Last modified at 10/05/2018 12:53 by System Account

PTERIDOPHYTES OF KARNATAKA 

A CHECKLIST

P. K. Rajagopal

Professor of Botany (Retd.)

Vinayaka, Second Road

 Hayagreeva Nagar, Udupi 576102

rajagopalpattaje@yahoo.com

 

Support

 

R.N.M. Sahai, Chairman

Karnataka Biodiversity Board

 

R. K. Singh, Member Secretary

Karnataka Biodiversity Board

 

​Government of Karnataka

Karnataka Biodiversity Board

(Forest, Ecology and Environment Department)

Ground Floor, "Vanavikas"'18th Cross, Malleshwaram

Bengaluru 560 003

 

 

Introduction

The term Pteridophyta is from two Greek roots that mean winged (pteryz) and plant (phyto).  The reference is to the wing-like appearance of the compound leaves (fronds) that are characteristic of most ferns. They are plants with root, stem and leaves, but no flower, fruit and seeds. The Pteridophytes, which include ferns and fern-allies formed a dominant part of earth's vegetation in the historic past 354 to 290 million years ago. They flourished well during carboniferous period of the late Paleozoic (age of Pteridophyta). The tree ferns, giant horsetails and arborescent lycopods dominated the swampy landscapes of those ancient ages. In the present day flora though lesser in number, the pteridophytes lend a distinct charm and physiognomy to the landscape.  They are important from evolutionary point of view as they show the evolution of vascular system and reflect the emergence of seed habit in plants.  The alternating  sporophytic and gametophytic generations in their life cycle being independent is another interesting aspect of these plants.

Pteridophytes exist in most habitat types except the marine environment. They grow as terrestrials, epiphytes, lithophytes, halophytes, climbers, hydrophytes, hygrophytes and some as xerophytes – majority of them are being terrestrials in damp and shady situations forming the undergrowth beneath the dense canopy trees and epiphytes on such trees and also as lithophytes on stream banks of evergreen forests. The greatest diversity of pteridophytes is in the tropical forests. Tropical ferns are extraordinarily beautiful plants with their delicate arching foliage. A considerable number of pteridophytes are grown as ornamenatal plants in gardens and fern houses, used as food and serve as medicinal plants.

 

The Indian sub-continent is one of the richest in its pteridophytic flora, like its angiospermic flora.

In India, pteridophytes are particularly distributed in the Himalayas and Western Ghats of South India. The Western Ghats, principal geographical feature of southern India, extend 1,400 km along the west coast, about 50 km inland. They rise steeply to an average altitude of 900 m (reaching up to 2,600 m). The region has a monsoon climate dominated by the south-west and north-east monsoon winds. The annual rainfall is 2,000 - 6,000 mm, with the western slopes receiving the greatest precipitation. The rugged terrain and abundant rainfall support a diverse and rich flora. Considerable section of Western Ghats, about 400 km long, passes through the state of Karnataka and about 60 percent of the Ghats lie in Karnataka. Most of the pteridophytes  of Karnataka are found in its Western Ghats region.

 

There are between 10,000 - 12,000 species of pteridophytes in the world. Subhash Chandra in his Ferns of India has enumerated 1100 species (belonging to 144 genera under 34 families)  from the Indian regions. Thus nearly 10 percent of world pteridophytic flora occurs in India.

 

Though Karnataka has been well explored as far as angiospermic flora is concerned (even floras for several districts have been published), till recently there has been no comprehensive work on the Pteridophytes of this state. The collection of pteridophytes of Karnataka was very meagre with only small regions of the state surveyed and taxonomic study on them has not received much attention.  However, this lacuna was filled up by Rajagopal and Bhat (1998) who took up the work of extensive collection of pteridophytes of  Karnataka State, during 1991-96 and prepared the thesis entitled 'Ferns and fern-allies of Karnataka State- A Taxonomical Study". Subsequently a checklist of pteridophytes of Karnataka entitled "Pteridophytic Flora of Karnataka State, India" was published by them in Indian Fern Journal (1998). This comprehensive work on the pteridophytes of Karnataka has revealed the occurrence of 178 species, belonging to 80 genera and 30 families in its political province (whereas the total number of species of flowering plants in Karnataka is about 4800).

 

However, pteridological explorations in Karnataka dates as back as 1863. Beddome (1863-64, 1865-70, 1883 and 1892) has recorded 271 fern species from the whole of South India, but the forests of Karnataka have not been adequately covered by him excepting a few references to Coorg forests, no other place of Karnataka has been listed. His collections have been mostly from the Nilgiris, Annamalai and Kerala. Macpherson (1890) collected ferns from North Kanara (now Uttara Kannada) District and has merely listed 75 species of ferns from this area, without giving any descriptions. Blatter and d'Almeida (1922) have included the ferns of North Kanara, then a part of Bombay Presidency in their "Ferns of Bombay"; 90 species of ferns have been included by them as distributed in Uttara Kannada District. Alston (1945) has recorded 58 species of Selaginella P.Beauv. from India of only four species have been recorded from Karnataka. Kammathy et al. (1967) have listed 25 species of fern- allies and ferns in their "Contribution towards a flora of Biligirirangana hills". Razi and Rao (1971) have published an artificial key to the Pteridophytes of Mysore city and its neighbouring areas where they have included 70 species of ferns and fern-allies spread over 41 genera. These have been collected from Mysore city, Chamundi hills, Srirangapatana, Ranganathittu and Biligirirangana hills. They have also included many ferns found under cultivation, which do not occur naturally in the state. Bhaskar and Razi (1973) have recorded seven species of ferns and one species of Selaginella from Mysore district. Holttum (1976) has included 10 members of Thelypteridaceae in the "Flora of Hassan District". Yoganarasimhan et al. (1981) have recorded 12 species ferns in their 'Flora of Chikmagalur District". Very recently certain regionwise studies on the pteridopytic flora of Karnataka have been conducted by Deepa J  et al. (2013):  Kemmangundi  and Kigga forests; Sumesh N Dudani et al. (2013,2014)  forests of  Yana and Sakleshpur; B.K.Mallayya et al. (2014): forest region of Sirsi taluk.

 

Synopsis of the checklist

 

The present checklist is based on the Ph D thesis on Ferns and Fern allies of Karnataka state and on the subsequent checklist entitled "Pteridophytic Flora of Karnataka State, India' published in Indian Fern Journal (1998) by Rajagopal and Bhat and also on other literature available to the author. The families under each group and the genera and species within each family or the genus are arranged alphabetically. Each record has been provided with currently accepted name, its author(s) name and nomenclatural citation, followed by basionyms and synonyms, if any, and their citation. 

A total of 178 species (including four subspecies and four varieties) of pteridophytes belonging to 80 genera and 30 families are recorded in this checklist. A table showing the floristic analysis of the Pteridophytes of the state is given below.

The arrangement of families  and genera is based on the one proposed by Maarten J. M. Christenhusz, Xian-chun Zhang & Harald Schneider in their paper entitled "Linear Sequence of Extant Families and Genera of Lycophytes and Ferns" in Phytotaxa 19: 7-54. 2011.    Most of the names are updated as per The Plant List: www.theplantlist.org    

Fiftyfive per cent of the genera and sixteen per cent of the species of Pteridophytes of India are represented in Karnataka. Seventeen species are listed as rare and endangered. Pteridaceae, Thelypteridaceae, Polypodiaceae and  Aspleniaceae  are the dominant families. Asplenium with 16 species is the largest genus followed by Pteris with 13 species. The following pteridophytes endemic to South India are found in Karnataka: Huperzia  niligarica (Spreng.) Trevis., Selaginella tenera Spring, Cheilanthes swartzii Webb & Benth., Cyathea nilgirensis Holttum, Lindsaea malabarica (Bedd.) Baker & Christ, Pseudocyclosorus ochthodes (Kunze) Holltum , Thelypteris  xylodes (Kunze) Ching, Bolbitis semicordata (Baker) Ching, Grammitis pilifera Ravi & J. Joseph.

 

              Table: Floristic Analysis of the Pteridophytes of Karnataka State

S. No.    Family Name No. of Genera           No. of Species
1Lycopodiaceae35
2Isoetaceae        16
3Selaginellaceae19
4Equisetaceae11
5Ophioglossaceae26
6Psilotaceae11
7Marattiaceae11
8Osmundaceae11
9Hymenophyllaceae49
10Gleicheniaceae11
11Lygodiaceae12
12Schizaeaceae11
13Marsileaceae11
14Salviniaceae22
15Cyatheaceae13
16Lindsaeaceae26
17Dennstaedtiaceae34
18Pteridaceae1234
19Aspleniaceae116
20Diplaziopsidaceae11
21Thelypteridaceae1119
22Blechnaceae22
23Athyriaceae59
24Hypodematiaceae11
25Dryopteridaceae514
26Nephrolepidaceae12
27Tectariaceae12
28Oleandraceae11
29Davalliaceae11
30Polypodiaceae1117

 

​ 

Athyriaceae

 

Allantodia R. Br.

 

Allantodia aspera (Blume) Ching, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 9(1): 54. 1964

Diplazium  polypodioides Blume, Enum. Pl. Javae fasc. 2: 194. 1828;P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:20.1998.  

Diplazium  asperum Blume, Tom. Cit. 195. 1828.

Athyrium asperum (Blume) Copel., Philip. J. Sci. Sect. C 3 : 294. 1908.

Karnataka  (Hassan), S India; Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.

 

Anisocampium C. Presl

 

Anisocampium cumingianum  C. Presl, Abh. Königl. Böhm.. Ges. Wiss., ser. 56: 418. 1851; P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15: 18.1998

Cyclodium cumingianum (C. Presl) T. Moore,Index Fil. 88.1857.

Aspidium otaria Kunze ex Mett., Abh. Senckenberg. Naturf. Ges. 4: 34, no. 73.1858.

Pleocnemia aristata Bedd., Ferns S. India 28, t. 83. 1863. nom. illegit.

Nephrodium otaria (Kunze ex Mett.) Baker in Hook. & Baker, Synops. Fil. 288. 1867.

Nephrodium otarium (Kunze ex Mett.) Baker, Syn. Fil. 288.1867.

Dryopteris otaria (Kunze ex Mett.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 813.1891

Athyrium otaria (Kunze ex Mett.) Posth.,Proc. Fourth Pac. Sci. Congr. 3: 197.1930.

Athyrium cumingianum (C. Presl) Ching, Index Filic., Suppl. 3, 40.1934.

Karnataka (Hassan, Kodagu, Uttara Kannada), S  India, Assam; China, Indonesia , Laos, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka.

 

Athyrium Roth

 

Athyrium  anisopterum Christ., Bull. Herb. Boissier 6(12): 962. 1898;P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:19.1998

Athyrium  macrocarpon Bedd., Ferns S. India 51, t. 152.1864, pro parte, non Aspidium macrocarpum Blume.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru, Uttara Kannada), S India, NW Himalayas  eastwards to Assam; China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan.

 

Athyrium falcatum Bedd., Ferns S. India t. 151. 1864;P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:19.1998.

Athyrium  drepanophyllum Bedd, Handb. Ferns Brit. India Suppl. 32. 1892.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru), throughout India in mountainous regions.

 

Athyrium hohenackerianum (Kunze) T. Moore, Index Fil. 49. 1857;P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:19.1998.

Allantodia hohenackerianum Kunze, Farrnkr. 2:  63, t. 126. 1850.

Karnataka (Chikkamagalura, Dakshina Kannada, Hassan, Kodagu, Shimoga, Udupi, Uttara Kannada), S India;Sri Lanka.

 

Athyrium solenopteris (Kunze)T. Moore, Index Fil. 43.1857;P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:19.1998.

Allantodia solenopteris Kunze,  Linnaea 24 : 266. 1851.

Athyrium pectinatum Bedd., Fems S. India 51, t. 155. 1864, pro parte  non A. pectinatum Wall. ex Mett.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru, Uttara Kannada), S India;Sri Lanka.

 

Deparia Hook. & Grev.

 

Deparia petersenii (Kunze) M. Kato, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 90(1017): 37. 1977

Diplazium lasiopteris Kunze   Linnaea 17: 568. 1843;P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:19.1998.

Asplenium lasiopteris (Kunze) Mett., Fil. Hort. Bot. Lips. 78. 1856.

Asplenium  thwaitesii Braunek, Mett. in Abhandl. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 3: 227. 1859.

Diplazium thwaitesii (Braunek ex Mett.) Klotzsch ex T. Moore, Index. Fil. 339. 1862.

Diplazium  japonicum non Bedd. 1876 nec. Asplenium japonicum Thunb.; Bedd., Handb. Ferns Brit. India 180. 1883, pro parte,

Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru), S India; E, S & SE Asia, Oceania.

 

Diplazium  Sw.

 

Diplazium dilatatum Blume, Enum. Pl. Javae fasc. 2: 194. 1828;P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:19.1998.

Athyrium dilatatum (Blume) Holttum, Fl. Malaya 2 : 574. 1966.

Karnataka (Uttara Kannada), S to NE India; Australia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pacific islands,  Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam.

 

Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw. in Schrader, J. Bot.1801(2): 312. 1803;P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:19.1998.

Hemionitis esculenta Retz., Obs. Bot. 6: 38. 1791.

Anisogonium esculenta (Retz.)C. Presl, Tent. Pterid. 116. 1836.

Athyrium esculentum (Retz.) Copel., Philip. J.Sci. Sect. C, 3 : 295. 1908.

Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Hassan, Kodagu, Mandya, Shimoga, Uttara Kannada), throughout India; tropical Asia, subtropical and tropical Polynesia.

 

Aspleniaceae

 

Asplenium L.

