Technology 1. Chlorofect- chlorine based disinfectant for disinfection of rearing house and appliances.

Year of recommendation: 2001

Technology details: Different chemicals were screened individually and in combination against bacteria and B. bassaina fungus causing white muscardine and Aspergillus virus causing Grasserie and Kenchu and microsporidian causing pebrine. Outcome of the exhaustive studies is a disinfectant chlorine based formulation Chlorofect. It is chlorine based broad spectrum germicide with a pleasant smell with pH 7.5 -8 and can be diluted to 1:39 times and the shelf life is one year and is highly effective against all pathogens of silkworm. It is a contact type disinfectant suitable to any type of rearing house and appliances. It is less toxic, non irritant and user friendly and cost effective. Chlorofect helps to improve the productivity of cocoon crop by controlling diseases and generate added has high potential implication on productivity. The technology was released to the field and it was licensed to M/s Suraksha Bio Chem Pvt. Ltd., Bidar for commercial production. Considering an average of 5 kgs increase in yield/100 dfls after the use of Chlorofect the cost benefit ratio is 1:6.

METHOD OF PREPARATION AND USE OF CHLOROFECT:

  • After each crop, rearing appliances are placed inside the rearing house.
  • Based on the rearing room floor area calculate required solution @ 1.5 lts/sq. mt.
  • Prepared Chlorofect solution is sprayed with a pump till the room and appliances are completely wet. After 12 hrs of spraying, the appliances are taken out, washed with water and dried for 8-10 hrs and stored in the rearing room. Clean the rearing house by scrubbing and wash thoroughly.
  • Second disinfection is done a day before brushing with the above mentioned method.

Disinfection tank: Disinfection tank is filled with diluted Chlorofect solution (1:49 dilution). Immerse appliances for 25-30 minutes, take out and then dry under sun light and store.

Disposal of dead larvae: Chlorofect (1 ml. in 40ml of water) is prepared in a basin, collect dead and diseased larvae and dispose. Change the solution after every 3-4 days.



Technology 2 : SERIPHENE - phenol based disinfectant for disinfection of rearing house and appliances

Year of recommendation: 2011

Technology details: Seriphene is a phenol based disinfectant for disinfection of rearing house and appliances before and after rearing. Seriphene can be diluted 1:200 times and the pH of diluted Seriphene is 7.5-8 with shelf life of one year. Disinfection of rearing room including appliances requires 1.5 lt per sq. mt. Considering an average of 5 kgs increase in yield/100 dfls after the use of Seriphene the cost benefit ratio is 1:5. The technology has been released and licensed to M/s Suraksha Bio Chem Pvt. Ltd. Bidar, a private entrepreneur for large scale production and marketing.

METHOD OF PREPARATION AND USE OF SERIPHENE:

  • After each crop, rearing appliances are placed inside the rearing house and based on the rearing room floor area calculate required solution @ 1.5 lts/sq. mt.
  • Prepared Seriphene solution is sprayed with a pump till the room and appliances are completely wet. After 12 hrs of spraying, the appliances are taken out, washed with water and dried for 8-10 hrs and stored in the rearing room. Clean the rearing house by scrubbing and washed thoroughly.
  • Second disinfection is done a day before brushing with the above mentioned method.
  • Disinfection tank: Disinfection tank is filled with diluted Seriphene solution. Immerse appliances for 25-30 minutes, take out and then dry under sun light and store.
  • Disposal of dead larvae: Seri-phene (5 ml. in 1 lt of water) is prepared in a basin, collect dead and diseased larvae and dispose. Change the solution after every 3-4 days.

Advantages/Field relevance:

  • Suitable for all types of rearing house and effective against all pathogens of silkworm. It can be used effectively in both closed and open type of rearing houses
  • Easy to prepare and ready to use, mixes completely in water.


Technology 3. SINCHANA- chlorine based disinfectant for disinfection of rearing house and appliances

Year of recommendation: 2011

Technology details: Sinchana is a chlorine based disinfectant in powder form, for disinfection of rearing house and appliances before and after rearing. Sinchana can be diluted 1:200 times and the pH of diluted Sinchana is 7-8 and shelf life is one year. Disinfection of rearing room including appliances requires 1.5 lt per sq. mt. Considering an average of 5 kgs increase in yield/100 dfls after the use of Sinchana the cost benefit ratio is 1:6. The technology has been released and licensed to M/s Sericon technologies Bangalore for large scale production and marketing.

