹಿತಿ ಅಥವಾ ಸಲಹೆಗಾಗಿ ಅವರನ್ನೇ ಸಂಪರ್ಕಿಸುವುದು.

ವಿನ್ಯಾಸ ಮತ್ತು ಅಭಿವೃದ್ಧಿ : ಇ-ಆಡಳಿತ ಕೇಂದ್ರ, ಕರ್ನಾಟಕ ಸರ್ಕಾರ

(C) 2016, ಎಲ್ಲಾ ಹಕ್ಕುಗಳೂ ಕಾಯ್ದಿರಿಸಿವೆ

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