 

Asplenium aethiopicum (Burm. f.) Bech., Candollea 6: 22. 1935;P. K. Rajagopal & K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:17.1998.

Trichomanes aethiopicum Burm f., Fl. Indica 32. 1768.

Asplenium furcatum Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. 172. 1794.

Asplenium laserpitiifolium auct. non Lam.1786;Bedd., Ferns S.India 75, t. 225. 1864.

Karnataka (Chamarajanagara, Hassan, Kodagu), S India; Australia, China, Indonesia, Macaronesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pacific islands, Philippines, Thailand, tropical Africa, tropical America,Vietnam.

 

Asplenium cheilosorum Kunze ex Mett., Abh. Senckenberg. Naturf. Ges. 6: 133, t. 5, f. 12–13. 1859;P. K. Rajagopal & K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:17.1998.

Aspleniun heterocarpum Wall. ex Hook., Sp. Fil. 3 : 132, t. 175. 1860.       

Hymenasplenium cheilosorum (Kunze ex Mett.) Tagawa, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 7(2): 84.1938.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru, Hassan, Kodagu), S India, Himalayas from Nepal to Bhutan.

 

Asplenium crinicaule Hance,  Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 5, 5: 254. 1866;P. K. Rajagopal & K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:17. 1998.

Asplenium falcatum sensu Bedd., Ferns S. India t. 141. 1864.

Karnataka (Hassan), S India; Australia, China, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam.

 

Asplenium decrescens Kunze, Linnaea 24:  261. 1851;P. K. Rajagopal & K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:17.1998.

Asplenium  contiguum auct. non Kaulf. 1824;T. Moore, Index Fil. 121.1859

Asplenium  caudatum auct. non G. Forst. 1786;Hook., Sp. Fil. 3 : 152.1880

Karnataka (Chamarajanagara, Chikkaballapur), S India; Africa, Australia, Brazil, Malaysia, Sri Lanka.

 

Asplenium ensiforme Wall. ex Hook. & Grev., Icon. Filic. 1(4): t.71. 1828;P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:17. 1998.

Karnataka (Chikkmagaluru), throughout India in mountainous regions; Bhutan, China, Japan, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam.

 

Asplenium erectum Bory ex Willd., Sp. Pl. 328. 1810; P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:17.1998.

Asplenium camptorachis Kunze, Linnaea 24 : 262. 1851.

Asplenium brasiliensis auct. non Sw. 1817, nec Raddi 1825;Bedd., Ferns S. India 45, t. 135. 1864

Asplenium lunulatum var. camptorachis (Kunze) Bedd., Handb. Ferns. Brit. India 147. 1883.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru), S India; Africa, Hawaii, Madagascar, Malaysia, Polynesia.

 

Asplenium formosum Willd., Sp. Pl. 5(1): 329. 1810; P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:18.1998.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru, Kodagu), E Himalayas, S India; Africa, Australia, tropical America.

 

Asplenium inaequilaterale Willd. in L., Sp. Pl. 5(1): 322. 1810;P. K. Rajagopal & K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:18.1998.

Asplenium  brachtus Kunze, Linnaea 10 : 512. 1836.

Asplenium trapeziforme sensu Bedd., Ferns S. India 45, t. 234. 1864. 

Asplenium lunulatum var. trapeziforme Bedd., Handb. Ferns Brit. India 148. 1883 pro parte, non Asplenium trapeziforme Roxb.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru, Mysore, Uttara Kannada), S India; Africa, Mascarenes, Sri Lanka, Thailand.

 

Asplenium laciniatum D. Don. Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 8 : 1825;P. K. Rajagopal & K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:18.1998.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru), S India, Himalayas, Africa, China, Hawaii, Indochina, Japan, Sri Lanka, Taiwan.

 

Asplenium nidus L. var. phyllitidis (D. Don) Bir, J. Indian Bot. Soc. 43 : 567. 1964;P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:18.1998.

Asplenium  phyllitidis D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nep.7. 1825.

Thamnopteris  phyllitidis Bedd., Fems S. India t. 123. 1864.

Thamnopteris  nidus var. phyllitidis Bedd., Handb.Ferns Brit. India 139. 1883.

Karnataka (Chikkmagaluru, Shimoga, Uttara Kannada), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, E Himalayas; Paleotropical.

 

Asplenium normale D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 7 1825;P. K. Rajagopal & K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:18. 1998.

Asplenium  multijugum Wall. ex Mett., Adhadel. Seneckenb.Natu.Forsch. Ges. 3 : 179. 1859.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, S India, NE India, Himalayas; Australia, Bhutan, China, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pacific islands Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, tropical Africa, Vietnam.

 

Asplenium polyodon G. Forst., Fl. Ins. Austr. 80. 1786;P. K. Rajagopal & K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:18.1998.

Asplenium  falcatum Lam., Encycl. 2 : 306. 1786.

Trichomanes adiantoides L., Sp. Pl. 2 : 1098. 1753.

Asplenium adiantoides (L.) C. Chr., Ind. Fil. 99.1905 non A. adiantoides Lam.

Karnataka (Tumkur), S India, Sikkim, W Bengal; Australia, China, Indian Ocean islands, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pacific islands, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, tropical Africa, Vietnam.

 

Asplenium rockii C. Chr., Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 26: 332. 1931;P. K. Rajagopal & K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:18.1998.

Karnataka (Chamarajanagar), NE & S India;Australia, Bhutan,  China, Malaysia, Myanmar, New Zeland, Taiwan, Thailand.

 

Asplenium tenuifolium D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 8. 1825;P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:18. 1998.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru), S India, Himalayas; Bhutan, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam.

 

Asplenium unilaterale Lam.,Encycl. 2(1): 305. 1786;P. K. Rajagopal & K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:18. 1998.

Asplenium resectum Sw., Icon. Pl. 3: t. 72. 1791. 

Asplenium trapeziforme Wall. ex Roxb., Calc. J. Nat. Hist. 4 : 497. 1844.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru, Shimoga), Himalayas; Africa, Polynesia, E & S E Asia, USA (Hawaii Islands)

 

Asplenium yoshinagae Makino,  Phan. Pterid. Jap. Icon. 1: t. 64. 1900;P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:18. 1998.

Asplenium indicum Sledge, Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Bot. 3: 264. 1965.

Asplenium planicule Wall. ex Mett., Abhandi. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges. 3 : 201. 1859, non Lowe 1858.

Asplenium laciniatum auct. non D. Don 1825; Bedd., Handb. Ferns Brit. India 154. 1883 pro parte

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru, Hassan, Kodagu, Mysore, Shimoga, Uttara Kannada), S India; Meghalaya, Himalayas; Madagascar, E & S Asia.

 

 

Blechnaceae

 

Blechnum L.

 

Blechnum  orientale L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1077. 1753;P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:22. 1998

Karnataka (Chikkmagaluru, Dakshina Kannada, Hassan, Kodagu, Shimoga, Udupi, Uttara Kannada), throughout India; Australia,China,  Japan, Pacific islands, tropical Asia, Taiwan.

 

Stenochlaena  J. Sm.

 

Stenochlaena palustris (Burm.f.) Bedd., Ferns Brit. India (Suppl.): 26, t. 201. 1876;P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:22.1998

Polypodium palustre Burm.f., Fl. Indica 234. 1768.

Acrostichum palustre (Burm.f.) C. B. Clarke, Trans. Linn; Soc. London, Bot. 1: 577. 1880. 

Stenochlaena scandens (Sw.) J. Sm. in Hook, J. Bot. 3: 401. 1841.

                     Karnataka (Dakshina Kannada, Udupi, Uttara Kannada), Kerala, Tamil nNadu, West Bengal; Australia, Cambodia, China, Fiji, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Nepal, Pacific islands, Thailand, Sri Lanka,Vietnam.

 

Cyatheaceae

 

Cyathea Sm.

 

Cyathea gigantea (Wall. ex Hook.) Holttum, Gard. Bull. Straits Settlem. 8(4): 318. 1935; P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:14.1998.

Alsophila  gigantea  Wall. ex Hook., Sp. Fil. 1 : 53. 1844.

Alsophila  glabra auct. non (Blume) Copel. 1909; Bedd., Ferns S. India t. 60. 1863.

Karnataka (Dakshina Kannada, Hassan, Kodagu, Shimoga, Uttara Kannada), throughout India in hilly areas; Bhutan, China,  S & SE Asia.

 

Cyathea nilgirensis Holttum, Kew Bull. 19 : 468. 1965; P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:14.1998.

Alsophila latebrosa Hook., Sp. Fil. 1 : 37. 1884, pro parte quoad  Bedd.,1883.

Alsophila nilgirensis (Holttum)R.M.Tryon,Contr. Gray Herb. 200: 32 1970.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru, Hassan, Kodagu, Uttara Kannada), Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Odisha, Tamil Nadu; endemic.

 

Cyathea spinulosa Wall. ex Hook., Sp. Fil. 1 : 25, t. 12. 1844; P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:14.1998.

Alsophila decipiens J.Scott ex Bedd.,Ferns Britsh India t. 311. 1869.

Amphicosmia decipiens (J.Scott ex Bedd.) Bedd., Suppl. Fems Brit. India 1. 1876.

Alsophila spinulosa (Wall. ex Hook.) R.M. Tryon, Contr. Gray Herb. 200: 32.1970.

Karnataka (Dakshina Kannada, Uttara Kannada), throughout India in hilly regions; E & SE Asia.

 

Davalliaceae

 

Araiostegia Copel.

 

Araiostegia pulchra (D. Don) Copel., Philipp. J. Sci. 34(3): 241. 1927; P. K. Rajagopal  &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:12.1998.

Davallia pulchra D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal 11. 1825.

Leucostegia pulchra (D. Don) J. Sm., London  J. Bot. 1: 426. 1842.

Davallia chaerophylla Wall. ex Hook.,Sp. Fil. 1: 157, t. 51 A.1845

Acrophorus pulcher (D. Don) T. Moore, Index Fil. 3.1857.

Humata pulchra (D. Don) Diels in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 1(4): 209.1899.

Karnataka (Chamarajanagara, Chikkamagalur, Kodagu, Hassan), throughout India in

mountainous regions; Bhutan, China, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka,  Thailand, Vietnam.

 

Dennstaedtiaceae

 

Hypolepis Bernh.

 

Hypolepis glandulifera Brownsey & Chinnock, J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 10(1): 16. 1987; P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15: 11.1998.

Polypodium punctatum Thunb., Fl. Japan 337. 1784.

Hypolepis punctata (Thunb.) Mett, ex Kuhn, Fil. Afr. 120. 1868.

Karnataka (Chamarajanagara), throughout India in mountainous regions; Australia, Japan, Malaysia, Sri Lanka.

Vernacular name/Common name:Downy Ground-fern (English). 

 

 

Microlepia Presl.

 

Microlepia speluncae (L.) Moore, Index Fil. 93. 1857; P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15: 11.1998.

Polypodium speluncae L., Sp. Pl. 1093. 1753.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru, Hassan, Shimoga, Uttara Kannada), S  India, Himalayas; Africa, Australia, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Pacific islands, Philippines, S America, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam, West Indies

 

Microlepia strigosa (Thunb.) C. Presl, Epim. Bot. 95. 1849; P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15: 11.1998.

Trichomanes strigosum Thunb., Fl. Jap. 339. 1784.

Karnataka (Shimoga), S  India, Himalayas; Indonesia, Japan, Pacific islands, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand.

 

Pteridium Glod.  ex Scop.

 

Pteridium aquilinum (L.)Kuhn, Bot. Ost-Afrika 3(3): 11. 1879.   

Pteris aquilina L., Sp. Pl. 2 : 1075. 1753.

         Karnataka (Hassan, Kodagu, Chamarajanagar, Shimoga, Uttara Kannada),throughout India in mountainous regions; throughout except Arctic and temperate S America.

          Vernacular name/Common name: Common bracken, Eagle fern (English)

 

Diplaziopsidaceae

 

Diplaziopsis C. Chr.

 

Diplaziopsis javanica (Blume) C. Chr., Index Filic. fasc. 4: 227. 1905;P. K. Rajagopal & K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J.15:19.1998.

Asplenium javanicum Blume, Enum. Pl. Javae 2 :175. 1828.

Allantodia brunoniana Wall., Pl. Asiat. Rar. 1 : 44. 1830.

Allantodia javanica (Blume) Trev., Nuov. Giorn. Bot. Ital. 7 :159.1875.

Diplazium javanicum (Blume) Makino, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 2 : 85. 1906.

Athyrium javanicum (Blume) Copel., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 16 : 70. 1929.

Karnataka ( Uttara Kannada), Himalayas; Bhutan, China, Indonesia, Nepal, Sri Lanka.

 

Dryopteridaceae

 

Bolbitis Schott

 

Bolbitis  x lancea (Copel.) Ching in C. Chr., Ind. Fil. Suppl. 3 : 48. 1934; P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:21.1998

Campium lanceum Copel., Philip. J. Sc. 37: 380, t. 25, f. 32. 1928.

Bolbitis kanarensis Nayar & Chandra, Amer. Fern. J. 54 : 9, f.1-9. 1964.

Karnataka  (Uttara Kannada), Andhra Pradesh;endemic.

 

Bolbitis  x prolifera (Bory) C. Chr. Ex C. Chr. & Tard., Not. Syst. Paris 7: 102. 1938; P. K. Rajagopal  &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:22.1998.

Polybotrya prolifera Bory, Belanger Voy. Ind. Bot.  Or. B2: 18. 1833.

Karnataka  (Uttara Kannada).

 

Bolbitis semicordata (Baker) Ching in C. Chr., Index Filic., Suppl. Tertium pro Annis 1917-1933 50.1934.& Nat. Bot. Gard. Ind. Fil. Suppl. 3:  50. 1934; P. K. Rajagopal  &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:22.1998.