METHOD OF PREPARATION AND USE OF SINCHANA:

  • After each crop, rearing appliances are placed inside the rearing house.
  • Based on the rearing room floor area calculate required solution @ 1.5 lts/sq. mt.
  • Prepared Sinchana solution is sprayed with a pump till the room and appliances are completely wet. After 12 hrs of spraying, the appliances are taken out, washed with water and dried for 8-10 hrs and stored in the rearing room. Clean the rearing house by scrubbing and wash thoroughly.
  • Second disinfection is done a day before brushing with the above mentioned method.

Disinfection tank: Disinfection tank is filled with diluted Sinchana solution. Immerse appliances for 25-30 minutes, take out and then dry under sun light and store.

Disposal of dead larvae: Sinchana (5 ml. in 1 lt of water) is prepared in a basin, collect dead and diseased larvae and dispose. Change the solution after every 3-4 days.

Advantages/Field relevance:

  • Effective against all pathogens of silkworm. Less corrosive compared to bleaching powder and suitable for all type of rearing house and seasons.
  • It is a contact type of disinfectant which mixes completely in water, less corrosive, no irritation and user friendly.
  • Easy to use, no clumping of the powder, fast and complete dilution and hence no waiting time is required to prepare final solution


Technology 4 SANITAL PLUS: chlorine based disinfectant for disinfection of rearing house and appliances.

Year of recommendation : 2002

Technology details: Sanitall plus is a kit with 3 components wherein component 1 is stabilized chlorine dioxide, component 2 is activator and component 3 is booster. Take 1 liter of chlorine dioxide (component 1) in a 50 liter capacity drum and add 100gm activator chemical (component 2) to it and mix well. Within 2-3 minutes mix 40 liters of clean water and keep mixing. While doing so add 500ml booster (component 3) to it and mix thoroughly. Then use this solution for disinfection at @ 1.5 lt/ sq.mt. Floor area. The product was brought out in collaboration with M/s Pure chemicals Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore. Considering an average of 4 kgs increase in yield/100 dfls after the use of Sanitall Plus the cost benefit ratio is1:6.

METHOD OF PREPARATION AND USE OF SINCHANA:

  • After each crop, clean rearing house, appliances after cocoon harvest. Collect fecal pellets dead/diseases silkworms etc. and then bury or burn.
  • Stack all rearing appliances inside the rearing house.
  • Drench spray Sanitall Plus solution to walls, floor roof and to appliances using a multipurpose pump or a gutter sprayer. After 12 hrs of spraying, the appliances are taken out, washed with water and dried for 8-10 hrs and stored in the rearing room. Clean the rearing house by scrubbing and wash thoroughly.
  • Second disinfection is done a day before brushing with the above mentioned method.

Disinfection tank: Disinfection tank is filled with Sanitall plus solution. Immerse appliances for 25-30 minutes, take out and then dry under sun light and store.

Advantages/Field relevance: Disinfection is a basic requirement in sericulture. Non availability of quality products in sericulture is a limitation. Open type of rearing area is one of the constraints in field. In this direction Sanitall plus, a broad spectrum germicide that has no reported health hazards is highly relevant

Advantages: Effective against all pathogens of silkworm. Suitable to both closed and open type of rearing house.



Technology 5. SUPER CAARE chlorine based disinfectant for disinfection of rearing house and appliances

Year of recommendation: 2010

Technology details: Super Caare- a chlorine based general disinfectant was recommended in collaboration with M/s Sai Ram Enterprises Pvt. Ltd. Chennai. Super Caare is effective against bacteria, fungus (in vitro method) and against pebrine, grasserie and viral flacherie diseases (in vivo method). Super Caare can be diluted 1:300 times. Disinfection of rearing room including appliances requires 1.5 lt per sq. mt.; the pH of diluted Super Caare is 6.5 and shelf life of the product is one year. The technology was licensed to the collaborator during 2010 for commercial production and marketing. Considering an average of 8kgs increase in yield/100 dfls after the use of Super Caare the cost benefit ratio is 1:5

METHOD OF PREPARATION AND USE OF SUPER CAARE:

  • After each crop, rearing appliances are placed inside the rearing house and based on the rearing room floor area calculate required solution @ 1.5 lts/sq. mt.
  • Mix 300gm (200gm Super Caare+100gm enhancer) in 100 liters of water. It dissolves completely in water. Prepared Super Caare solution is sprayed with a pump and after 12 hrs of spraying, the appliances are taken out, washed with water and dried for 8-10 hrs and stored in the rearing room. Clean the rearing house by scrubbing and washed thoroughly.
  • Second disinfection is done a day before brushing with the above mentioned method.
  • Disinfection tank: Disinfection tank is filled with diluted Super Caare solution. Immerse appliances for 25-30 minutes, take out and then dry under sun light and store.
  • Disposal of dead larvae: Super Caare (3 gm. in 1 liter of water) is prepared in a basin, collect dead and diseased larvae and dispose. Change the solution after every 3-4 days.

Advantages/Field relevance: Super Caare is highly effective against all pathogens of silkworm and suitable to any type of rearing house and appliances. Dilution is fast and complete, no clumping of the powder, no filtering and no waiting time is required for dilution. It is non irritant, user friendly and cost effective.



Technology 6 SANJEEVINI- A new, disease and season specific bed disinfectant for the control of viral and bacterial diseases of silkworm.

Year of recommendation: 1990

Details of technology: SANJEEVINI is a chemical based disease and season specific bed disinfectant recommended for use during summer and rainy seasons for the control of Grasserie, viral and bacterial flacherie diseases of silkworm.

Method of application:

  • Initially Sanjeevini bed disinfectant is dusted to empty rearing trays before brushing and again on the newly hatched larvae followed by feeding after 30 minutes.
  • Further dusting of Sanjeevini bed disinfectant has to be done after every moult before feeding and during 5th instar, on 3rd and 5th day after bed cleaning, before feeding.
  • For a 100 dfls rearing, in tray rearing method about 4kgs of Sanjeevini is required while it is 6kgs for shoot rearing method.

Advantages/Field relevance:

  • As Sanjeevini is a season and disease specific bed disinfectant it is highly effective in reducing contamination thereby minimizing diseases due to virus and bacteria.
  • Sanjeevini is economical and method of application is simple, easy to adopt and appropriate to the farmers socio economic conditions.
  • Regular application of Sanjeevini gradually brings down the pathogen load in the rearing environment and thus helps in stabilizing the cocoon crops.
  • Cost benefit/Economics: Considering an average of 6 kgs increase in yield/100 dfls after the use of Sanjeevini , the rate of Sanjeevini at Rs 40/- per kg and cocoon price at Rs 200/- per kg farmers would get an additional income of Rs 1200/- per 100 dfls and the cost benefit ratio is 1;5.

Licensing of the technology for commercial production and supply.

Presently the technology is licensed to M/s Suraksha Bio chem. Pvt ltd, Bidar Besides, the technology was disseminated through Institute handouts, publication of articles and field days workshops and Air/TV programmes.



Technology 7 Suraksha - A new, disease and season specific bed disinfectant for the control of fungal diseases of silkworm.

Year of recommendation: 1990

Details of technology: Suraksha is a chemical based disease and season specific bed disinfectant recommended for use during winter and rainy seasons for the control of fungal diseases of silkworm.

Method of application:

  • Initially Suraksha bed disinfectant is dusted to empty rearing trays before brushing and again on the newly hatched larvae followed by feeding after 30 minutes.
  • Further dusting of Suraksha bed disinfectant has to be done after every moult before feeding and during 5th instar, on 3rd and 5th day after bed cleaning, before feeding.
  • For a 100 dfls rearing, in tray rearing method about 4kgs of Suraksha is required while it is 6kgs for shoot rearing method.

Advantages/Field relevance:

  • As Suraksha is a season and disease specific bed disinfectant it is highly effective in reducing contamination thereby minimizing diseases due to fungus.
  • Suraksha is economical and method of application is simple, easy to adopt and appropriate to the farmers socio economic conditions.
  • Regular application of Suraksha gradually brings down the pathogen load in the rearing environment and thus helps in stabilizing the cocoon crops.