Acrostichum semicordatum Baker in Hook. & Baker Syn. Fil. 422, 1868, pro parte.

Poecilopteris repanda non (Blume) Presl. 1851;Bedd., Fems S. India 68, t. 202. 1864.

Poecilopteris semicordata Bedd., Fems Brit. India Pl. 270. 1868.

Gymnopteris semicordata J. Smith, Hist. Fil. 138. 1875.

Gymnopteris contaminans Bedd., Handb. Fems Brit. India 435, f. 264. 1883.

Bolbitis semicordata  var. incisa Nayar & Chandra, Amer. Fern J. 54 : 14, f. 10-15. 1964.

Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Dakshina Kannada, Hassan, Shimoga, Uttara Kannada), E

Himalayas, S India; Australia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka.

 

Bolbitis subcrenata (Hook. & Grev.) Ching in C. Chr. Ind. Fil. Suppl. 3: 50. 1934; P. K. Rajagopal  &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:22.1998.

Acrostichum subcrenatum Hook. & Grev., Icon. Fil. t. 110. 1829.

Gymnopteris subcrenata (Hook. & Grev.) Bedd., Handb. Fems Brit. India 437. 1883.

Karnataka  (Chikkamagalur, Dakshina Kannada, Hassan, Shimoga, Udupi,  Uttara Kannada), S India; Sri Lanka.

 

Arachniodes Blume

 

Arachniodes amabilis (Blume) Tindale, Contr. New South Wales Natl. Herb. 3(1): 90. 1961.

Aspidium amabile Blume, Enum. Pl. Javae. 2: 165. 1828

Polystichum amabile (Blume) J. Sm., Ferns Brit. For. 152.1866.

Dryopteris amabilis (Blume) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 812.1891.

Nephrodium amabile (Blume) Hand.-Mazz.,Symb. Sin. 6: 26.1929.

Rumohra amabilis (Blume) Ching,Sinensia 5(1-2): 41.1934.

Polystichopsis amabilis (Blume) Tagawa, J. Jap. Bot. 33(3): 94.1958.

Byrsopteris amabilis (Blume) C.V. Morton, Amer. Fern J. 50(1): 153.1960.

Karnataka (?), S India; China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lank, Taiwan.

 

Arachniodes aristata (G. Forst.) Tindale, Contr. New South Wales Natl. Herb. 3(1): 89 1961;P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:20.1998.

Polypodium aristatum G.  Forst., Prodr. 82. 1786.

Aspidium aristatum (G. Forst.) Sw. in Schrader, J. Bot.1800(2): 37.1801.

Polystichum aristatum (G. Forst.) C. Presl,Tent. Pterid. 83.1836.

Lastrea aristata (G. Forst.) T. Moore, Index Fil. 86.1858.

Dryopteris aristata (G. Forst.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 812.1891.

Polystichum lobatum var. aristatum (G. Forst.) C. Chr.,Index Filic. fasc. 10: 579, 583.1906.

Rumohra aristata (G. Forst.) Ching, Sinensia 5(1–2): 50.1934.

Byrsopteris aristata (G. Forst.) C.V. Morton, Amer. Fern J. 50(1): 152.1960.

Polystichopsis aristata (G. Forst.) Holttum, Rev.Fl. Malays 2: 486. 1966.

Karnataka (Chamarajanagara), S India; Australia, China, Polynesia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka.

 

Arachniodes  tripinnata (Goldm.) Sledge, in  Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Bot. 5: 41. 1973;P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:20.1998.

Polystichum tripinnatum Goldm., Nova Acta Leop., Suppl. 19(I): 463.1843.

Lastrea coniifolia auct. non T. Moore 1857; Bedd., Ferns  Brit.Indiat.261.1868, pro parte, non Aspidium coniifolium Wall. ex Mett.

Rumohra wallichii Ching, Sinensia 5(1–2): 56.1934.

Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Hassan, Shimoga), S India; Indonesis, Malaysia, Philippines.

 

Dryopteris Adans.

 

Dryopteris austro-indica Fraser-Jenk., Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Bot. 18(5): 370, f. 24. 1989;P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:20.1998.

Lastrea intermedia auct. non C. Presl, 1836; nec Dryopteris intermedia (Muhlenb. ex Willd.) A. Gray 1848; Bedd., Ferns S. India 39, Pl. 113. 1864, nom. illeg.,

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru), endemic??

 

Dryopteris cochleata ( D. Don) C. Chr., Index Filic. fasc. 5: 258.1905;P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:20.1998.

Nephrodium cochleatum D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 6. 1825.

Lastrea cochleata (D  Don)T.  Moore, Ind. Fil. 88. 1858.

Nephrodium filix-mas var. cochleatum (D. Don) Hook.,Sp. Fil. 4: 117.1862.

Lastrea filix-mas var. cochleata (D. Don) Bedd.,Suppl. Ferns Brit. Ind. 17, no. 33. 1876.

Aspidium filix-mas var. cochleatum (D. Don) Christ, Farnkr. Erde 257.1897.

Dryopteris filix-mas var. cochleata (D. Don) Alderw.,Malayan Ferns 193.1908.

Karnataka  (Chamarajanagara, Chikkamagaluru,  Hassan, Kodagu, Shimoga, Uttara Kannada), Himalayas; Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Indonesia,  Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Thailand.

 

Dryopteris deparioides (T. Moore) Kuntze subsp. gracillima (Ching) Fraser-Jenk., Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Bot. 18(5): 449, f. 63.1989; P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:20.1998.

Dryoptris  gracillima Ching, Bull. Fan. Meml. Inst. Biol. (Bot.) 8 : 452. 1938.

Dryopteris gracillima var.gracillima Sledge, Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Bot.) 5(1): 19.1973.

Nephrodium sparsum var. minus Thwaites ex Baker in Hook. & Baker, Syn. Fil. ed. 2 : 498.1872.

Lastrea sparsa var. minor (Thwaites ex Baker) Bedd., Suppl. Ferns S.India 17.1876.

Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru), S India; Sri Lanka.

 

Dryopteris hirtipes (Blume) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 813. 189; P. K. Rajagopal  &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:20.1998.

Aspidium hirtipes Blume, Enum. Pl. Javae fasc. 2: 148. 1828.

Lastrea hirtipes (Blume) T. Moore,Index Fil. 94.1858.

Nephrodium hirtipes (Blume) Hook., Sp. Fil. 4 : 115, t. 249. 1862.

Karnataka (Chamarajanagara), Himalayas, S India; E & SE Asia.

 

Dryopteris sparsa ( D. Don) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 813. 1891;P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:20.1998.

Nephrodium sparsum D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 6.1825.

Aspidium sparsum (D. Don) Spreng., Syst. Veg. 4(1): 106.1827.

Lastrea sparsa (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) T. Moore, Index Fil. 87. 1858.

Polystichum sparsum (D. Don) Keyserl.,Polyp. Herb. Bunge 43.1873.

Nephrodium sparsum var. latisquamum C.B. Clarke, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 1(8): 524.1880

Karnataka (Chamarajanagara, Chikkamagaluru, Shimoga), Himalayas; Bhutan, China, Indonesia, Japan, Myanmar, Nepal, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.

 

Egenolfia Schott

 

Egenolfia appendiculata (Willd.) J. Sm., Ferns Brit. For. 111. 1866

Acrostichum appendiculatum Willd., Sp. Pl.ed. 5: 114. 1810.

Polybotrya asplenifolia C.Presl,Tent. Pterid. 231.1836.

Polybotrya appendiculata (Willd.) J.Sm.in Hook., J. Bot.4: 150. 1841.

Bolbitis appendiculata (Willd.) K. Iwats., Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 18 : 48. 1959;P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:21.1998.

Bolbitis kanarensis Nayar & Chandra, Amer. Fern J. 54(1): 9.1964.

 

var. appendiculata

Karnataka  (Uttara Kannada), throughout India;China, Philippines.

 

var. asplenifolia (Bory) Sledge, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 84: 19. 1982;P. K. Rajagopal  &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:21.1998.

Acrostichum asplenifolium Bory, Bel. Voy. Bot. 2 : 21, t. 3. 1833.

Polybotrya asplenifolia (Bory) Presl., Tent. Pterid. 231. 1836.

Egenolfia asplenifolia (Bory) Fee, Gen. Fil. 358. 1852.

Polybotrya appendiculata var. asplenifolia (Bory) Bedd., Handb. Ferns Brit. India 424, t. 235. 1883.

Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Dakshina Kannada, Hassan, Shimoga), Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Sri Lanka.

 

Elaphoglossum  Schott

 

Elaphoglossum ciliatum (C. Presl) T. Moore, Index Fil. 8.1857

Olfersia ciliata C. Presl,Tent. Pterid. 234.1836.

Acrostichum preslianum Fee, Acrost. 46.1845.

Gymnopteris preslianum (Fee) Bedd., Handb. Ferns Brit. India 439.1883.

Bolbitis  x presiliana (Fee) Ching, in C. Chr., Ind. Fil. Suppl. 3: 49. 1934; P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:21.1998

Karnataka  (Shimoga, Uttara Kannada), S  India;endemic.

 

Elaphoglossum nilgiricum Krajina ex Sledge, Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Bot. 4: 94. 1967; P. K. Rajagopal  &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:22.1998.

Elaphoglossum  squamosum auct.non J. Sm.1841;Bedd., Fems S. India 67,1.197. 1864.

Karnataka  (Dakshina Kannada), S India;endemic.

 

Equisetaceae

 

Equisetum  L.

 

Equisetum ramosissimum subsp. debile (Roxb. ex Vaucher) Hauke, Amer. ern J. 52: 33. 1962; P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:6. 1998.

Equisetum debile Roxb. ex Vaucher,Mém. Soc. Phys. Genève 1: 387.1822.

 Hippochaete ramosissima subsp. debilis (Roxb. ex Vaucher) Á. Löve & D. Löve,Taxon 26(2–3): 324.1977.

Karnataka (Hassan, Mandya, Mysuru), Himalayas; Afghanistan, Africa, Bangladesh, Bhutan, C and SW Asia, China, Europe, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Russia, S Pacific islands, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam;,introduced in N America.

 

Gleicheniaceae

 

Dicranopteris Bernh.

 

Dicranopteris linearis (Burm. f.) Underw., Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 34(5): 250. 1907; P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:14.1998.

Polypodium lineare Burm. f„ Fl. Ind. 235, t. 67, f. 2. 1768.

Gleichenia dichotoma (Willd.) Bedd., Handb. Ferns Brit. India 74. 1864.

Gleichenia linearis (Burm. f.) C.B. Clarke,Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 1(7): 428.1880.

Mertensia linearis (Burm. f.) Fritsch, Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 1(11): 1092.1901

Karnataka (Bengaluru, Dakshina Kannada, Hassan, Mysore, Shimoga, Udupi, Uttara

Kannada), Arunachala Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Madhya Pradesh,Tamil Nadu; Paleotropical.

 Vernacular name/Common name:Old World forked fern (English)

                                                                       

Hymenophyllaceae

 

Cephalomanes Presl

 

Cephalomanes obscurum (Blume) K. Iwats., Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, Sect. 3, Bot. 13 (5): 547. 1985

Trichomanes obscurum Blume, Enum. Pl. Java 227. 1828; P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:13.1998.

Selenodesmium obscurum (Blume) Copel., Philip. J. Sci. 67 :81. 1938.

Trichomanes rigidum auct. non  Sw. 1788; Bedd., Ferns S. India t. 8. 1864.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru, Kodagu),S India; Polynesia,Sri Lanka, SE Asia,Taiwan.

 

Crepidomanes Presl

 

Crepidomanes intramarginale (Hook. & Grev.) Copel., Philipp. J. Sci. 67(1): 59. 1938; P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:13.1998.

Trichomanes intramarginale  Hook. & Grev., Icon. Fil. 2(11): t. 211.1831.

Karnataka (Dakshina Kannada, Hassan, Shimoga, Udupi, Uttara Kannada), SE Asia.

 

Crepidomanes latealatum (Bosch) Copel., Philipp. J. Sci. 67(1): 60. 1938

Didymoglossum latealatum Bosch,Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 5(2): 138.1861.

Didymoglossum racemulosum Bosch, Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 5(2): 137.1861

Didymoglossum plicatum  Bosch. Ned. Kruid. Arch. 5(3): 139. 1861.

Didymoglossum insigne Bosch, Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 5(2): 143.1861.

Trichomanes plicatum (Bosch) Bedd., Ferns Brit. India t. 284. 1868; P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:14. 1998.

Trichomanes bipunctatum var. latealatum (Bosch) C.B. Clarke,Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 1: 49.1880.

Trichomanes bipunctatum var. insigne (Bosch) Bedd., Handb. Ferns Brit. India 42.1883.

Trichomanes bipunctatum var. plicatum (Bosch) Bedd.,Handb. Ferns Brit. India 42.1883.

Trichomanes insigne (Bosch) Bedd.,Ferns Brit. India , t. 284. 1868

Trichomanes plicatum (Bosch) Bedd., Ferns Brit. India , t. 285. 1868

Trichomanes filicula auct. on (Bory ex Willd.) Bory, 1849;Bedd., Ferns Brit. India t. 283. 1868.

Trichomanes bipunctatum auct. non Poir. 1808; Bedd., Handb. Ferns Brit. India 41.1883. pro parte

Trichomanes latealatum (Bosch) Christ, Verh. Naturf. Ges. Basel 11: 424.1896.

Crepidomanes plicatum (Bosch) Ching, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 2: 171.1959.

Karnataka (Bengaluru, Chamarajanagara, Chikkamagaluru, Dakshina Kannada, Hassan, Kodagu, Shimoga) S & N India, Australia, Bhutan, China, Japan, Malesia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Vietnam.