Cost benefit/Economics: Considering an average of 8 kgs increase in yield/100 dfls after the use of Suraksha and the rate of Suraksha at, Rs 40/- per kg and cocoon price at Rs 200/- per kg farmers would get an additional income of Rs 1200/- per 100 dfls and the cost benefit ratio is 1: 6.

Licensing of the technology for commercial production and supply: Presently the technology is licensed to M/s Suraksha Bio chem. Pvt ltd, Bidar. Besides, the technology was disseminated through Institute handouts, publication of articles and field days, workshops and Air/TV programmes.



Technology 8 Samrakshak- An effective new general bed disinfectant for prevention and control of silkworm diseases.

Year of recommendation: 2011

Details of technology: Samrakshak is a chemical based highly effective bed disinfectant formulation for the prevention and control of all silkworm diseases like Flacherie, Grasserie, Kenchu, Tatte, pebrine, Muscardine and Aspergillosis and could be used throughout the year.

Method of application:

  • Dust Samrakshak, to empty rearing trays before brushing and on the newly hatched larvae before feeding. Feed the larvae half an hour later.
  • Further dusting of Samrakshak has to be done after every moult before feeding and twice in the 5th instar i.e., on 3rd and 5th day after cleaning bed.
  • Dusting of Samrakshak has to be carried out whenever rearing trays are either changed/increased.
  • About 6 kg of Samrakshak per 100 dfls is recommended for shoot rearing while it is 4 kg/ 100 dfls for tray rearing method.

Advantages /Field relevance:

Samrakshak is a general bed disinfectant effective against all silkworm diseases and is recommended for application throughout the year. Regular application of Samrakshak to crops brings down the pathogen load in the rearing environment and thus helps in stabilizing the cocoon crops.

Cost benefit ratio: Regular application of Samrakshak increases cocoon yield to an extent of 8 kgs/100 dfls with an additional income of Rs 1200/- @ Rs 150/-Kg as cocoon price and cost of Samrakshak at Rs 35/-kg would indicate a cost- benefit ratio of 1:6.

Licensing of the technology for commercial production and supply: In 2012 Samrakshak was licensed on royalty basis for commercial production to MS/ S. S. Associates, Bangalore. Besides, the technology was disseminated through Institute handouts, publication of articles and field days, workshops and Air/TV programmes



Technology 9 Musgard- A new, disease and season specific bed disinfectant for the control of fungal diseases of silkworm.

Collaborating partner: M/S Growel Formulations Pvt Ltd. Hyderabad

Year of recommendation: 2006

Details of technology: MUSGURD is a chemical based disease and season specific bed disinfectant recommended for use during winter and rainy seasons for the control of fungal diseases of silkworm like white muscardine, Green muscardine and Aspergillosis.

Method of Method of application:

  • Initially Musgurd bed disinfectant on the newly hatched larvae followed by feeding after 30 minutes.
  • Further dusting of bed disinfectant has to be done after every moult before feeding and during 5th instar, on 3rd and 5th day after bed cleaning, before feeding.
  • For a 100 dfls rearing, in tray rearing method about 4kgs of Musgurd is required while it is 6kgs for shoot rearing method.

Advantages/Field relevance:

  • As Musgurd is a season and disease specific bed disinfectant it is highly effective in reducing contamination thereby minimizing diseases due to fungal pathogens.
  • Musgurd is economical and method of application is simple, easy to adopt and appropriate to the farmers socio economic conditions.
  • Regular application of Musgurd gradually brings down the pathogen load in the rearing environment and thus helps in stabilizing the cocoon crops.

Cost benefit/Economics: Considering an average of 8 kgs increase in yield/100 dfls after the use of Musgurd and the rate of Musgurd at, Rs 60/- per kg and cocoon price at Rs 200/- per kg farmers would get an additional income of Rs 1600/- per 100 dfls and the cost benefit ratio is 1: 7.

Licensing of the technology for commercial production and supply: During 2006 it was released as a collaborative technology product of KSSRDI and M/S Growel Formulations Pvt Ltd. Hyderabad and licensed for mass production and marketing on royalty basis.



Technology 10 Reshme Aishwarya- A new, bed disinfectant for the control of silkworm diseases.