 

Crepidomanes latemarginale (A.A.Eaton) Copel., Philipp. J. Sci. 67(1): 60. 1938

Trichomanes latemarginale A.A.Eaton , Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 4: 111. 1858;P.K.  Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:13.1998.

Trichomanes kurzii  Bedd, Ferns Brit. India t. 286. 1868.

Karnataka (Shimoga), Andaman & Nicobar  Islands, Assam, S India; China, Japan (Ryukyu Islands), Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.

 

Crepidomanes minutum (Blume) K. Iwats., J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, Sect. 3, Bot. 13 (5):  531. 1985; P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:13.1998.

   Trichomanes minutum Blume, Enum. Pl. Javae. Fasc. 2: 223. 1828.

Trichomanes  proliferum Blume, Enum. Pl. Jav. 224. 1828.

Trichomanes  subpinnatifidum Bosch, Ned. Kruid. Arch. 5 : 141. 1861.

Gonocormus diffusus (Blume)  Bosch, Hymen. Jav. 9. t. 4. 1861.

Gonocormus prolifer (Blume) Prantl, Hymenophyllac. 51.1875

Trichomanes pyxidiferum auct. non L. 1753; Bedd., Handb. Fems Brit. India 42. 1883 quoad sp.

Karnataka (Kodagu), NE & S India; Africa, Australia Bhutan, Cambodia, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Nepal, Pacific islands, Philippines, Russia (Siberia), Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam.

 

Didymoglossum Desv.

 

Didymoglossum henzaianum (Parish ex Hook.) Mazumdar, Phytotaxa 158(3): 297. 2014

Trichomanes henzaianum  Parish ex Hook.,  2nd Cent. Ferns Pl. 1. 1860; P.K. Rajagopal & 

K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:27.1998.

Microgonium henzaianum (Parish ex Hook.) Copel., Philip. J. Sci. 67 : 62. 1938.

Karnataka (Shimoga); Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam.

 

Hymenophyllum Sm.

 

Hymenophyllum exsertum Wall. ex Hook., Sp. Fil. 1: 109, t. 38 A 109. 1844; P.K.

Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:13.1998.

Hymenophyllum gardneri  Bosch, Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 4:  417. 1859.

Mecodium exsertum (Wall. ex Hook.) Copel. Philip. J. Sci. 67 (1) : 23. 1938.

Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Kodagu), throughout India in mountainous regions; Bhutan, Cambodia, China, Laos, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam.

 

Hymenophyllum polyanthos  Sw., J. Bot. 1800(2): 102. 1801; P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G.

Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:13.1998.

Trichomanes polyanthos Sw., Prod. Fl. Ind. Occ. 137.1788.

Hymenophyllum blumeanum Spreng, Syst. Veg. 4(1):131.1827.

Mecodium polyanthos (Sw.) Copel., Philip. J. Sci. 67: 19. 1938.

Hymenophyllum himalaianum Bosch,Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 5(2): 156.1861.

Hymenophyllum polyanthos var. minor Bedd.,Ferns Brit. India ,t. 306.1869

Karnataka (Uttara Kannada),throughoutt India in mountainous regions; throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world.

 

Trichomanes L.

 

Trichomanes exiguum (Bedd.) Baker in Hook. & Baker, Syn. Fil. ed. 2: 464.1874; P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:13.1998.

Hymenophyllum exiguum Bedd, Ferns Brit. India t. 275. 1868.

Didymoglossum exiguum (Bedd.) Copel., Philip. J. Sci. 67 (1) : 78.1938.

Karnataka (Kodagu),S India; Australia, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Thailand.

 

Hypodematiaceae

 

Leucostegia C. Presl

 

Leucostegia immersa Wall. ex C. Presl, Tent. Pterid. 95. 1836;P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:12. 1998

Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Hassan, Kodagu, Uttara Kannada), throughout India in mountainous regions; Bhutan, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, New Guinea, Pacific islands, Philippines, Thailand.

 

Isoetaceae

 

Calamaria Boehm.

 

Calamaria coromandelina (L. f.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 828. 1891.

Isoetes coromandelina L. f., Suppl. Pl. Syst. Veg. ed. 2 : 447. 1781; P.K.Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:5. 1998.

Isoetes capsularis Griff., Icon. Pl. Asiat. 2: t. 117. 1849 non Roxb. 1832.

Isoetes coromandelina  var.  raipurensis Unni, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 64:590.1967. 

Isoetes sahyadriensis Mahabale, Curr. Sci. 60: 62. 1938; P.K.Rajagopal & K. G. Bhat,

Indian Fern J. 15:6. 1998.

Isoetes sampathkumarnii L.N.Rao, Curr. Sci. 13:286.1944; P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:6. 1998.

Isoetes mahadevensis G.K. Srivast., D.D. Pant & P.K. Shukla, Amer. Fern J. 35: 85.1945.

Isoetes dixitei  Shende, J. Univ. Bombay 14: 50. 1945; P.K.Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:6. 1998.

Isoetes indica D.D.Pant & G.K.Srivast., Proc. Natl. Inst. Sci. India, B 28: 246. 1962; S.Patil, Hande, S.R.Yadav & M.Dongare, Indian Fern J. 30:78.2013.

Isoetes mirzapurensis Panigr. & Dixit, Proc. Natl. Inst. Sci. India, B 28: 246. 1962.

Isoetes panchananii Pant & Srivast., Proc. Natl. Inst. Sci. India, B 28:243. 1962.

Isoetes pantii Goswami & Arya, J. Indian Bot. Soc. 49: 30. 1971

Isoetes bilaspurensis Panigr., Biol. Mem. 6(2): 135. 1981

Isoetes coromandelina subsp.  brachyglossa (A.Braun) Panigr., Biol. Mem. 6(2): 131. 1981

Isoetes rajasthanensis Gena & Bhardwaja, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 81(1): 165. 1984

Isoetes reticulata Gena & Bhardwaja, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 81(1): 166. 1984

Isoetes tuberculata Gena & Bhardwaja, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 81(1): 167. 1984

Isoetes panchganiensis G.K.Srivast., D.D.Pant & P.K.Shukla, Amer. Fern J. 83(4): 107. 1993

Isoetes panchganiensis  var. kemangundiensis G.K.Srivast., D.D.Pant & P.K.Shukla, Amer. Fern J. 83(4): 108.1993.

Karnataka (Chamarajanagar, Chikkamagaluru, Hassan, Mandya , Shimoga, Tumakuru); Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarath,  Kerala,  Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Uttara Pradesh, West Bengal;Australia,Thailand, Vietnam.

 

Isoetes Reichenb.

 

Isoetes udupiensis P.K. Shukla, G.K. Srivast., S.K. Shukla & P.K. Rajagopal, Taxon 54 (1): 112. 2005.

Karnataka (Udupi); endemic.

Note: Probably a synonym of Calamaria coromandelina (L. f.) Kuntze

 

Lindsaeaceae

 

Lindsaea Dryand. ex Sm.

 

Lindsaea ensifolia Sw. in  Schrader,  J. Bot. 1800 (2): 77. 1801; P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:11. 1998.

Schizoloma ensifolium (Sw.) J. Sm., Hook., J. Bot. 3 :414. 1841.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru, Dakshina Kannada, Kodagu, Shimoga, Udupi, Uttara Kannada), throughout India; Africa, Australia, Bangladesh, China, Japan, Myanmar, Nepal, Pacific islands, Philippines, Sri Lanka, SW Asia, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.

 

Lindsaea heterophylla Dryand., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 3: 41, t. 8, f. 1. 41. 1797; P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:12. 1998.

Schizoloma heterophyllum (Dryand.) J.Sm., in Hook., J. Bot. 3: 414. 1841.

Schizolegnia savantwadiensis Almeida, J. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. 74 : 325. 1977.

Schizolegnia indica Almeida, J. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. 74 : 325. 1977.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru, Dakshina Kannada, Uttara Kannada),Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Maharashtra; Africa, China, Japan, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam.

 

Lindsaea malabarica (Bedd.) Baker ex Christ, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 26 : 195. 1931; P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:12. 1998.

Schizoloma malabaricum Bedd., Fems Brit. India t. 268. 1868.

Schizoloma  lobatum (Poir.) Bedd. van malabaricum (Bedd.) Bedd., Handb.Ferns Brit. India 79. t. 39. 1883.

Karnataka (?),Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu; endemic.

 

Lindsaea odorata Roxb. ex Griff., Calcutta J. Nat. Hist. 4:  511. 1844; P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:12. 1998.

Lindsaea  cultrata auct. multo 

Lindsaea lobbiana Hook., Sp. Fil. 1 : 205, t. 62. 1846.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru), E India; Africa, Madagascar, Reunion.

 

Lindsaea venusta Kaulf. ex Kuhn, Linnaea 36. 79. 1869; Rajagopal & P.K., Indian Fern J. 15:12. 1998.

Schizoloma  recurvatum auct. non (Wall. ex Hook.) T.Moore 1857; Bedd., Ferns S. India 9, t. 27. 1864.

Schizoloma  lobata sensu Bedd., Handb. Fern Br. India 79. 1839 pro parte.

Karnataka (Uttara Kannada), S India; Sri Lanka.

 

Sphenomeris Maxon

 

Sphenomeris chinensis (L.) Maxon, J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 3(5): 144. 1913; P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:102.1998.

Odontosoria chinensis (L.) J. Sm., Bot. Voy. Herald 430. 1857.

Trichomanes chinense L., Sp. Pl. 2 : 1099. 1753. 

Davallia tenuifolia (Lam.) Sw. in Schrader, J. Bot. 88. 1801.

Stenoloma chinense (L.) Bedd., Ferns Brit. India 70 : 1868.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru, Dakshina Kannada, Kodagu, Shimoga),throughout India from plains to hilly regions; E & SE Asia, Hawaii, Polynesia, Sri Lanka.

 

Lycopodiaceae

 

Huperzia Bernh.

 

Huperzia  hamiltonii  (Spreng.) Trevis., Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. 17: 248. 1874

Lycopodium hamiltonii Spreng., Syst. Veg. 5: 129, 428 1828; P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:4 1998.

Karnataka(Hassan, Kodagu, Mysore, Shimoga, Uttara Kannada); throughout India;Malaysia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka.

Vernacular names/Common names: Thai Fern, Club Moss (English). 

 

Huperzia niligarica (Spring ) R. D. Dixit, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 77(3): 541. 1980.

Lycopodium niligarica  Spring, Bull. Acad. Roy. Sci. Belgique 15(1): 58. 1843; P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:4 1998.

Karnataka (Chamarajanagar); Kerala, Tamil Nadu;endemic.

 

Huperzia squarrosa (G. Forst.) Trevis., Atti Soc. Crittog. Ital. 17: 247. 1875.

Lycopodium squarrosum G. Forst., Prodr. 86. 1786; P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:4 1998.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru, Dakshina Kannada, Hassan), Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Kerala, NE India, West Bengal; Australia, Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, Madagascar, Mauritius,Malysia, Myanmar, Mascarenes, Nepal, Philippines, Polynesia, Seychelles, Tahiti, Taiwan, Sri Lanka, Thailand.

Vernacular name/Common name: Tassel ferns (English)

 

Lycopodiella Holub

 

Lycopodiella cernua (L.) Pic.-Serm., Webbia 23(1): 166. 1968

Lycopodium cernuum L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1103.1753; P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:4. 1998.

Palhinhaea cernua ( L.) Franco & Vasc., Bot. Soc. Broter Ser. 2.41: 25.1967; Dixit, Lycopod. Ind. 90. 1988.

Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Dakshina Kannada, Hassan, Kodagu, Shimoga, Uttara Kannada), throughout India in mountainous regions; throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world.

Vernacular name/Common name: Staghorn clubmoss (English)

 

Phlegmariurus (Herter) Holub

 

Phlegmariurus phyllanthum (Hook. & Arn.)  R. D. Dixit, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 77(3): 541. 1980.

Lycopodium phyllanthum Hook. & Arn., Bot.Capt. Belg. Voy. 102. 1841; P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:4.1998.

Karnataka (Hassan, Kodagu, Mysore); Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bengal, Kerala, Manipur, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttara Pradesh, West Bengal; Arctic & alpine zones, throughout tropica and subtropics.

 

                                                                                              Lygodiaceae

                                                                                              Lygodium Sw.

 

Lygodium flexuosum (L.) Sw., J. Bot. 1800(2): 106. 1801; P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:7. 1998.

Ophioglossum flexuosum L., Sp. Pl. 1063. 1753.

Karnataka (Dakshina Kannada, Kodagu, Shimoga, Udupi, Uttara Kannada), throughout India from the plains to the moutainous regions; Australia, Bhutan, China,  Japan, Malaysia, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand.

 

Lygodium microphyllum (Cav.) R. Br., Prodr. FI. Nov. Holl. 162. 1810; P.K.Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:7. 1998.

Ugenia microphyllum Cav., Icon. Descr.  Pl. 6: 76. t. 595. 1801.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru, Hassan, Uttara Kannada), Assam, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, S India; Africa, Australia, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, N America, Nepal, Pacific Island, Philippines.

 

Marattiaceae

 

Angiopteris Hoffm.

 

Angiopteris evecta (G. Forst.) Hoffm., Commentat. Soc. Regiae Sci. Gott. 12: 29, t. 5, 29. 1794.

Polypodium evectum G. Forst. Fl. Ins. Austr. 81. 1786.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru, Hassan, Kodagu, Shimoga, Udupi, Uttara Kannada);throughout India in hilly regions; Australia, New Guinea, Pacific islands, Philippines;naturalized in Costa Rica, Hawaii, Jamaica.

 

Marsileaceae

 

Marsilea L.

 

Marsilea minuta L., Mant. 308. 1771;P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:25.1998.

Marsilea quadrifolia auct. non L. 1753; Bhaskar & Razi, Hydrophy. Marsh pl. Mysore City 72.1973.

Karnataka (Bengaluru, Chamarajanagara, Dakshina Kannada, Hassan, Mysuru, Tumakuru, Udupi), throughout India; Paleotropical; introduced in neotropics.

                                     

 

Nephrolepidaceae

 

Nephrolepis Schott

 

Nephrolepis auriculata (L.) Trimen, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 24: 152. 1887; P. K. Rajagopal  &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:12.1998

Polypodium auriculatum L., Sp. Pl. 1088.1753.

Nephrolepls cordifolla (L.) Presl, Tent. Pterid. 79. 1836.

Polypodium cordifolium L., Sp. Pl. 2 : 1089. 1753.

Nephrolepis  tuberosa Presl, Tent. Pterid. 79. 1836.

Karnataka  (Chamarajanagara, Dakshina Kannada, Hassan), throughout except in drier areas, also cultivated; Australia, throughout E, S & SE Asia; widely cultivated and introduced elsewhere

 

Nephrolepis multiflora (Roxb.) F.M. Jarrett ex C.V. Morton in  Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 38(7): 309. 1974; P. K. Rajagopal  &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:13.1998

Davallia multiflora Roxb., Calc.in  J. Nat. Hist. 4: 55, t. 31. 1844.

Nephrolepis exaltata auct. non (L.) Schott: Bedd., Ferns S. India t. 93. 1864.

Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Dakshina Kannada, Shimoga), S  India; Paleotropical; introduced elsewhere.

 

Oleandraceae

 

Oleandra Cav.

 

Oleandra musifolia (Blume) C. Presl, Abh. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss., ser. 56: 402. 1851; P. K. Rajagopal  &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:13.1998.

Aspidium musifolium Blume, Enum. Pl. Jav. 141. 1828.

Oleandra neriiformis auct. non Cav.1799; Bedd., Ferns South India 32, t. 91. 1863.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru, Hassan), S India; Bhutan, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pacific islands, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand.

 

Ophioglosssaceae

 

Botrychium Sw.

 

 

Botrychium daucifolium Wall. ex Hook. & Grev., Icon. Filic. 2 (9):  t. 161. 1830; P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:6.1998.

Botrychium subcarnosum    Wall. ex  Bedd., Ferns  S. India 23, f. 68. 1864.

Karnataka (Hassan, Kodagu), throughout mountainous regions of India up to 2400 m; Bhutan, China, Indonesia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Vietnam.

 

Botrychium lanuginosum Wall. ex Hook. & Grev., Icon. Filic. 1. T.79.1831 (9):  t. 161. 1830; P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:6.1998.

Botrychium  virginatum (L) Sw.var.languinosum  Bedd. Ferns of S. India 22. T. 67. 1864.   

Karnataka ( Chikkamagaluru, Mysore), throughout mountainous regions of India up to 2400 m; Bhutan, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.

 

Ophioglossum L.

 

Ophioglossum  costatum R. Br. Prod. Fl. Nov. Holl. 163. 1810; P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:6.1998.

Ophioglossum  fibrosum Schum., Beskr. Guin. Pl. 452. 1827.

Ophioglossum wightii Grev. & Hook.,Bot. Misc. 3: 218.1833.

Ophioglossum pedunculosum Desv., Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin Mag. Neuesten Entdeck. Gesammten Naturk. 5: 306. 1811.

Karnataka (Bijapur, Dakshina Kannada, Hassan, Udupi, Uttara Kannada);Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chattisgarh, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, NW to E  Himalayas; Africa, Australia, Madagascar, Sri Lanka, New Zeland.

 

Ophioglossum lusitanicum subsp. coriaceum (A. Cunn.) R.T. Clausen, Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 19(2): 161. 1938

Ophioglossum coriaceum A.Cunn., Comp.Bot. Mag. 2:361. 1836.

Ophioglossum gramineum Willd., Nov. Act. Acad. Erf. 2 : 18, t. 1, f. 1. 1802; P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:6.1998.

  Karnataka (Dakshina Kannada, Hassan, Mandya, Udupi), Madhya Pradesh, Uttara Pradesh, Tamil Nadu;Afghanistan eastwards to Europe.

 

Ophioglossum nudicaule  L. f., Suppl. Pl. 443. 1781; P.K. Rajagopal & K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:6.1998.

Ophioglossum parvifolium Grev. & Hook. in Hook., Bot. Misc. 3: 218.1833;Bedd., Ferns S. India 23. t. 71. 1863.

Karnataka (Hassan, Udupi, Uttara Kannada), throughout India;Pantropical

Vernacular names/Common names: Least Adderstongue, Slender Adder's-tongue (English)

 

Ophioglossum reticulatum  L., Sp. Pl. 2 : 1063. 1753; P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:7.1998.

Karnataka (Dakshina Kannada, Hassan, Kodagu, Udupi, Uttara Kannada), throughout India from the plains to mountainous regions; Pantropical.

 

Osmundaceae

 

Osmunda L.

 

Osmunda regalis  L., Sp. Pl. 1065. 1753; P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15: 7. 1998.

Struthiopteris regalis (L.) Bernh., Schrad. J. 1800(2): 126 1801.

Aphyllocalpa regalis (L.) Lag., D. García & Clemente, Anales Ci. Nat. 5(14): 165.1802.

Osmunda hugeliana  C. Presl, Suppl. Tent. Pterid. 64. 1845

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru, Hassan, Kodagu, Shimoga, Uttara Kannada), Assam, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu, Uttara Pradesh; Africa, Americas, Asia, Europe.

 

Polypodiaceae

 

Colysis C. Presl

 

Colysis  hemionitidea (Wall. ex C. Persl.) C. Presl., Epim. Bot.147. 1849; P. K. Rajagopal  &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:22.1998

Polypodium hemionitideum Wall., List. No. 284. 1828.

Polypodium hemionitideum (Wall. ex C. Presl) Mett., Abh. Senckenberg. Naturf. Ges. 1: 112.1856.

Pleopeltis hemionitidea Moore, Index Fil. 346. 1862.

Polypodium ensatosessilifrons Hayata,  Icon. Pl. Formosan. 5: 312, f. 126 A,B.1915.

Karanataka (Kodagu?); throughout India in mountainous regions; Bhutan, China, Japan, Malaysia, Nepal, Taiwan, Thailand.

 

Crypsinus C. Presl

 

Crypsinus montanus Sledge, Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Bot. 2(5): 145. 1960; P. K. Rajagopal  &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:23.1998

Pleopeltis oxyloba Bedd., Ferns S. India 59, t. 175.1864 pro parte, non Polypodium oxylobum Wall. ex Kuntze 1851.

Pleopeltis hastata Bedd., Handb. Ferns Brit. India 362. 1883 pro parte, non Polypodium hastatum Thunb. 1784.

Phymatopteris montana (Sledge) Pichi-Serm., Webbia 28: 463. 1973.

Karnataka (Chikkmagaluru, Kodagu, Shimoga), S India; Sri lanka.

 

Drymoglossum C. Presl

 

Drymoglossum heterophyllum (L.)Trimen, J. Linn. Soc. Bot.24: 152. 1887; P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:23.1998

Acrostichum heterophyllum L., Sp. Pl. 1067. 1753.

Drymoglossum piloselloides var. beddomei Bedd., Handb. Ferns Brit. India 413. 1883, nom . invalid.

Drymoglossum piloselloides auct. non C. Presl.1836; Bedd., Handb. Fems Brit. India 411.1883, pro parte  

Karnataka (Hassan), S India;tropical Asia.

 

Grammitis Sw.

 

Grammitis medialis (Baker) Ching, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol., Bot. 10(1): 15.1940; P. K. Rajagopal  &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:25. 1998

Polypodium mediale Baker, Syn. Pl. 507.1874. 

Polypodium parasiticum auct. non Mett.; Bedd., Handb. Ferns Brit. India 302. 1883.

Karnataka (Hassan), S  India; Sri Lanka.

 

Grammitis pilifera Ravi & J. Joseph, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 76(2): 348.1980; P. K. Rajagopal  &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:25. 1998

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru:Bababudan Hills); endemic.

 

Loxogramme (Blume) C. Presl

 

Loxogramme involuta (D. Don) Presl, Tent. Pterid. 215. 1836; P. K. Rajagopal  &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15: 24.1998

Grammitis involuta D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal 14. 1825.

Karnataka (Chamarajanagara, Chikkamagaluru, Uttara Kannada), throughout India up to 3000 m; China, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam.

 

Loxogramme  lanceolata  (Sw.) C. Presl, Tent. Pterid. 215, t. 8. 1836.

Grammitis lanceolata Sw.in Schrad., Journ. Bot. 1800, 2: 18.1801

Gymnogramma lanceolata (Sw.) Hook.,Sp. Fil. 5: 156.1864.

Loxogramme  parallela auct. non  Copel., 1905; P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:24.1998

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru), E India; Madagascar;  Mascarene Isands,  S. Africa, tropical Africa.

 

Drynaria  (Bory.) J. Sm.

 

Drynaria quercifolia (L.) J. Sm.in Hook., J.  Bot. 3: 398. 1841; P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:23. 1998

Polypodium quercifolium L., Sp. Pl. 1087. 1753.

Karnataka (Dakshina Kannada, Hassan, Mysore, Shimoga, Udupi, Uttara Kannada), throughout India; Australia, China, Malaysia, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Vietnam?.

 

Pyrrosia Mirbel

 

Pyrrosia lanceolata (L.) Farw., Amer. Midl. Naturalist 12(8): 245. 1931; P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:24.1998

Acrostichum lanceolalum L., Sp.Pl. 2 : 1067. 1753.

Polypodium adnascens Sw., Syn. Fil. 25. 1806.

Niphobolus adnascens (Sw.) Bedd., Ferns South India t. 184. 1864.

Pyrrosla adnascens (Sw.) Ching, Bull. Chin. Bot. Soc. 1 : 45. 1935.

Karnataka (Dakshina Kannada, Kodagu, Shimoga, Udupi), Himalayas; Africa, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Indian Ocean islands, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Polynesia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam.

 

Pyrrosia porosa (C.Presl) Hovenkamp, Blumea 30(1): 208. 1984; P. K. Rajagopal  &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:25.1998

Niphobolus porosus C. Presl, Tent. Pterid. 200. 1836.

Cyclophorus porosus (C. Presl) C. Presl, Abh. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss., ser. 5 6: 490.1851

Polypodium porosum (C. Presl) Mett., Abh. Senckenberg. Naturf. Ges. 1: 128.1856

Karnataka (Chamarajanagara, Chikkamagaluru, Hassan, Kodagu, Mysore, Tumkur); Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan,Thailand, Vietnam.

 

Lepisorus (J. Sm.) Ching

 

Lepisorus nudus (Hook.) Ching, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol. 4(3): 83. 1933; P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:23.1998

Pleopeltis nuda Hook., Exot. Fl. 1: 63. 1823.

P. linearis sensu Bedd., Handb. Ferns Brit. India 346. 1883 pro parte.

P. wightiana Bedd., Ferns S. India 60, t. 180. 1864 pro parte.

Karnataka (Chamarajanagara, Chikkamagaluru, Hassan, Kodagu, Shimoga, Uttara Kannada), throughout India in mountainous regions; Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand.

 

Leptochilus Kaulf.

 

Leptochilus axillaris (Cav.) Kaulf., Enum. Filic. 147, t.1, f. 10. 1824; P. K. Rajagopal  &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:23.1998.

Acrostichum axillare Cav., Ann. Hist. Nat. 1 : 101. 1799.

Gymnopteris variabilis var. axillaris (Cav.) Bedd., Ferns Brit. India t. 271.1868.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru), S India, Assam, W  Bengal; Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand.

 

Leptochilus decurrens Blume, Enum. Pl. Javae fasc. 2: 206. 1828; P. K. Rajagopal  &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:23.1998

Acrostichum variable Hook., Sp. Fil. 5 : 277. 1864.

Gymnopteris variabilis (Hook.) Bedd., Ferns Brit. India t. 272. 1868.

G. lanceolatus (Fee) Bedd., Fems Brit. India Suppl. 26.1876.

G. variabilis var. lanceolatus (Fee) Bedd., Handb. Ferns Brit. India 429. 1883.

Paraleptochilus decurrens (Blume) Copel., Gen. Fil. 198. 1947.

Karnataka (Chamarajanagar, Chikkamagaluru, Kodagu, Shimoga, Uttara Kannada); Bhutan, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pacific Island, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.

 

Microsorum Link

 

Microsorum membranaceum (D. Don) Ching, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol. 4(10): 309.1933.

Polypodium membranaceum D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 2.1825

Pleopeltis membranacea (D. Don) T. Moore ex Bedd., Ferns S. India 59, t. 177. 1864; P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:24.1998

Karnataka (Chamarajanagara, Chikkamagaluru, Hassan, Kodagu, Mysore, Shimoga, Uttara   Kannada), throughout India in mountainous regions; Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Taiwan Thailand, Vietnam.

 

Microsorum pteropus (Blume) Copel.,Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 16(2): 112.1929.

Kaulinia pteropus var. minor (Bedd.) B.K. Nayar & S. Kaur, Companion Beddome's Handb. Ferns Brit. India 87.1974.

Pleopeltis pteropus var. minor Bedd. Ferns S. India t. 179. 1864.

Microsorum pteropus (Blume) Copel. Forma  minor (Bedd.) Ching, Bull. Fan. Meml. Inst. Biol. 4: 312. 1933; P. K. Rajagop. &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:24.1998

Microsorum pteropus var. minor (Bedd.) C. Chr. & Tardieu, Notul. Syst. (Paris) 8(4): 194.1939

Karnataka (Kodagu), S & NE India; China, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam.