Collaborating partner : M/S Santhosh Enterprises Pvt Ltd. Bangalore

Year of recommendation: 2006

Details of technology: Reshme Aishwarya is a chemical based general bed disinfectant recommended for use during all the seasons for the control of viral, bacterial fungal diseases of silkworm. Reshme Aishwarya was initially evaluated in laboratory both by in vitro and in vivo methods against all diseases with a significant increase in ERR %.

Method of Method of application:

  • Initially Reshme Aishwarya bed disinfectant was dusted on the newly hatched larvae followed by feeding after 30 minutes.
  • Further dusting of bed disinfectant has to be done after every moult before feeding and during 5th instar, on 3rd and 5th day after bed cleaning, before feeding.
  • For a 100 dfls rearing, in tray rearing method about 4 kgs of Reshme Aishwarya is required while it is 6 kgs for shoot rearing method.

Advantages/Field relevance:

  • As Reshme Aishwarya is a general bed disinfectant it is highly effective in reducing contamination thereby minimizing diseases due to virus and bacteria fungal pathogens.
  • Reshme Aishwarya is economical and method of application is simple, easy to adopt and appropriate to the farmers socio economic conditions.
  • Regular application of Reshme Aishwarya gradually brings down the pathogen load in the rearing environment and thus helps in stabilizing the cocoon crops.

Cost benefit/Economics: Considering an average of 5 kgs increase in yield/100 dfls after the use of Reshme Aishwarya and the rate of Reshme Aishwarya at, Rs 60/- per kg and cocoon price at Rs 200/- per kg farmers would get an additional income of Rs 1000/- per 100 dfls and the cost benefit ratio is 1: 4.

Licensing of the technology for commercial production and supply: During 2006 it was released as a collaborative technology product of KSSRDI and M/S Santhosh enterprises Pvt Ltd. Bangalore, and licensed for mass production and marketing on royalty basis.



Technology 11 SAMVARDHAN- A New botanical based bed disinfectant for effective prevention and control of all Silkworm diseases

Year of recommendation: 2012

Details of technology: Samvardhan-is a botanical based prophylactic formulation containing few medicinally important plant extracts having antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal properties and is highly effective in preventing / controlling bacterial flacherie, viral flacherie, grasserie pebrine, and fungal diseases like Muscardine and Aspergillosis.

Method of Method of application:

  • Dust Samvardhan to empty rearing trays before brushing and on the newly hatched larvae before feeding. Feed the larvae half an hour later.
  • Further dusting of Samvardhan has to be done after every moult before feeding and twice in the 5th instar ie on 3rd and 5th day after bed cleaning.
  • Dusting of Samvardhan has to be carried out whenever rearing trays are either changed /increased.
  • About 6 kg of Samvardhan is recommended for shoot rearing while it is 4kgs for tray rearing.

Advantages/Field relevance:

  • Samvardhan is a general botanical based bed disinfectant effective against all silkworm diseases and is recommended for application throughout the year.
  • Samvardhan is a natural bio degradable eco and user friendly prophylactic formulation and does not cause irritation or any health hazard to the user.

Cost benefit ratio: Considering an average of 5 kgs increase in yield /100 dfls after the application of Samvardhan which is effective in minimizing viral and bacterial and fungal diseases , farmers can get an additional income of about of Rs 1000/- @ Rs 200/kg as cocoon price, and Rs 35/-as cost of Samvardhan per kg would indicate a cost benefit ratio of 1:5.

Licensing of the technology for commercial production and supply:to be licensed.



Technology 12 SURAKSHA GREEN - A New botanical based bed disinfectant for effective prevention and control of fungal diseases of Silkworm

Year of recommendation: 2012

Details of technology:Suraksha green is a botanical based prophylactic formulation containing few medicinally important plant extracts having antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal properties and is highly effective in preventing / controlling bacterial flacherie, viral flacherie, grasserie pebrine, and fungal diseases like Muscardine and Aspergillosis.

Method of Method of application:

  • Dust Suraksha green to empty rearing trays before brushing and on the newly hatched larvae before feeding. Feed the larvae half an hour later.
  • Further dusting of Surakshagreen has to be done after every moult before feeding and twice in the 5th instar i.e. on 3rd and 5th day after bed cleaning.
  • Dusting of Suraksha green has to be carried out whenever rearing trays are either changed /increased.
  • About 6 kg of Suraksha green is recommended for shoot rearing while it is 4kgs for tray rearing.