 

Microsorum punctatum (L.) Copel.,Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 16(2): 111. 1929; P. K. Rajagopal  &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:24. 1998.

Acrostichum punctatum L., Sp. Pl. 1524. 1753.

Polypodium punctatum Sw. in  Schrd. J. 1800. 2:21. 1801.

Pleopeltis punctata Bedd., Handb.Fems Brit.India 357, t. 201. 1883.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru, Hassan, Shimoga, Uttara Kannada), S & NE India; Africa, Australia, China, Indian Ocean islands, Indonesia, Madagascar, Malaysia, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, Pacific islands, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.

 

Pleopeltis Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.

 

Pleopeltis macrocarpa (Bory ex Willd.) Kaulf., Berlin. Jahrb. Pharm. Verbundenen Wiss. 21: 41 1820; P. K. Rajagopal  &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:24.1998.

Polypodium lanceolatum L., Sp. Pl. 2 : 1082. 1753.

Polypodium macrocarpum Bory ex Willd., Sp. Pl. ed. 4, 5 : 147. 1810.

Pleopeltis lanceolata Kaulf., Enum. Filic. 245.1824.

Phlebodium lanceolatum (L.) J. Sm. in J. Bot. 4: 59.1841.

Niphobolus lanceolatus (L.) Keyserl.,Polyp. Herb. Bunge 39.1873.

Pleopeltis lanceolata (L.) Bedd., Handb. Ferns Brit. India 351, t. 197. 1883.

Lepicystis lanceolata (L.) Diels in Nat. Pflanzenfam. 1(4): 323.1899.

Karnataka (Chamarajanagara), Maharashtra; Africa, China, Hawaii, Réunion, Madagascar, tropical America.

 

Psilotaceae

 

Psilotum Sw.

 

Psilotum nudum (L.) P. Beauv., Prodr. Aethéogam. 106, 112.1805; P.K. Rajagopal & K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:6. 1998.

Lycopodium  nudum L., Sp. Pl. 1100.1753. 

Psilotum triquetrum Sw. in Schrader J. Bot. 1800 (2) : 109. 1801.

Tristeca nuda (L.) P. Beauv. ex J. St.-Hil., Expos. Fam. Nat. 1: 39.1805.

Karnataka (Bangalore, Mysore, Uttara Kannada), throughout India in hilly regions; throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world.

 

Pteridaceae

 

Acrostichum L.

 

Acrostichum aureum L., Sp. Pl. 1069. 1753; P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:7. 1998.

Karnataka (Dakshina Kannada, Udupi, Uttara Kannada), throughout coastal areas of  India;Pantropical costal areas.

 

Actiniopteris Link

 

Actiniopteris radiata (Sw.) Link, Fil. Spec. 80. 1841;P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:8.1998.

Asplenium radiatum Sw., in  Schrud. J. Bot. 1800 (2): 50. 1801.

Actiniopteris dichotoma Kuhn, Bot. Zeit. 504. 1871.

Karnataka (Bangalore, Bellary, Bidar, Chitradurga, Hassan, Mandya, Mysore, Raichur), throughout India in drier regions;Afghanistan, Africa, ArabiaAustralia, Madagascar,  Myanmar,  IranNepalSri Lanka.

 

Adiantum L.

 

Adiantum aethiopicum L., Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2 : 1329. 1759;P. K. Rajagopal & K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:10.1998.

Karnataka (Uttara Kannada), Tamil Nadu ; Africa, Americas,Australia, New Zealand.[

Vernacular name/Common name: Common maidenhair fern (English).

 

Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1096.  1753;P. K. Rajagopal & K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:10.1998.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru, Hassan, Kodagu, Mysore), throughout  India in mountainous regions; Pan-tropical and temperate regions of the world.

 

Adiantum  hispidulum Sw.in Schrader J. Bot. 1800(2): 82. 1801; Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:10. 1998.

Adiantum  pubescens Schk., Krip. Grew. 1: 41 : 116. 1809.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru), Tamil Nadu; AfricaAustraliaMalesiaNew Zealand, Pacific Islands, Polynesia, Sri Lanka.

Vernacular names/Common names: Rough Maidenhair Fern, Five-fingered jack (English).

 

Adiantum incisum Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. 187. 1775; Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:10.1998.

Adiantum  caudatum auct. non L. 1771;Bedd., Ferns S. India t. 2. 1863.

Karnataka (Bidar, Chamarajanagar, Chikkamagaluru, Chitradurga, Hassan, Mysore,Tumkur), throughout India;  Africa, Yemen.

 

Adiantum latifolium Lam., Encyc. 1: 43. 1783;P. K. Rajagopal & K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:10.1998.

Karnataka (Dakshina Kannada); native to Neotropical areas, naturalised in the palaeotropics.

Vernacular name/Common name: Broadleaf maidenhair (English).

 

Adiantum lunulatum Burm. f.,  Fl. Ind.  235. 1768; Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:10.1998.

Adiantum  philippense L., Sp. Pl. 1094. 1753.

Karnataka (Bangalore, Chamarajanagar, Chikkamagaluru, Dakshina Kannada, Hassan, Mysore, Shimoga,Udupi, Uttara Kannada), Rajasthan, NE India; Africa, Asia, Madagascar.

Vernacular names/Common names: Black maidenhair, Walking maidenhair fern (English), Hamsapadhi (Sanskrit)  

 

Adiantum raddianum  C.  Presl, Tent. Pterid. 158.  1836;P. K. Rajagopal & K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:10.1998.

Karnataka (Chamarajanagar, Chikkamagaluru, Kodagu, Mysore, Shimoga), S  India; tropical and subtropical America, introduced elsewhere.

Vernacular name/Common name: Delta maidenhair fern (English).

 

Adiantum zollingeri Mett. ex Kuhn, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 4: 280. 1869;P.K. Rajagopal & K.G.Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:10.1998.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru), S  India, Himalayas; Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand.

 

Anogramma Link

 

Anogramma  leptophylla (L.) Link, Fil. Spec. 137. 1841;P.K.Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:9.1998.

Gymnogramma leptophylla Desv., Bed. Mag. 5 : 305. 1811.

Polypodium leptophyllum L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1092.1753.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru),Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Kerala, Maharashtra,Punjab,Tamil Nadu; Africa,  Australia, Brazil, Europe, Iran, Mediterranean, Mexico, New Zealand, Sri Lanka.

Vernacular name/Common name: Jersey fern (English).

 

Antrophyum Kaulf.

 

Antrophyum plantagineum (Cav.) Kaulf., Enum. Filic. 197. 1824;P. K. Rajagopal & K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:10.1998.

Hemionitis plantaginea Cav., Descr. 260. 1802.

AntrHYPERLINK "file:///S02.Antiophyum"ophyum reticulatum auct. non (G. Forst.) Kaulf. 1824;Bedd., Ferns S. India t. 52. 1864

Karnataka  (Chikkmagaluru, Hassan, Kodagu), Assam, Kerala, Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu; Australia, Indonesia, New Guinea, Polynesia, Philippines.

 

Ceratopteris Brongn.

 

Ceratopteris thalictroides (L.) Brongn., Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 8: 186. 1821; P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:9.1998.

Acrostichum thalictroides L., Sp. Pl. 2 : 1070. 1753.

Karnataka (Bijapur, Chitradurga, Dakshina Kannada, Hassan, Kodagu, Mysuru, Tumakuru, Udupi, Uttara Kannada), throughout India; Pantropical.

Vernacular name/Common name: Water Sprite  (English).

 

Cheilanthes Sw.

 

Cheilanthes albomarginata  C. B. Clarke, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 1(7): 456. 1880; P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15: 9.1998.

Cheilanthes  farinosa var. albomarginata (C.B.Clarke) Bedd., Handb. Fems Brit. India Suppl. 22. 1892.

Karnataka (Chamarajanagara), throughout India in hilly regions; Bhutan, China, Nepal.

 

Cheilanthes  farinosa (Forssk.) Kaulf., Enum. Filic. 212. 1824;P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:9.1998.

Pteris farinosa Forssk., Fl.Aegypt. Arab. 187. 1775.

Karnataka (Hassan, Kodagu, Shimoga), throughout India; Pantropical.

Vernacular names/Common names: Floury Cloak Fern, Lip fern (English).

 

Cheilanthes swartzii Webb & Berthel., Hist. Nat. Iles Canaries 3 (2). pars 3. 453.1847;P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:9.1998.

Cheilanthes  mysurensis Wall, ex Bedd., Ferns S. India,t. 190. 1864.                      

Karnataka (Bangalore ,Bellary, Hassan, Kolar, Mandya, Mysore, Tumkur), Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Orissa, Tamil Nadu; Myanmar, Sri Lanka.

 

Cheilanthes  tenuifolia (Burm.) Sw., Syn. Fil. 129, 332. 1806;P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:9.1998.

Cheilosoria tenuifolia (Burm. f.) Trevis., Atti dell' Istit. Veneto 5(3): 579. 1877.

Trichomanes tenuifolia Burm. f., Fl. Ind. 237. 1768.

Karnataka (Bangalore, Dakshina Kannada, Hassan, Shimoga, Udupi, Uttara Kannada),

throughout India; Australia, China?, Myanmar, Malaysia,Polynasia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan.

Doryopteris J. Sm.

 

Doryopteris concolor (Langsd. & Fisch.) Kuhn, Reisen Ost-Afrika 3(3): 19. 1879;P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:9.1998.

Pellaea concolor Langsd. & Fisch., Icon. Fil. 19, t. 21. 1810.

Pellaea geranifolia (Reddi) Fee, Mem. Fern Fough. 5 : 130. 1850-52.

Karnataka (Bangalore, Kodagu, Mysore), Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Africa, Australia, Caribbean Islands, C & S America, China, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mexico, Sri Lanka, Vietnam.

 

Hemionitis L.

 

Hemionitis arifolia ( Burm. f.) T. Moore., Index Fil. 114. 1859;P. K. Rajagopal & K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:9.1998.

Asplenium arifolium Burm., Fl. Ind. 231. 1768.

Hemionitis cordifolia Roxb. ex Bedd., Ferns S. India, t. 53. 1864.

Karnataka (Bangalore, Chamarajanagar, Chikkamagaluru, Dakshina Kannada, Hassan,

Kodagu, Mysore, Shimoga, Tumkur, Udupi), S India; Indo-China, SE Asia, Sri Lanka

Vernacular name/Common name: Heart Fern,Tongue fern (English) 

 

Pityrogramma Link

 

Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link, Handbuch 3: 20. 1833;P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:10.1998.

Acrostichum calomelanos L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1072. 1753.

Gymnogramma calomelanos (L.) Kaulf., Enum. Filic. 76.1824.

Pellaea calomelanos (L.) Link, Fil. 61. 1841.

Ceropteris calomelanos (L.) Link, Fil. Spec. 141.1841.

Pteris calomelanos (L.) Bedd., Ferns Brit. India, t. 22. 1883

Gymnogramma calomelanos var. aureoflava Hook.,Gard. Ferns t. 50.1862;P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:10.1998.

Neurogramma calomelanos (L.) Diels, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 1(4): 264.1899.

Ceratopteris calomelanos (L.) Underw., Bull. Torrey Bot. Club ??: 632.1929.

Pityrogramma calomelanos var. aureofiava (Hook) Weath. ex Bailey, Man. Cult. Pl. 64. 1926;P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:10.1998

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru, Dakshina Kannada, Hassan, Kodagu, Shimoga, Tumkur, Udupi, Uttara Kannada), throughout India; native to C & S America, cultivated and  naturalised in old world countries.

 

Pteris L.

 

Pteris argyraea T. Moore, Gard. Chron. 1859:  671. 1859;P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:7. 1998.

Pteris quadriaurita Retz. var. argenta Bedd., Handb. Ferns Br. India: 11. 1863.

Karnataka (Chamarajanagara, Chikkamagaluru, Hassan), Kerala,Tamil Nadu;endemic.

Vernacular name/Common name: Silver Brake fern (English).

 

Pteris aspericaulis Wall. ex J. Agardh, Recens. Spec. Pter. 22.1839;P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:8. 1998.

Pteris quadriaurita  var. aspericaulis (Wall. ex Agardh) Beddome, Handb. Fems Brit. India 111. 1883.

Karnataka (Kodagu), throughout India; Bhutan,  China, Nepal

 

Pteris arisanensis Tagawa, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 5: 102.1936.

Karnataka (), Kerala, Tamil Nadu; China, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam.

 

Pteris biaurita L. subsp. walkeriana Fraser-Jenk. & D. Rajkumar in Fraser-Jenkins , Taxon. Rev. Indian Subcont. Pterid. Rev. Cens. List: 115. 2008;V. K. Sreenivas, C. R. Fraser-Jenk. & P. V. Madhus., Indian Fern J. 30: 276. 2013.

Pteris biaurita auct. non L.,1753;P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:8. 1998.

Campteria biaurita (L.) Hook., Gen. Fil. t. 65A. 1841.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru,  Kodagu, Shimoga, Uttara Kannada), Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu.

 

Pteris blumeana J. Agardh, Recens.Spec. Gen. Pterid. : 22. 1839;V. K. Sreenivas, C. R. Fraser-Jenk. & P. V. Madhus., Indian Fern J. 30: 278. 2013.

Karnataka (Kodagu), Kerala, Tamil Nadu; SE Asia.

 

Pteris confusa T. G. Walker, Kew Bull. 14 : 329. 1960;V. K. Sreenivas, C. R. Fraser-Jenk. & P. V. Madhus., Indian Fern J. 30: 279. 2013.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru, Kodagu), Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Sri Lanka.

 

Pteris ensiformis Burm.f.  cv. victoriae Baker, Gard. Chron. Ser. 37:  756. 1890;V. K. Sreenivas, C. R. Fraser-Jenk. & P. V. Madhus., Indian Fern J. 30: 279. 2013.

Karnataka (cultivated as ornamental in Bengaluru, Mysuru), Kerala;Indonesia, Malaysia.

 

Pteris heteromorpha Fee, Mem. Fam. Foug. 5. Gen. Fil.: 127. 1852; V. K. Sreenivas, C. R. Fraser-Jenk. & P. V. Madhus., Indian Fern J. 30: 283. 2013.

Pteris propinqua J.Sm., J. Bot. 3: 405. 1841, non J.Agardh. 1839.

Pteris cretica var. heteromorpha ( Fee) Bedd., Handb. Ferns. Brit. India: 106. 1883.

Pteris almeidiana Bole & Almeida, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 74: 320. 1977.

Karnataka (Kodagu), C, S to NE India; Sri Lanka.

 

Pteris linearis Poir., Encycl. 5(1): 723.1804;P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:8. 1998.

Pteris nemoralis Willd., Enum. Pl. 2: 1073. 1809

Pteris normalis D. Don,Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 15.1825.

Campteria nemoralis J. Sm., Bot. Mag. 72: 23.1846.

Pteris hildebrandtii Hieron., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 3: 407.1915.

Pteris glabra Merr.,Lingnan Sci. J. 5: 16.1927.

Karnataka (Uttara Kannada), Himalayas; E Africa, tropical Asia.

 

Pteris longipes D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 15. 1825;P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:8. 1998.

Hypolepis pteridioides Hook., Sec. Cent. Ferns 39,t.39.1861.

Pteris brevisora Baker, Syn. Fil. 162.1867.

 Pteris pellucens J. Agardh, Recens. Spec. Pter. 43.1839

Pteris zollingeri Mett. ex Miq.,Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 4(4): 97.1869.

Karnataka (Shimoga), S India, E Himalaya;Bhutan, China, Indonesia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.

 

Pteris otaria Bedd., Ferns S. India: 13, t. 41. 1863; V. K. Sreenivas, C. R. Fraser-Jenk. & P. V. Madhus., Indian Fern J. 30: 287. 2013.

Pteris quadriaurita forma ludens Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl.: 386. 1864.

Pteris quadriaurita var. ludens (Thwaites) Bedd., Handb. Ferns. Brit. India: 111.1883.

Karnataka (), Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Sri Lanka.

 

Pteris sp. near  pellucens J. Agardh, Recens.Spec. Gen. Pter.: 43. 1839; V. K. Sreenivas, C. R. Fraser-Jenk. & P. V. Madhus., Indian Fern J. 30: 289. 2013.

Karnataka (?), Kerala, Tamil Nadu; endemic?

 

Pteris pellucida C. Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1 : 55. 1825;P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:8.1998.

?Pteris venusta Kunze, Bot. Zeit. 1848: 195. 1848.

Karnataka (Chamarajanagara, Chikkamagaluru, Dakshina Kannada, Kodagu, Shimoga, Uttara Kannada), throughout India; Bangladesh, Malaysia, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea. Philippines.

 

Pteris praetermissa T. G. Walker, Kew Bull. 14: 327. 1960; V. K. Sreenivas, C. R. Fraser-Jenk. & P. V. Madhus., Indian Fern J. 30: 295. 2013.

Pteris furunculata N.C.Nair & S.R.Ghosh, J. Indian Bot. Soc. 55: 38.1976.

Pteris manickamii D.Rajkumar, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 102: 313. 2005.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluruu, Kodagu), Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Sri Lanka.

 

Pteris quadriaurita Retz.,Observ. Bot. 6: 38.1791;P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:8. 1998.

Karnataka (Chamarajanagara, Chikkamagaluru, Dakshina Kannada, Hassan, Kodagu, Shimoga, Udupi, Tumkur, Uttara Kannada), Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Pantropical.

 

Pteris scabripes Wall. ex Agardh,  Recens. Spec. Gen.  Pterid.: 11. 1839; P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:8.1998.

 Pteris  silentvalliensis S. R. Ghosh  & R. K., Ghosh, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. 79 : 385. 1982.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru), Kerala, Tamil Nadu; Malaysia, Thailand.

 

Pteris semipinnata L., Sp. Pl. 1076.1753;P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:8. 1998.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru, Uttara Kannada); throughout India in hilly regions;Bhutan, China, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam

 

Pteris vittata L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1074. 1753;P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:8. 1998.

Pteris linearis Roxb. in Griff., Calcutta J. Nat. Hist. 4: 505. 1844, non Poir. 1804.

Karnataka (Dakshina Kannada, Kodagu, Mysore, Shimoga, Udupi, Uttara Kannada), Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu;throughout tropics and subtropics.

 

Vittaria Sm.

 

Vittaria elongata Sw., Syn. Fil. 109. 302. 1806;P. K. Rajagopal & K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:11.1998.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru, Dakshina Kannada, Hassan, Shimoga, Udupi, Uttara Kannada).

throughout India in mountainous regions; Africa, Autralia, Indo-China, S & SE Asia.

 

Salviniaceae

 

Azolla Lam.

 

Azolla pinnata subsp. africana (Desv.) R.M.K. Saunders & K. Fowler, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 109: 351, f. 30A. 1992; P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:25. 1998.

       Azolla pinnata R. Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 167.1810.

Azolla africana Desv., Mem.Soc. Linn.Paris 6(2):178.1827.

Azolla pinnata var. africana (Desv.) Baker, Handb. Fern-Allies 138.1887.

 Karnataka (Dakshina Kannada, Dharwad, Hassan,  Kodagu, Kolar,  Mandya, Mysuru, Udupi), throughout India; Paleotropical.

Vernacular  names/Common names: Feathered mosquito fern, Ferny azolla, Water velvet (English).

 

Salvinia Seg.

 

Salvinia adnata Desv., Mém. Soc. Linn. Paris 6: 177.  1827; P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:25. 1998.

Salvinia molesta  D. S. Mitch., Brit. Fern. Gaz. 10 : 251. 1972.

Karnataka (Bengaluru, Dakshina Kannada, Kolar, Mysore, Udupi), throughout tropical ares of India; native to Brazil; Pantropical water weed.

Vernacaulr names/Common names: African pyle, Aquarium water moss, Aquarium water-moss, Giant salvinia, Giant water fern, Kariba weed, Kariba-weed, karibaweed, Salvinia, Water fern African payal (English).

 

Salvinia natans (L.) All., Fl. Pedem. 2: 289.1785; Bhaskar & Razi, Hydrophy. Marsh Pl. Mysore City .1973.

Karnataka (Mysuru), throughout India; SE India, warmer parts of Europe.

 

Schizaeaceae

 

Schizaea Sm.

 

Schizaea digitata (L.) Sw., Syn. Fil. 150, t. 4. 1806; P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:7. 1998.

Acrostichum digitatum L., Sp. Pl. 2 : 1068. 1753.

Karnataka (Dakshina Kannada), Peninsular to N and NE India;Paleotropical.

 

 

Selaginellaceae

 

Selaginella P. Beauv.

 

Selaginella ciliaris (Retz.) Spring, Bull. Acad. Roy. Sci. Bruxelles 10(1): 231, no. 136. 1843; P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:5. 1998.

Lycopodium ciliare Retz., Obs. Bot. 5: 32. 1789

Karnataka (Dakshina Kannada, Hassan, Mysuru, Shimoga, Udupi), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Assam, Bihar,  Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Orissa, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu,  Tripura, West Bengal; Australia,China, Indonesia, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.

 

Selaginella delicatula (Desv. ex Poir.) Alston,  J. Bot. 70 (838): 282. 1932; P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:5. 1998.

Lycopodium delicatulum Desv. ex Poir. in  Lam., Encycl. Suppl. 5:  554. 1814.

Karnataka (Dakshina Kannada, Hassan, Shimoga, Udupi, Uttara Kannada), Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Assam,  Goa, Kerala, Maharashtra, Sikkim, Tripura, Tamil Nadu; Bhutan, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Vietnam.

 

Selaginella miniatospora (Dalz.) Baker, J. Bot.23: 249. 1885; P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:5.1998.

Lycopodium miniatosporum Dalz. in Hook., J. Bot. 4: 114. 1852.

Karnataka (Dakshina Kannada, Hassan, Shimoga, Uttara Kannada), Maharastra, Goa; endemic.

 

Selaginella plana (Desv. ex Poir.) Hieron. in  Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 1(4): 703. 1901; P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:5. 1998.

Lycopodium planum Desv. ex Poir. in Lam., Encyl. Suppl. 3: 554. 1814.

Karnataka (Chamarajanagar, Dakshina Kannada, Udupi),West Bengal; tropical Asia, introduced elsewhere.

 Vernacular name/Common name: Asian Spikemoss (English).

 

Selaginella proniflora (Lam.) Baker, J. Bot. 22: 156. 1885; P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:5.1998.

Lycopodium  proniflorum Lam., Encycl. 3: 652. 1789.

Selaginella dalzellii Baker, J. Bot. 23: 249. 1885.

Karnataka (Dakshina Kannada,Hassan, Uttara Kannada),Maharashtra.

 

Selaginella radicata (Hook. & Grev.) Spring, Mem. Acad. Sci. Bel. 24 (2): 114. 1850; P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:5.1998.

Lycopodium radicatum Hook. & Grev. in Hook., Bot. Misc. 2 : 397.1831.

Karnataka (Hassan), Arunachal Pradesh,Tamil Nadu; endemic.

 

Selaginella repanda (Desv. ex Poir.) Spring in Voy. Bonite Bot. 1: 329. 1844; P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:5.1998.

Lycopodium repandum Desv. ex Poir.in Lam., Encycl. Suppl. 3: 558. 1814.

Karnataka  (Mysore), Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Uttara Pradesh, Tamil Nadu; Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam

 

Selaginella tenera (Hook. & Grev.) Spring, Bull.Ac.Brux.10 (144): 232 .1843;P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:5. 1998.

Lycopodium tenerum Hook. & Grev.in Hook., Bot. Misc. 2 (181) : 400.1831.

Herb,Evergreen forests of Western Ghats as a forest undergrowth.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru, Dakshina Kannada, Hassan, Kodagu, Shimoga,Udupi, Uttara Kannada), Kerala, Tamil Nadu;endemic.

 

Selaginella wightii Hieron., Hedw. 39: 319. 1900; P.K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:5. 1998.

Lycopodium bryopteris Wall., Cat. No. 2188. 1829, non Linn..

Karnataka (Hassan, Mandya, Tumkur),Tamil Nadu;Africa, Sri Lanka.

 

Tectariaceae

 

Tectaria Cav.

                

Tectaria coadunata (J. Sm.) C. Chr., Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 331. 193; P. K. Rajagopal  & K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:21.1998

Aspidium coadunatum Wall. ex Hook. & Grev., Icon Fil. 2 : t. 202. 1831, non Kaulf. 1824.

Sagenia coadunata J. Smith, in Hook. J. Bot. 4 : 184. 1841.

Sagenia macrodonta Fee, Gen. Fil. 313. t. 24A, fig. 1. 1852.

Aspidium cicutarium sensu Hook., Sp. Fil. 4 : 48. 1862, pro parte.non Polypodium cicutarium L.

Sagenia variolosa sensu Bedd., Fems Brit. India t. 170.1866, non Tectaria variolosa (Wall. ex Hook.) C. Chr.

Tectarla macrodonta (Fee) C. Chr. Index Fil. Suppl. 3 : 181. 1934.

Karnataka  (Chamarajanagar, Chikkamagaluru, Dakshina Kannada, Hassan, Kodagu, Shimoga, Uttara Kannada), S & NE India;Bhutan, China, Laos, Madagascar, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, tropial Africa, Vietnam.

 

Tectaria polymorpha (Wall. ex Hook.) Copel., Philipp. J. Sci. 2(6): 413. 1907; P. K. Rajagopal  & K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:21.1998

Aspidium polymorphum Wall. ex Hook., Sp. Fil. 4: 54. 1862.

Karnataka  (Chikkamagaluru, Dakshina Kannada, Hassan, Kodagu, Shimoga, Uttara Kannada), S  India, NW Himalaya; Bhutan, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.

 

Thelypteridaceae

 

Ampelopteris  Kunze

 

Ampelopteris prolifera (Retz.) Copel., Gen. Fil. 144.  1947;P. K. Rajagopal & K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:14.1998.

Hemionitis prolifera Retz., Obs. Bot. 6:31. 1791.

Goniopteris prolifera (Retz.) C. Presl, Tent. Pterid. 183. 1836.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru, Hassan, Mandya, Mysuru, Uttara Kannada), throughout India; throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world.

 

Amphineuron  Holttum

 

Amphineuron opulentum (Kaulf.) Holttum, Blumea 19(1): 45. 1971;P. K. Rajagopal & K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:15.1998.

Aspidium opulentum Kaulf., Enum. Fil. Chamisso 238. 1824.

Aspidium  extensum Blume, Enum. Pl. Jav. 156. 1828.

Nephrodium externum (Blume) Moore, Index Fil. 91. 1858.

Nephrodium punctatum Parish ex Bedd., Fems Brit. India t. 131. 1866.

Dryopteris extensa (Blume) Kuntz., Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 : 812. 1891.

Cyclosorus extensus (Blume) Ching in Bull. Fan.meml. Inst. Biol. (Bot.) 8 : 182. 1938.

Thelypteris extensa (Blume) Morton, Am. Fern. J. 49 : 113. 1959.

Karnataka (Uttara Kannada), S  & NE India; Australia, Indian ocean Islands, Myanmar, Polynesia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, tropical America.