Advantages/Field relevance:

  • Suraksha green is a general botanical based bed disinfectant effective against all silkworm diseases and is recommended for application throughout the year.
  • Suraksha green is a natural bio degradable eco and user friendly prophylactic formulation and does not cause irritation or any health hazard to the user.

Cost benefit ratio: : Considering an average of 6 kgs increase in yield /100 dfls after the application of SURAKSHA GREEN which is effective in minimizing fungal diseases , farmers can get an additional income of about of Rs 1200/- @ Rs 200/kg as cocoon price, and Rs 35/-as cost of SURAKSHA GREEN per kg would indicate a cost benefit ratio of 1:6.

Licensing of the technology for commercial production and supply:to be licensed.



Technology 13 SHUCHI - A new, disinfectant for maintaining hygiene during rearing.

Year of recommendation: 1999

Details of technology:Shuchi is liquid based sanitizer cum disinfectant which is effective in maintaining personal hygiene of the rearer and cleanliness of the rearing environment. It is non- irritant with a pleasant smell and does not cause any health hazard to the user.Shuchi has neutral pH of 6.8 and maintains softness of the hand. Shuchi is effective against most of the silkworm pathogens like Bacteria, Aspergillus and kenchu virus.

Method of use:

  • Concentrated Shuchi liquid is diluted 1:100 times with water
  • It is used daily for hand and feet sanitization before entering rearing house. Diluted solution can be changed once in 4 days.
  • Diluted shuchi can be used for collecting dead and diseased silkworms.
  • Diluted shuchi can be used for clening rearing room floor daily after bed cleaning.
  • One liter of stock solution of shuchi is required for a rearing of 100-200 dfls.

Advantages/Field relevance:

  • As Shuchi is a mild user friendly Sanitizer/disinfectant with a pleasant odour with no health hazarda farmers will not have any inhibition in using it.
  • Regular use of Shuchi will bring down the pathogen load in the rearing environment which helps in minimizing disease incidence due to secondary contamination thereby stabilizing cocoon crop.

Licensing of the technology for commercial production and supply: The technology was licensed to M/s Triumph Pharmaceuticals Pvt Ltd Mysore during 2000 for commercial production and marketing.



Technology 14 Aakash powder duster for effective and uniform dusting of bed disinfectants.

Year of recommendation: 2005

Details of product:The technology was brought out in collaboration with M/S Suraksha Bio-chem Pvt. Ltd.Bidar.

  • Aakash duster is a cylinder shaped plastic box with a plastic mesh and a lid covering it in the bottom and a handle on the top.
  • Aakash duster can hold 2kgs of bed disinfectant. 2-3 glass marbles are present in the box to prevent clump formation of the powder while dusting.

Method of Method of application:

  • Required quantity of bed disinfectant is taken in the box and bottom lid is taken out. The duster is moved with a swinging movement slowly over the silkworm bed and dusted uniformly covering all the silkworms.
  • After use the bottom lid is closed ensuring air tight condition.
  • Marble beads helps in breaking any clumps and maintains uniform dusting.

Advantages:

  • Use of Aakash duster ensures uniform dusting of bed disinfectants thereby effective disinfection of rearing bed and silkworm body surface is guaranteed.
  • Pathogens present in the rearing bed, fecal pellets, and mulberry leaf when comes in contact with the chemical/ biocide components of the bed disinfectants loses their viability, amd contamination and spread of the disease is minimized thereby improving cocoon harvest.
  • Proper preservation of the left over powder is ensured by using Aakash duster.
  • Aakash duster minimizes the exposure of the user to the chemicals while dusting.


Technology 15 BLEACH CHECK- User friendly kit to test the quality of Bleaching powder.

Year of recommendation: 2001

Details of technology:A strip of paper resembling ‘litmus paper’ has developed by coating chemicals sensitive to bleaching powder. Depending upon the strength of the bleaching powder, the test paper changes colour when dipped in to the solution. A reference colour code made available with the test papers enable assessing the strength of the solution easily.

Method of use:Five percent Bleaching powder solution is prepared as per recommendation (one kilogram of bleaching powder thoroughly mixed in 20 liters of plain water).The concentration of the resulting solution is tested using the test paper. Steps to be followed:

Thoroughly mix the solution for uniform spread of the powder in water. Take a small quantity of the clear solution in a glass tumbler or test tube. Dip a strip of test paper in to the solution for 2-3 seconds and read / match the colour developed as paper with the reference colour code indexand determine the strength of chlorine in the sample.

Cost benefit ratio: Considering an average of 6 kgs increase in yield /100 dfls after the application of SURAKSHA GREEN which is effective in minimizing fungal diseases , farmers can get an additional income of about of Rs 1200/- @ Rs 200/kg as cocoon price, and Rs 35/-as cost of SURAKSHA GREEN per kg would indicate a cost benefit ratio of 1:6.

Advantages and Field relevance:This technique is simple, effective and economical and can be adapted by any farmer. It does not need any infrastructure / equipments to test. Even farmers / end users can use the kit without any expert of testing chemical.

Cost benefit /Economics: The cost involved to develop 3000 strips of 8x1cm is Rs.300. (including chemicals and paper). Each strip of 8x1 cm will cost 10 paise, which can used to test 2-3 samples of bleaching powder solutions. The benefit realized due to the test is ensured disinfection leading to reduction in contamination effective disease management and maintenance of hygiene.

Table: Chlorine percentage and corresponding corrections for attaining 5 % bleaching powder solution.

Change in Colour of Paper

Strength of

The solution

Chlorine Percentage

in solution

Addition of Bleaching powder To make 5% per liter

White

1 percent

6.60 percent

800 g

Pale yellow

2 percent

13.20 percent

600 g

Light brown

3 percent

19.80 percent

400 g

Brick red

4 percent

26.90 percent

185 g

Dark brown

5 percent

33.00 percent

0.00 g



Technology 16 LIME CHECK- a simple user-friendly kit to ascertain the quality of lime powder.

Year of recommendation: 2001

Technology Details: A simple, user friendly technology is developed to test the quality of lime powder. A reagent sensitive to calcium oxide and CaOH radicals was developed with color indicator. The reagent on reaction with CaO of lime powder, pink color is developed. This indicates the presence of lime in the sample qualitatively. The pink color of the solution become color less on further addition of the reagent to the test sample. The total quantity of the reagent to make pink color to colorless is the measure of percentage of calcium oxide or its equivalent of calcium carbonate present in the lime sample. The cost of each kit is Rs 50 and it consists of reagent to test 15 samples of lime powder. The cost of test for each sample of lime powder is approximately Rs. 3/-. The shelf life of the reagent is one year.

Method of use: The Kit The kit consists of a graduated test tube (15ml centrifuge tube) with 5 distinct marks and a special reagent in a small bottle. A handbill is provided indicating directions of use of this kit to test the quality / purity of lime powder by the user himself. It is possible to test more than 15 samples of lime powder by one unit of the kit. The reagent is stored in a squeez bottle for easy dispensing. The quantity of the solution selected is based on the convenience of handling, and is 200 ml. The graduated test tube (15 ml centrifuge tube) is selected for convenient packing and handling. A little sample of lime powder to be tested is to be taken in a test tube provided up to the level of mark 1( Fig.1). Few drops of the reagent provided in the kit are added to it. Change of white color of lime to pink color indicates the presence of lime (CaO). If no color developed denotes lack of liming material in the sample. Continue to add the reagent till the pink color become colorless and read the level at which the color disappeared. If it is at the mark 2 indicate 25% of purity, if it is at mark 3,4 or 5, denotes 50%, 75% and 100 % purity of lime material. To know the exact value of purity in terms of concentration of CaO /CaCO3 in the sample read the quantity of reagent used to make the solution color less and refer the table.1 provided.

Fig. 1 Graduated test tube with 5 markings


Technology 17 Uzi powder- A Chemical formulation to control uzi fly in the field.

Year of recommendation: 1994-95

Technology details :Uzipowder is a combinations different chemicals in the powder form which acts as ovicide when it is dusted on the silkworm body. The uzi fly eggs present on the body of silkworms are killed by the action of uzipowder without affecting the silkworm health and growth. This powder is to be tested on the silkworm body uniformly before feeding with the help of muslin cloth or duster from 3rd instar onwards till spinning. The feeding should be given 30 min. after dusting. The product has been licensed to M/s Santhosh Enterprises, Bangalore, for mass production and marketing.