 

Christella  Lev.

                                                                                              

Christella dentata (Forssk.) Brownsey & Jermy, Brit. Fern Gaz. 10(6): 338. 1973;P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:15.1998.

Cyclosorus dentatus (Forssk.) Ching,  Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol., Bot. 8(4): 206. 1938.

Polypodium dentatum Forssk., Fl.Aegypt. Arab. 185. 1773.

Nephrodium molle sensu Hook., Sp. Fil. 4: 67. 1862, pro parte, non Polypodium molle Jacq.

Karnataka (Dakshina Kannada, Hassan, Mysore, Shimoga, Udupi, Uttara Kannada), throughout  India;Pantropical.

 

Christella hispidula (Decne.) Holttum, Kew Bull. 31(2): 312. 1976;P. K. Rajagopal & K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:15.1998.

Aspidium hispidulum Decne., Nouv. Ann. Mus. Hist.Nat. Paris 3:  346. 1834.

Nephrodium quadrangulare Fee, Gen. Fil. 308. 1852.

Dryopteris contigua Rosenst., MededRijks.31: 8. 1917.

Cyclosorus contiguus(Rosenst.) Ching, Bull. Fan. Mem. Inst.BioI. (Bot.) 10 :243. 1941.

Christella quadrangularis (Fee) Holttum in Nayar & Kaur, Comp. Bedd. Handb. 207. 1974. Nephrodium molle sensu Bedd.,Handb. Ferns. Brit. India 277. 1883, pro parte, non Aspidium molle Sw.

Karnataka (Kodagu, Shimoga, Udupi, Uttara Kannada), S India Meghalaya;Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, tropical America. Seychelles, tropical Asia, tropical S. America.

 

Christella meeboldii (Rosenst.) Holttum in Nayar & Kaur, Comp. Bedd. Handb. 208. 1974 ; P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:15.1998.

Dryopteris meeboldii Rosenst., Reprium Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 12 : 247. 1913.

Cyclosorus meeboldii (Rosenst.) Ching, Bull. Fan. Meml. Inst. Biol. (Bot.) 8:210. 1938.

Thelypteris meeboldii C. F. Reed, Phytologia 17 : 291. 1968.

Christella malabariensis (Fee) Holttum, Kew Bull. 31: 317.1976. pro parte.

Karnataka (Hassan, Mandya), S to NE India; Sri Lanka.

 

Christella papilio (Hope) Holttum in Nayar & Kaur, Comp. Bedd. Handb. 208. 1974;P. K. Rajagopal & K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:15.1998.

Nephrodium papilio Hope, J.Bombay  Nat. Hist, Soc. 12 : 625. 1899.

Nephrodium  molle var. major Bedd., Handb., Fems. Brit. India Suppl. 76. 1892,  pro parte.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru, Shimoga, Uttara Kannada), S to NE India; Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand.

 

Christella parasitica (L.) Lev., Fl. Kouy-Tcheou 475. 1915;P. K. Rajagopal & K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:15. 1998.

Polypodium parasiticum L., Sp. Pl. 2 : 1090. 1753.

Nephrodium didymosorum Parish ex Bedd., Ferns Brit. India t. 200. 1868.

Nephrodium  molle var. didymosorum (Parish ex Bedd.) Bedd., Handb. Ferns Brit. India 279. 1883. Cyclosorus didymosorus (Parish ex Bedd.) Nayar & Kaur, Comp. Bedd. Handb. 208. 1974. Dryopteris parasitica C. Chr., Ark. Bot. 9 : 26, f. 4. 1910.

Karnataka (Bangalore, Chamarajanagara, Chikkamagaluru, Dakshina Kannada, Dharwad, Hassan, Mandya, Shimoga, Udupi, Uttara Kannada), S to NE India; Australia, Polynesia, tropical Africa,tropical & subtropical Asia.

 

Cyclosorus Link

 

Cyclosorus interruptus (Willd.) H.Ito, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 51(608): 714. 1937;P. K. Rajagopal & K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:16.1998.

Pteris interrupta Willd., Phytographia 13, t. 10, fig. 1. 1794.

Nephrodium propingum R. Br., Prod. Fl. Nov. Holl. 148. 1810.

Karnataka (Chitradurga, Uttara Kannada), throughout  India;throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world

Vernacular name/Common name: Swamp shield-fern(English).

 

Cyclosorus terminans (J. Sm. ex Hook.) K.H. Shing, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 4(1): 220 1999;P. K. Rajagopal & K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:15.1998.

 Amphineuron terminans (J.Sm. ex Hook.) Holttum, Am. Fern J. 63 : 83. 1973.

Nephrodium terminans J.Sm. ex Hook., Sp. Fil. 4: 73. 1862.

Nephrodium  pteroides sensu Bedd. J. Sm. Cat. Cult. Fems 54. 1857, non Polypodium pteroides Retz.

Cyclosorus interruptus sensu Ching, Bull. Fan. Meml. Inst. Bot. 8 : 184. 1938, non Pteris interrupta Willd.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru, Hassan, Mysore, Mandya,Tumkur, Uttara Kannada), S India; Africa, Australia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Malesia, Myanmar, Pacific islands, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.

 

Macothelypteris (H. Ito) Ching

 

Macrothelypteris ornata (Wall. ex Bedd.) Ching,  Acta Phytotax. Sin. 8(4): 309. 1963; P. K. Rajagopal & K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:16.1998.

Polypodium ornatum Wall. ex Bedd., Ferns S. India 56,1.171.1864.

Phegopteris ornata J. Smith, Hist. Fil. 33.1875.

Thelypteris ornata Ching, Bull. Fan. Meml. Inst. Biol. 6 : 346. 1936.

Karnataka (Hassan), S  & NE India; Bhutan, China, Nepal, Thailand.

 

Macrothelypteris torresiana (Gaudich.) Ching, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 8(4): 310 1963;P. K. Rajagopal & K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:16. 1998.

Polystichum torresianum Gaudich., Freyc.Voy. Bot. 333.1828.

Lastrea torresianum (Hook.) Moore, India Fil. 99.1858.

Nephrodium tenericaule (Hook.) Hook.,Sp. Fil. 4 : 142, excl. t. 269. 1862 pro parte.

Lastrea setigera auct. non Moore,1858;Bedd., Ferns Brit. India corr. 1. 1870,

Karnataka (Hassan , Kodagu, Shimoga), S India, Himalayas; Australia, Bhutan, China, Indonesia, Japan, Myanmar, Nepal, Pacific islands Philippines, tropical & subtropical regions of America, Vietnam.

 

Parathelypteris (H. Ito) Ching

 

Parathelypteris beddomei (Baker) Ching, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 8(4): 302. 1963; P. K. Rajagopal & K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:16.1998.

Nephrodium beddomeii Baker in Hook. & Baker, Syn. Fil. 267. 1867.

Lastrea beddomei (Baker) Bedd., Ferns Brit. India corr. (Suppl. 6)11. 1870.

Thelypteris beddomei (Baker) Ching, Bull. Fan. Meml. Inst. Biol. (Bot.) 6 : 308. 1936.

Lastrea gracilescens sensu Bedd., Ferns S. India 38,1.110. 1864 non Aspidium gracilescens Blume.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru), S India;China,  Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan.

 

Pneumatopteris Nakai

 

Pneumatopteris truncata (Poir.) Holttum, Blumea 21(2): 314. 1973;P. K. Rajagopal &  Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:16. 1998.

Polypodium truncatum Poir. in Lam.,  Encyl. 5: 534.1804.

Nephrodium truncatum sensu Bedd., Handb. Ferns Brit. India 280. 1883.

Cyclosorus truncatus (Poir.) Fauo., Amer. Natu. 12: 250. 1931.

Karnataka (Uttara Kannada), S to NE India; China, Indo-China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka.

Vernacular name/Common name: Christmas Island Fern (English)

 

Pronephrium Presl

 

Pronephrium  articulatum (Houlston &T. Moore) Holttum, Blumea 20(1): 116. 1972; P. K. Rajagopal & K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:16.1998.

Nephrodium articulatum Houlston & T.Moore, Gard. Mag. Bot. 293. 1857.

Nephrodium  abruptum sensu Bedd., Ferns S. India 31, t. 86. 1863 non Aspidium abruptum Blume.

Nephrodium pennigerum sensu Bedd., Handb. Ferns Brit. India 277. 1883 pro parte.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru), S to NE India; Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand

 

Pseudocyclosorus Ching

 

Pseudocyclosorus ochthodes (Kunze) Holltum in Nayar & Kaur, Comp. Bedd., Hand. 204. 1974;P. K. Rajagopal  &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:17.1998

Aspidium octhodes Kunze, Linnaea 24: 282. 1851.

Lastrea octhodes (Kunze) Moore, Index  Fil. 98. 1858.

Nephrodium octhodes (Kunze) Hook. Sp. Fil. 4: 109. 1862. pro parte excl. syn. Aspidium tylodes Kunze

Thelypteris octhodes (Kunze) Ching,  Bull.Fan Mem.Biol.(Bot) 6: 300. 1938.

Nephrodium prolixum Baker, Syn. Fil. 268. 1867  pro parte,C. B. Clarke, Trans.Linn.Soc. London Bot. 1:516.1880. pro parte.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru, Dakshina Kannada, Hassan, Kodagu, Shimoga), Kerala, Tami Nadu; China?, Indo-China, Malaysia, Sri Lanka.

 

Thelypteris Schmid.

 

Thelypteris  xylodes (Kunze) Ching, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol., Bot. 6(5): 296. 1936; Rajkumar, Ind. J. For. 27 (3): 245. 2004.

Pseudocyclosorus  tylodes (Kunze) Ching, Acta Phytotax.Sin.8:324. 1963.

Aspidum xylodes Kunze, Linnaea 24: 281. 1851.   

Lastrea xylodes( Kunze) T. Moore, Index Fil. 107. 1858.

Nephrodium  prolixum  var. tylodes (Kunze) Baker, Syn. Syn. Fil. 268. 1867.

Lastrea octhodes var. tylodes (Kunze) Bedd., Ferns S. India 37, t.107.1873.

Nephrodium prolixum sensu C. B. Clarke, Trans. Linn. Soc. London , Bot. 1: 516. 1880, pro parte

Nephrodium tylodes (Kunze) Hope, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 14: 724. 1903.

Thelypteris  tylodes(Kunze) Ching, Bull. Fan  Mem. Inst. Biol. (Bot) 6: 286. 1936.

Pseudocyclosorus tuberculifer  (C.Chr.)  Ching,  Acta Phytox. Sin. 8: 324. 1963.

Cyclosorus tylodes (Kunze) Panigrahi, Res. J. Pl. Environ. 9: 67. 1993.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru,  Dakshina Kannada, Hassan, Kodagu, Shimoga), S Indiia, Himalayas; China, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam.

 

Trigonospora Holttum

 

Trigonospora caudipinna (Ching) Sledge, Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Bot. 8 (1) : 15. 1981; P. K. Rajagopal  &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:17. 1998

Thelypteris caudipinna Ching, Bull. Fan. Meml. Inst. Biol. (Bot.) 6 : 288. 1936.

Lastrea faciloba Bedd., Ferns S. India 37, t. 105. 1863 non Nephrodium facilobum Hook.

Lastrea bergiana sensu Bedd., Ferns S. India & Brit. India Suppl. 16, t. 370. 1876 non Polypodium bergianum Schlechter.

Trigonospora obtusiloba Sledge, Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Bot. 8(1): 18. 1981; Rajkumar,  Ind. J. For. 27(3): 249. 2004Lastrea calcarata var. ciliata Bedd., Handb. Fems Brit. India 235, f. 121.1883.

Trigonospora ciliata var. angustifolia Holttum in Saldanha & Nicolson, Fl. Hassan Dist. 866. 1976.

Karnataka (Chikkamagaluru, Hassan, Kodagu, Shimoga), S & N India; Sri Lanka

 

Trigonospora ciliata (Wall. ex Benth.) Holttum,  Blumea 19 (1): 29. 1971;P. K. Rajagopal &  K. G. Bhat, Indian Fern J. 15:17.1998

Aspidium ciliatum Wall. ex Benth., Fl. Hong Kong 455. 1861.

Lastrea calcarata sensu Bedd., Handb. Ferns Brit. India 235. 1883 pro parte  non Aspidium calcaratum Blume

Karnataka (Hassan), S India, Himalayas; Myanmar, Sri Lanka.

 

References

 

1.      Bhaskar, V. & Razi, B. A. 1973. Hydrophytes and marsh plants of Mysore City and neibhouring areas. Prasaranga, Mysore, pp 102.

 

2.  Dixit, R.D. 1984. A Census of Indian Pteridophytes. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta. Pp.177.

 

3.  Patil, S., Hande, P., Yadav, S.R. & Dongare, M. 2013. Isoetes indica Pant & Srivastava: New record for Western Ghats of India. Indian Fern J. 30:78 – 82.2013.

 

4.   Rajagopal, P. K., Bhat, K.G. 1998. Pteridophytic flora of Karnataka State, India. Indian Fern J. 15. (1-2): 1 – 28.

 

5.   Rajkumar, S.D. 2004. Asplenium affine Swartz and Thelypteris confluens (Thunb.) Morton : two new records of rare and little known ferns from Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. Indian Fern J. 21: 13 – 18.

 

6.   Rajkumar, S.D. 2004. Studies on the genus Pseudocyclosorus Ching  (Thelypteridaceae - Pteridophyta) of Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. Indian J. Forest. 27: 245 – 248.

 

7.   Rajkumar, S.D. 2004. Studies on the genus Tectaria Cavanilles (Dryopteridaceae - Pteridophyta) of Western Ghats of Karnataka. J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 28: 257 – 262.


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