The time of application, requirement of uzipowder for each instar and total quantity of uzipowder required for 100 dfls are given in the table

Stage of silkworm

Days of uzipowder application

Quantity required

3rd Instar

2nd day

270 gm

4th Instar

2nd and 4th day

1080 gm

5th Instar

2nd day, 4th day and 6th day

3240 gm

Total quantity of uzipowder required for 100 dfls (40,000 larvae) is about 5 kgs. If silkworm could not be ripened till 8th day in the 5th instar, the uzi powder should be applied on 8th day.

Cost benefit ratio/Economics:
Requirement of uzi powder for 100 dfls rearing: 5 kgs.
Amount required for uzipowder for 100 dfls : Rs.200/-
Mandays required for application of uzipowder for 100 dfls : 1 days.
Cost of manpower : Rs.250/-
Extra yield of cocoons gained for 100 dfls : 8-10kgs
Extra amount for 8-10kgs of cocoons in the market @ Rs. 200/kg: Rs. 1600-2000.
Extra price fetch of cocoon for uzipowder treated lot Rs.10/-kg : Rs. 80-100
The Cost: benefit ratio is 1 : 3.7 to 1 : 4.6



Technology 18 Care Spray- to Control of bacterial Flacherie Disease of silkworm.

Year of recommendation: 2001

Low cocoon yield and silkworm diseases are the key factors deciding cocoon yield and crop stability in sericulture. Out of 30-40 % of diseases of silkworm 56.2% constitute bacteria flacherie. Limitations of prophylactic approaches restricted to outside the body of silkworm and pathogens inside are not affected by these methods. China has recommended antibiotic based formulations as curative measure to control flacherie disease in the field. KSSRDI has come out with a formulation, based on screening of series of broad and narrow spectral antibiotics, pro-biotic along with vitamins and minerals. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of antibiotics and filed trial results were yielded the product called “Care Spray” to cure the flacherie disease.

Technology Details: 0.05% solution of the concentrate formulation supplied in the form of liquid or powder form is to be prepared using plain water. The solution is to be sprayed on mulberry leaf just before harvesting of leaf or leaf is to be dipped in the solution before feeding to larvae. The leaf treated with the formulation should be dried in shade and fed to silkworm. The worms should be fed three times on 1st day of 4th instar and 3 times on the 1st and 3rd day of 5th instar. If the rearing batch look healthy without much unequals then third day of 5th instar treatment could be skipped. The overall earning of farmers increased by Rs.700 to Rs.750 per 100 dfls using the formulation, costing Rs. 100/-. The cost benefit ratio is of the order of 1:7.5. The cocoon yield at filed trial was 7-10 kg more per 100 dfls.

Advantages and Field relevance: The formulation controls the disease thereby increasing cocoon yield. The cost involved is Rs. 100/- and yields Rs. 700 to Rs. 750 an additional income. The crops treated with formulations showed stability ensuring cocoon yield. In addition the larvae showed better growth and uniform. Since the crop stability at the farmers house is uniform, the use of Care Spray stabilizes the crop and is more field relevant.



Testing of Licensed products

1. Sanjeevini: This is one of the silkworm bed disinfectant developed for the control of grasserie, flacherie diseases of silkworm. This product has been licensed to M/s Suraksha Bio-chem, Bidar, and the product is received every month with specific batch numbers. The product will be tested for its quality at Insect pathology and pest management section and the test reports are submitted to Extension and Training division for further needful.

2. Suraksha: This is another bed disinfectant developed for the control of muscardine diseases of silkworm. This product has been licensed to M/s Suraksha Bio-chem, Bidar, and the product is received every month with specific batch numbers. The product will be tested for its quality at Insect pathology and pest management section and the test reports are submitted to Extension and Training division for further needful.

3. Chetana: This is one of the plant based ecdysone hormone (Phytoecdysone) for hastening and uniform spinning of silkworms. This product has been licensed to M/s Suraksha Bio-chem, Bidar, and the product is received every month with specific batch numbers. The product is tested for its quality at Silkworm Crop Improvement Section through bioassay study and the test reports are submitted to Extension and Training division for further needful.

4. Chlorofect:

5. Seriphene:

6. Samrakshsak:

7. Suchi:

8. Akash duster:

9. Uzi powder:

10. Bleach check:

11. Lime Check: